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The Whole Subject Complete in One Volume 

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Ijitori'il aicdrilirji; I" Ail ol' Congress, ill tliu ye:ir ISSS, 


In llie (MI'ud lit' till' Liliiaviiiii of Coiigres-^, :il Wasliiiiglon, |i. C. 






Type ('Dinposiliuii by 

Bra 111! I- KY ItuiiT II K Its, 

7fl-H2 Fitlh Avenne. 

KlceH'otypiiif,' liy 

I'liuAGi) Kr.KcTiioTvi'r, .t Sri;iiEOTYi'R('o., 

I',i6-HIH C'liiik Street. 

rritititij; mill Itimliii); liy 

Il.I.INills I'llINTINii .(.- ItlNtitNli Co., 

L'-.'C,-L';iii Lake .■^Ireel. 



The subject of the Americuu Iiulifin has evor been one of pecu- 
liiir interest to the ethnologist and student of Instory. but at no time 
since the discovery of America has it attrac^ted so much attention as is 
being given to it at the present day. Volumes upon volumes liave 
been written c(Micerning it in its varied relations, but still it is not 
exhausted; and indeed the changing circumstances of the American 
race present at this day a phase of this subject, calling for its renewed 
presentation in more complete and comprehensive form. 

Amidst the vast numlier of b.joks published concerning this 
mysterious people since the discovery of America, there seems to be 
none now in print presenting their history in a succinct classified 
form, at the same time reaching out and taking in every phase of the 
Indian subject, to the satisfaction of tlie general reader. 

This book has therefore been prepared with reference to this long 
felt want, and is such a work as the public mind and student of history 
now seem to demand. As the title indicates, it comprises the whol.> 
Indian subject in complete and comprehensive form. In oth(>r words, 
it is a sort of cyclopaedia on the subject of the American Indian in all 
its phases and'bearings as shown by the table of contents following; 
grouping together in c.nidensed form, and within such limited space 
as the subject will admit of, the varied information comprised in that 
vast field of research in American history, not to be found in any 
single work of this kind heretofore published, containing many special 
features, whidi are highly interesting and valuable to tlie general 


Amongst other special features added, is that of Indian local 
names in the United States, with their definitions, sm-h as nam(>s of 
states, rivers, cities, towns, mountains and the like, borrowed from the 






various Indain Iniiguages and dialects of the continent, the signifi- 
cation of Aviiich lias at this day lieconie a matter of interesting 
incjuiry. This is the first attempt ever made to give to tlie pul)lic the 
signification of Indian geographical names througliout tlie I'nited 
States. Tliis feature ah)ne renders it one of the most valuable works 
ever published in connection with the Indian sul)ject. 

The j)ractice of liorrowing geogra[)hical names, or those designa- 
ting localities, from other countries, is becoming stale in the truly 
American mind, and there is a growing inclination in the selection of 
such names to resort more tt> our oavu American nomenclature. This 
is giving increased interest to the subject of the Indian languages, 
and a more general desire amcmg intelligent people to learn the defini- 
tions of the multitude of Indian names, which are applied to localities 
throughout our vast country. 

Reference is made in this work to an order or secret society now 
becoming numerous in the Uniteel States and called the Order of 
Eed Men; and a cha[)ter is added, devoted to a brief history of this 
society, being the oldest of all the American secret societies, and which 
is rapidly increasing in numbers and popularity. Whilst it is a society 
C)rganized upon the plan of nmtual benefits and protection to its mem- 
bers, it is eventually to become the repository of Indian history and 
traditions. The organization, ritual Jind procedure of this society are 
marked by aboriginal terms, traditions and customs, leading to a 
study of the true character and tribal relations of the Indians. 
The rajiid inci'ease of this order is giving a renewed interest and 
additional desire for further information concerning this people. 
This work is peculiarly adapted to a study of the native Red man 
from the standpoint of this truly American fraternal society. 
Waukegan, III. THE AUTHOR. 

Table of Contents. 




"The Proper study of Maukiuil is Man" -First Reliable luformation— The Jesuit 
Missionaries— LuHontau, Hennepin ami Others-Niagara Falls-The Long 
River- Capt. John Smith-Pocahontas— Sir Walter Raleitrh—Characteristics of 
the Indians— History at Fault -Testimonies ox Winslow, Trumbull and Others- 
Later Developments -The Race Fast Fading Away -The Indian Mentally 
The Indian and His Country-Occupation of Kame by the Whites— What the 
Indian Might Have Been— His Natural Abilities— Progress— Prospects. '28 



Speculation of Ethnologists- Lost Tribes of Israel— Resemblance Between the 
Indians and People of Asia— Language of Northeastern Asia Similar to American 
Languages— Comparison of Words in Indian and Asiatic Languages -Wreck of 
Japanese Junk on Northwest Coast- Conclusions Therefrom— Similar Customs 
with the Ancient Jews— The Bow and Arrow— Like those Found in Asia - The 
Indian has in all Ages Reproduced Himself— Ancient Rnius— Ancient Mounds— 
Ancient Pottery- Same Made by Modern Tribes— Indian Languages Reveal 
History— Testimony of Humbolt-Capt. Jonathan Carver— Spanish AuthoritH>s— 
Tradition of the Mexicans Former Spanish Occupation -Opinions of Numerous 
Authors— Uniform Characteristics among the Indian Tribes— Intelligence of the 
Native Indian— A Descendant of the Most Ancient Population— His Primitive 
Condition not Evidence to the Contrary. gg 



Oral Traditions— Preserving History by Hieroglyphics— Belts of Wampum— Mode of 
Transmitting Historical Events— Had their Homers and their ^sops— Traditions 
Vague and Shadowy— Serve, however, Some Puri)ose— Traditions of a Deluge— 
Traditicms of tiie Origin of tiieir Race— The Maiidans— Traditions of a Flood— 
Representati(m of the Ark Ceremonies Commemorating the Flood— Pottawat- 
tamie Tradition— Creek Indians— Tradition of Their Origin— Tradition of the 
Ojibways— Of Their Origin— Nanahbozhoo— Mysterious Power— Origin of Indian 




Siiiiiinor — Sliawtit'o Tniilitioii — Forciuii < )riyin -Mi)ii|pziini!i — ^Cortcz— New En- 
f,'laii(l Iiuliiiiis Tnuliliuii -Sauk Iinliaii Tradition — 'rrailition of tlin Cliicka- 
Baws Tradition of tlio ()Hai,'i'H Tradition of tii(« SenccaH (iri'at Hill People 
InxiiioiH Nation -Hiawatha — Mysterious I'ower HIh MiraeiilouH Disappear- 
imce — Tradition of tho ArrapaliooH— Tradition of the Bluckfeet — The Bouacks 
Their Tradition. 76 



Opinion of JiiineHAdnir-ThoIiidiiiiis Descended from the Peoploof lHrnel--Ho AfsfiiKiis 
Twenty-three Artrnn.eiits lor this Opinion Similarity Between the LantruaKes 
Comparison of Words and Sentences— Ojiiuion of llov. Judidiah Morse — Hinii- 
hirity of Heligious CliiHtomH — Dr. Boudiiiol Favors this Theory -liev. Ethan 
Sinitli Evidence in Favor of this Tlieory— The Indians Aekiiowledye but ()n..> 
(treat Spirit like the Jews Father Charlevoix Presents Evidence in Hni)port of 
tliis Theory — Indians Were Never Known to Worship Iniatft'S — Evidence of 
William I'eiiu Features of the Face like tlu^ Hebrews- And so with Dress. 
Trinkets and Ornaments — Their Fasts and Feasts, like the Jews They Beckon 
by Moons and Count Time like the He))rews — Have their I'rophets— Abstain from 
Unclean Things Salute the Dawn of Moriiint,' by Dcn'otional Ceroinony — In 
their Ludjie Tales and Traditions Twelve Brothers are .Spoken of — Custom in 
Mourniii},' for the ])(>ad, like the Jews — Have a Custom of Burnt Otl'eriiij;s — Had 
a Custom like the Jews of Annointint,' the Head — The Indian Medicine Lodjje 
Corres|ionded to the Jewish Syiiat,'ot,'ue Had a Secret Order Kesemblint,' that of 
the .Tews Their Medicine I\bin Correspond(>d to the "Wise Men," Matthew 
II, 1 The Bow and Arrow was Common to the Jews— The Indian Tent was like 
that of the Jews— Lived in Tribes like the .Tews. 98 




Classification of Groups and Tribes — Groups Were the Subject ol' Division into 
Tribes — Had a Location — Classitieil According,' to Lan(,'uaj,'e — (irrou|)S ] )esif,'nated 
by this Mode — Number of these Groups — Excludiutf the Esciuimaiix Slock — 
Names of Groujis Alyon.inins, Iroquois, Appalachian, Dakota and Shoshonee — 
Al^'ollcluius Most Numerous Groups Compi sed of Tribes of Same Lauguatre — 
Location of Each Group — Definitions and Names of Groups. ll'i 



Names of Tribes, how Acquired - Si^'nificatifm of Names of Various Tribes — 
Location of Tribes — Chauying Location Extinct Tribes -Migration — Indian 
Tribes are Great Families— Confederacies for Purposes of Government — Uiii(m 
for Purposes of Defense— Names of Various Tribes luhabitintr the Original 
Country of the United States. Til 



Signification of Word Totem— A Symbolic Designation— Origin of Totem— Distin- 
guishes the Band— A Kind of Coat of Arms— P^xplauation— Universal among 
the Indians- Unlawful to Marry in the Same Totem— Similar Custom in the 
Old World. 172 


-Now Hii- 
le Chickii- 
1 P«'.)|.lf 



•Ho AssiKUs 
anyuiiKCH — Siiiii- 
iev. Elliiiii 
,'e but On.' 
Hnpiiort of 
jvidoupo of 
,vith Dress. 
Iiey Kci'koii 
hstiiiii fioiii 
roiuotiy — In 
-Ciistoni iu 
ring's — Hull 
icine L()ili,'e 
liu^' that of 
," Mattliew 
ent WU8 like 

ivision into 
1 1)esij,maleil 
;mx Stock — 
■ihosboni'c — 
Limguage — 


iR Tribes — 
tiou — Indian 
nout — Union 
the Oii^'iual 


tern — Distin- 

ersal amoiii,' 

istom iu the 


T.VItlJ', ()!•' CONTKNTS. 



Erronoons Opinion of tlip American Iiulian as to liis Govoriniu'iit Same kind of 
(lovcriiincnt Prevailed anions All the Tribes Not aOovernnu'iit of Force -One 
of Aci|iiiesc(>nce- (ieneral I'liiforniity— Union of Tribes Lea(,'ne of (lie Iro- 
quois I'riiici|)les on wliicli a Cliief (ioverns Accordiiit: to Will of the Tribe — 
Councils Orwanizinj,' and C'ondnotint,' Chiefs Hank SuocosBion -Equality 
Criminal Code -Opinion of Dr. Franklin Caleb Atwater's Description of an 
Indian Council -Authority of Chiefs. 177 



Each Group had a DifTerent liaiifjuaffc— Each Tribe Si)oke tlie Lanpnntjp of the 
(rronp— Varyint,' in Dialect aiiionj,' Themselves Indian Ijant,'uaf,'es not n 
Jarifon-Uicli in Verbs and (iranimatical Forms ]\Iarked for Method and Reyu- 
lanty — Uniformity in Construction over tlio Continent Iiaiit,n]at:e of (lie 
Aljjonquins The Prevailing,' LaiiffuaKe— Word Buildiuy- Grammatical Con 
Btriictiou -Examples— Dakotus- Iroquois— Cherokee -Chinook. 184 



Sitfii Lnngnaf,'© nmonff all the American Tribes One System Universal— Most Trilies 
Understood Each Other Practical Instance Cited — Manner of Alludin;,' to (he 
Great Spirit- Practical Il]us(rati<ms— Use of Sifrn LanK'uaKe— Interpre(atioii of 
Sentences— Definition of Various Si},'us— Signals— Fire— Smoke — Use of Pony- 
Blanket— lUuatratiou. 213 



Type of Character— Native Characteristics— Attachment to his Tribe— Integrity and 
Fidelity— Peaceable, Sociable, Obliging and Hospitable ara(mg Themselves— 
0|)inion of Columbus— Love their Neighbors as Themselves— Due Resjiect to 
the Rights of Others Vices Ac(iuired from the White Man— Hcmorable Char- 
acter of (he Inxjuois— Opini(m of the Novelist Cooper Opinions of Indian 
Traders— The Crow Indians-Opinion of Mr. Catliu— Testimony of Captain 
Carver— Treatment of Captives. ' '2'2'.i 



Argument for Race Unity— Uniformity in Physical Characteristics— Influenced by 
Climate and Surroundings— Cranial Structure— Genend Description— Com- 
plexion— Stature Muscular Strength— Facial Outline -Eyes Teeth J5eard, 
Disputed Point Mixed Blood Utt^s-Choctaws—Shawnees—Kawas— California 
Indians— Shoshonees— Hair of the North American Indian. iilil 



General Uniformity in Primitive Condition— Best Sources of Tnformatifm— Testimony 
of Mary Jemison, "White Woman of the Genesee"— Testimony of John Brick- 
ell, a Captive Exemplary Character in their Home Intercourse— Precejjt and 




Example -HoiiPHty, Urnvory an<l Hospitality Hclntioii Hctwoon tlic S»'Xos — 
Strict Conduct — Nt'ar JowiHli Hitcs m Trailitionul IJuIck— Mcdieint' Ijod^e— 
TnliiTuacIo of tlio Jt^ws— (!ustoiii of rndiaii Womoii — I'oliti'iu'Hs in ConvtTHation 
— IIoHpitality to StraiiifcrH — Uoteiitivt' Memory — Crimo of Murder— I )i'atii 
Penalty No 'J'itied Persoiiat^es— l)reHsiiiK and I'aintini,' — FlahitH - No I'dlers 
anion),' Wouumi — Traininj,' Roys an HuiiterH — Making PreKentH— SliaviuK the 
Head— Scalp Lock— Cultivation of the Hair — Native lugemiity — Treutnieut of 
Prinoners — Burnin),' at the Stai",\ 288 



The luHtitution of Dances— Tha!iksf,'iviii>,' Ceremonial — Acceptable to the Oreat 
Spirit— Taught to (Jonsider it a Divine Art — DeHi(,'ned hy the Great Spirit for their 
Pleasure and Hi.s Worship —A Mode of Social Intercourst'—Arousinj,' Patriotic 
Excitement- Strengthens Poimlar Enthusiasm— Inspires Indian Youth— Tlio 
IroiiuoJH had Thirty-two Distinct l^ances— Different Kinds of Dances among 
DitTereiit Nations and Tribes— Sun Dance of tlio Sioux— Declared by Indian 
Agents I5arl)arous and Forbidden— Corai)arison with the White Man's Pugilielic 
Exhibitions— Other Barbarous Practices of the White Man. 250 



Irr'-ins are Fond of Amusement— Deli^jht in (lames of Chance — Ball Playing — 
. of La Crosso — Addicted to Practical Joking — Various Modes of Gambling' 
• Various Devices for Aniusemeut Game of the Plum Stone— Card playing. 




Legend of Indian Corn- Facts Concerning Same- Uses of Corn— Meat and Other 
Articles— No Regular Time for Meals Eat when they are Hungry — Mode of 
Cooking Women do the Work of Cooking- Mode of Preserving Meat — The Zea 
Maize— Mode, Use and Manner of Cooking— Wild Rice Vegetables and Fruits 
— Fondness for Sugar — Sugar Making— A Grand Indian Carnival— Mode of 
Proceeding in Making Sugar — Mokuks, or Birch Bark Boxes, 271 



Marriage Institution — Simplicity of the Marriage Ceremony— Observations of Rev. 
Isaac McCoy and Others— Pleasure Trips— The Mother had Custody of Children 
- Rights Property— Marriage and Divorce -Wifi^'s Attention to the Husband 
on Return from Hunting — Testimony of Mary Jemison— Her Experience as an 
Indian Wife— Her Labor not Severe Continued Sameness in Domestic Duties— 
Her Task not Harder than White Women who are Brought up to Work- 
Polygamy Tolerated — Not much Practiced. 284 



Unfounded Prejudices against the Indian— Redeeming Characteristics in his Parental 
and Filial Affection— Striking Incidents Related— A Daughter's Attachment to 
her Aged Father— Pathetic Anecdote — A Father's Affection Manifested for his 

TAIlI,i: OF ((tNTI'.NTS. 


10 Sl'X('8 — 

f Liid^'e-- 
lor— IViitli 
No IiUorK 
having tlie 
eutiiu'iil of 

Sou— Ri'iimrkahlo rustimco— A Fathor's Choorfiil Doatli tn Follow t ho H\>\rU of 
hiHCiiililto tho Lmi.l of Souls -Kospoct for Olil A«o — Foud o/ tlioir Cliililron 
—A .Mothoj'H AtUiiitioii. -'•'- 



Siniplii'ity of tlio Indian Hul)itatioii or WiKwam— Term Wi«wam, from wlionco 
|»orivoil— Modo of CloiiHtnu'tinK' lIal)itatiouH anioUK DitTorent Nations— AmoiiK 
tlio Aluoniiuin Tr'l>o"— Anions Trihos of tlio Hioiix Stock— Ainon^' tlio 
MandiwiH— AmoiiK 11"' Indians of tlio I'lains in (louoral— Amoin; tlio T;#1)oh of 
the Shoslionoo Stock— AmoiiK tlio Nootkans— Aiuouft the TrilK•^ of the Iroijuois 
Stock— lusido Arrauk'oniout mid Construction. , 2!)7 

the Oreut 
rit for their 
iij; Patriotic 
ices amoiijf 
1 by Indian 
's Putfilislic 

11 Playing— 
jf Gambling 

pi ay inn. 




The Word Cnnoc— From whence Derived- Anions what People First Soon by 
Europeans- How JIado—lJecame a Universal Word among the Whites— ludis- 
pensal)le to the Indian— Used by War Parties — DitTorent Stylos of Canoes— 
Among DifForont Tribes and Nations— Canoe of tli(> Maudans and Wostorn 
Tribes— Canoes of the Caribbeos— Bark Canoes— CanoeH of Light iUatorial for 
Convenience of Portage - Mo^lo of Constructing CanoeH— Various Sizes- 
Selecting Trees for a Canoe— 'J'riio of Slrii)ping Bark for Canoe— Quotation 
from Longfellow. ■^•*''"> 



Weapons of tho Primitive Indian— The Bow and Arrow— War Club— Spear— Hatchet 
—Flint Arrow Heads— Stone Hatc't ■ ts Utensils for Various Purijoses— Flint 
Knives (training Tools -Aw' ; Fi-,h Speara— Nets— Implements for I'roducing 
Firo— Utensils I'or Cooking — Clay Pots. HIH 

and Other 
Mode of 
at— The Zea 
and Fruits 
Mode of 

;ums of Itev. 

of Children 

he Husband 

>rience as an 

itic Duties— 

to Work— 


his Parental 
ttachment to 
sted for his 



Application of Names to Designate Persons— Imitation of .Tewish Custom — Names 
have Signiticatiou— Male and Female Names — No Surnames— Dnplicrite Names 
—From whence Names of Persons are Derived — Baby Names — Naming Children 
— "There is Something in a Name "— ilu.stom of the Dakotas— Custom in 
Changing Name — Nicknames — Objection to Speaking their Own Name — Hnsbautl 
and Wife do not Mention Each Other's Names — Exami)les of Indian Names. I5Lllt 

{;hapter XXIII. 


Indian Names Applied to Localities — Popular Idea— Signification— Classifi'-ation of 
Groups in Determining Names— Tracing Origin of Names — Algonquin Nam^s 
Prevail — Phrases Reduced to One Word— Contraction of Words— Ign^raiice of 
Origin and Moaning— Indian Names of States and Territories- Names Cu.ning 
from the French and Other Languages — Same Word in DitTorent Languages 
and Dialects, Differing in Meaning- Names Coining Through Illiterate Persons 
— The Word Penobscot— Rendered by the French in Sixty Different Ways — The 
Word Calumet— Not an Indian Word as Sup|)08ed— Words of French Orthog- 
ra)ihy — Corruption of Indian Names — Examples of Corruption of Indian Words 
—Inappropriate Signification of Words. IW'.t 





Simplicity in Style— Supffostive of Convenience — General Uniformity among the 
Tribes — Different Styles — J3ress Accordiuj,' to Weathei Season— Description 
of tlio Imliau Dress— Material Skins of Animals— ^NloccasiiiH for the Feet — 
Dress of tlie Indian Woman— Its (Convenience- According to Notions of Strict 
Propriety — Indians of the Pacific Coast— Criticism of the White Man on Fantas- 
tic Indiiin Dress- The White Woman's Fantawtic Dress Com])ared — The Indian 
Paints his Face, so Does the White Woman — The Indian War Boiniet— Not a 
Fantastic Disjilay, but a Superstitions Notitm— Buffalo Horns as a Badtre of 
Bravery — The Indian Dress is Symbolic, rather than one of Fantastic Display- 
Tbe Indian Dude — Indian Dress of the Mountains and the Plains. •i-^" 



Man Naturally a Religious Being— A Characteristic Prominent among the Indians- 
Religion Similar to the Jews — ]5elief in One (ireat Spirit — Belief in a Bad 
Spirit — Subordniate (tood S|)irits Like the .lews they had Fasts and Feasts 
Observed with Religious Devotion- Traditiims of the Flood— Houses of Worship 
of Civilized People — Indian Medicine Lodge— Abiding Faith in a Future Exist- 
ence—Land of the Blessed or Country of Souls— The Passage of the Soul to the 
Everlasting . bode— Belief in Dilliculties on the Way — iJelief that the Soul 
Tarries a Time Near the Body — Passage Over a Stream on the Way to the Lanil 
of Souls — Like the River Styx of the Oreeks— Perils in Passing Over this Myth- 
ical River— DescriptKm of the Land of the Blessed — Indian Religion a Subject 
of Criticism— What tlie Indian Thinks of the Religion of the White Man— Tim 
Indian Priebt- The Indian Highly Devotional— Smoking, a Devotional Act - 
Believed in Souls of Animals- Belief of the Iroquois. ■'4"i 



Multitude of Spirits — Manifested in Mysterious Ways — Omens among the Stars and 
Clouds — Flight of Birds — Superstition about the Robin— Thunder (lod of the 
Ojib ways— Superstition of the Ojibwaya— (h-eek Indians had Sacred Plants- 
Buffalo Blood — Magic Properties--Superstitions of the War Bonnet — Largi' 
Animals Objects of Superstition — White Animals Objects of Worship — Large 
Animals Believed to Possess Powerful Spirits — Spiritualism an Old Story amom; 
the Dakotas — Tendency to Believt> Everything is Inhidiited by Spirits- -Legeuii 
of a Mythical Bird Singing at Evenings — Sacred Character of Fire — Dreams 
Believed in — Superstitious of the Indian and the White Man do not Essentially 
Differ. -VC' 



Pagan Character of the Indian Marked by His Belief in Witchcraft — The Civilized 
White Man and I'agan Indian Compared in this Regard— The Indian's Fear of 
Pupernatural Agencies — Belief in Witclicraft was Universal— Ktfeet ui>im tlirir 
Prosperity and Population Among the Irocpiois League — Wizards, a Secri't 
Association — Meeting at Night— Tradition among the Onondiigas Indian Pov- 
wows — Conjurers and Medicine Men Witches Wizards— Their Powers anJ 
Characteristics— Wit(^hes in the Shape of Animals— The Puritan Idea of Witche.- 



Ity iimong the 
Di- the Feet— 
;)tionH()f Strict 
klan 1)11 Fiiutas- 
iil— The Iniliiin 
Bonnet— Not » 
s iis !i Badwe of 
iistic Display - 

ifj the Indians— 
ielief in a Bad 
sts and Feasts 
uses of Worsliip 
I a Future I^xisl- 
f tlieSoul to tilt' 
■f that the Soul 
Way to the Land 
; Over this Mytli- 
^Ijirjou a Subject 
White Man— The 
Devotional Act— 

ons the Stars and 

luder (tod of the 

Sacred Wants— 

• Bonnet— Lar^'c 

Worship— Lar^'o 

Old Story anioni; 

Spirits- Letxeiui 

of Fire— Dreaiiif 

do not Essentially 

aft— The Civili/ed 
le Indian's Fear of 
-HtTcct upon tlitir 
Wizards, ii Secn't 
iit;as Indian Po'^- 
riieir Towers ais'l 
1 Idea of Witelie.- 

Itrnorance Chartjed upon the Indian for his Belief in Witches— Reference to the 
Learned Sir Matiiew Hale — Who Tried and Convicted Two Old Women for .he 
Crime of Being Witches. 362 



The American Tribes had a Custom of Fasts and Feasts — Custom of Fasts Not 
Fretpient— Custom of Feasis Quite Freiiuent— Feasts a Favorite Source of Ex- 
citement— DitTereut Kinds of Feasts nuKmg Dift'erent Nations — Feasts of the 
White Dotr Universal— (leueral Resemblance of Feasts amonij All — The Man 
who Gave Many Feasts a Great Favorite with his Tribe — F<>asts amonj,' the 
Ojil)ways— Medicine Feast— Feasts for Dreams— Feast of Givinsr Names— War 
Feast— The Groat Feast— Wabeuo Feast— Feast for the Dead— Feast for His 
Medicine- Boys' Feast — Rot;nlar Feasts of the Iroquois — Maple Feast — Planting 
Festival— Strawberry Festival — Grei'u Corn Festival— Harvest Festival — New 
Year's Festival — Fasts Strictly a Religious Custom. 'MM 



Coincidences with Nations of the Old World— No Fear of Death — Ceremonies Much 
Like the Jews — Relatives of the Deceased put (m Coarse (rarmeiits- Women as 
•' Hired Mourners."— Offering Made During Time of Mourning— Ojibways - 
Custom— Attended with Much Interest— Offering Food to the Deail— Cremation 
among Some Tribes— Instance Related— Mourning Cradle of Child— Custo;n 
Never to 3Iention Name of the Di^ceased— Bury Body East and West — Reasons 
Therefor— No Enduring Monuments. 377 



Term ^ledicine — Three Distinct Professions- The Doctor of jNIedicine- The 
I\[agician The Prophet — Popular Idea-])ress Medicine Bag — Its Contents- 
Its Ccmstruction Claims of Sui)ernatural Influence— .\iiimal Magnetism 
Trials of Power — A Remarkable Instance- Proiihetic Gifts— Mental Telegraphy 
-Holy Garments- Robes of Myht(>ry- Robes of State— .ludicial Ermine 01)s(>r- 
vances in Regard to Medicine Men— In Regard to Smoking — Tetotalism and 
Chastity of Women. 38G 



The Indian Prophet— An Important Functionary— .\s with the Ancient Jews— Was th© 
Oracle of "All Mystery"— Fi.l so Prophets— Chiefs had Their Prophets— Fore- 
telling Events— Remarkable Instance Related— Capt. Carver Relates an Instance 
Account from an Indian Captive— Singular Instanc(> of Foretelling the ]''uture- ■ 
Fulfilled in the Escape of Three Captives- Father Charlevoix's Experience — 
Peter Jones Gives Instance of Indian Prophecy. 896 



Knowledge, how Acquired— Comparison ot the Indian and the White Man— Knowl- 
edge of the Functional Organs of the Boily — Which Their Language Indicates 




—Their Knowledge Comparative— Patlioloj^y — Want of Knowledge through 
Scientific Experiments— Limited Knowledge of Circulation of the Blood — Knowl- 
edge Derived from the Wliites— Incantations — By Sacrificial Rites — Pretentious 
of [udiau Knowledge Compared with the Pretentions of tlie Medical White Man 
— Originally, Indians liad but Few Diseases- Causes of Diseases— Simplicity of 
Diet— Administer Sinii)le Remedies — Sacrifices t(i Propitiate Si)irits — A Practice 
Like the Jews — Fracture or Breaking of a Bone -Understand Nature of Poison' 
ous Plants— Knew Nothing of Paralysis -Ideas of Blood Letting. 408 



Originally but Two Fatal Diseases among Them -Consumption Destroyed Many in 
Later Times— "The Indian Student's Lament"— Diseases among the Ojibways-- 
What La Houtau Says of Diseases among the Indians -Small-pox Very Fatal - 
Indi:m Ideas of Sickness —Fear Pain and Long Duration of Illness More than 
Death — Physician or Doctor of Medicine — Various Remedies —Sweat Lodge 
Miinner of Constructing -Vai)or Baths not a Matter of Luxury— Cbickasaws - 
Doctor Attending the Sick. ■llJi 



Knowledge from Observation -North Star — Star that Never Moves -Guides Them 
by Night —Solar Walk or Milky Way Indian Opinion Coincidence with A.n- 
cient Belief of the White Man -Have Names for Particular Stars -Seven Stars - 
The Great Bear -Pleiades -Do not Pretend to More Knowledge than They 
Possess —Stars for VVhich They Have Names -Comets Superstitions Belief - 
Eclipses —Indian Theory -Earthquakes Moving of a Great Tortoise -Knowl- 
edge of Geography —Draw Mai)S Correctly -Course of Streams. 419 



Intuitive Mode of Reckoning Time — Cardinal Divisions — Days and Months — Reckon 
Days by Suns— Months by Mtxms— Four Fixed Pouits in tlie Day— Rismg and 
Setting of the Sun— Noon and Night— Some Idea of a Solar Year — Spring - 
Summer — Autunm — Winter — Year Begins With Spring — Putting Out of the 
Leaves- I'lanting Season— Reckon Ages by Winters Commemorate Events- 
No Division of Days into Hours -Recall Time of Year by Past Events — How 
Mothers Keej) Ages of Children— Took no Note of Time— Names for DitTereiit 
Moons — Names of the Four Seasons — Lost Moon — Examples of Names of Moons 
among Different Tribes. 4'2'i 



Perfect System of Cotinting— Uniform Decimal System— Why Decimal System was 
Adopted — Use of Sticks and Other Objects in Counting — Explanation of Mode 
of Counting— Mode among DitTerent Tribes— List of Indian Numerals among 
Various Tribes. 4:5.'! 



North American Indians Excel in Hunting— Superstition — Use of ChnrmB— 3ili- 



Ige through 
3od — Kuowl- 
1 Whito :Miiu 
iimplicity of 
—A Practice 
re of Poison- 

jyed Many in 
e Ojibways- - 
Very Fatal 
jss More than 
veat Loilge - 
Chickasaws - 

-Gnides Them 
lence with A.U- 
Sevcn Stars - 
lj;e than They 
itious Belief - 
toise Kuowl- 


gence— Snow Shoe Region— Thanks to the Great Spirit— The Buffalo— The 
Beaver— Habits of the Beaver — Beaver Dams — Beaver Houses— Mode of Taking 
Beavers— Hunting the ^3ear— Singular Custom— Longfellow's Description The 
Dog— His Faithfulness— The Horse— Origin among the Indians Comanches 
Excel in Horsemanship — Mode of Capturing the Wild Horse— General Himt — 
Hunting Deer — Traps — Prairie Fires— Seasims for Hunting— Assistance of the 
Women -Iroquois — Dakotas— Fishing— Mode of Taking Fish— Irocjuois are 
Expert Fishermen. 452 



Range of the Buffalo -The Word Buffalo— Whence Derived— Formidable Object of 
Hunter Prowess— Description of the Butt'alo— Mode of Taking the Buifalo 
Described— rinterestiug Description by Mr. Catlin — Inforniatiiin on this Point 
From (tov. Sibley — An Interesting Account— Indian Buffalo Chase — Mr. Catliu's 
Thrilling Descripticm — His Eloquent Reflecticm on the Disappearance of the 
Indian and the Buffalo— The National Park— First Suggested. 407 



Original Mode of Suggesting Thought— Picture Writing among the American 
Tribes — In Practice as auKmg Ancient People of the Old World — Material Used 
for Picture Writing— Characters Engraved on Rocks and Stones — The Piasa — 
Man Devouring Bird — Description by Marquette— Descriijtiou by Prof. John 
Russell — Picture Writing on Robes Pipe Stone Quarry — Instance Noted by 
Jonathan Carver— Illustration from La Hontan — System of Picture Writing — 
The Primitive Mind — Anecdote of President Lincoln's Father — Description 
Quoted From Longfellow — Dightou Rock — Rocks at Kelley's Island — Caricatures 
— Indian Idea— Anecdote of the Shawnee Indian and White Man. 477 

mtha— Reckon 
■Rismg and 
ear- Spring - 
a Out of the 
)rate Events- 
Events— How 
for Different 
ames of Moons 



Generally Called Calumet— Not an Indian Word— Not Strictly an Apprapriate Term 
— A Norman French Word—Its Signification — Description of th(! Pipe of Peace — 
Its Sacred Character — Other Classes of Pipes— Mode of Use -Notices by the 
Early French— Secured Them a Friendly Reception — Custom of Smoking— 
Mysterious Seal of Religion— Custom the Same among all the Tribes— Cere- 
monies of Smoking— Mode of Making Peace— A Symlwl in Ratification of 
Treaties— Tobacco a Gift of the Great Spirit— From Stone of the Pipe Stone 
Quarry — Legend of this Mysterious (Quarry — Description from Longfellow. 48C 

ml System was 
lation of Mode 
umerals among 


CbnrmB- 3ili- 



Meaning of Word Wampum — Massachusetts Dialect— As Described by Palfrey — 
Kinds of Wampum— Description of Making — Not Originally Used in Commorcin' 
Transactions- Who". First Used as Such -Value— Worn as an Ornatnent — Asa 
Sym\)()l in Preserving Memory of Events — As a Ratification of Treaties — Pledge 
of FrieuOship — Not Common among Some Tribes. 4M3 





Indian Eloquence a Native Talent —Not Acquired by Book Education— Retort of Red 
Jacket — "I was Born an Orator"— Power of Indian EUxiuonce— Indian Elo- 
quence Superior to the White Man -Simile.s and Metaphors Drawn from Nature 
— Speech of the Indian Chief Logan- Elements of Indian Ehxiueuce-Iiulian 
Ideas Gathered from Surroundinf,'s- The Tempests— The Woods— The Water- 
falls -The Sky FujuRtice to the Indian Lan^juages -Adapted to Elo(iui'nt. Description by Caleb Atwator-His Experience — 
Indian Eloquence in Council -No Violent Gesticulations — No Overwrought 
Enthusiasm -The Voice is Loud, Clear, Distinct and Commanding Exalted 
Opinion from a Public .Tournalist- Some of the Great Indian Orators Enum- 
erated Speech of Capt. Pipe, a Delaware Chief, at Detroit, in ISOl— Speet^h of 
Graiigula, the Iroquois Chief — As Reported by La Hontan— Examples of Indian 
Elo(iuenco. 4:98 



Indians are Fond of Metaphors— Were Like Ornaments to their Person — Powerful 
Similes ])rawu from Nature— Added a Charm to their Speeches— Appropriated 
by English Writers -Metaphorical Expressiims in Common Uoo Borrowed from 
the Indians "Rivers Run With Blood" -"To Bury the Hatchet" "You Keep 
Me in the Dark"— "Singing Birds"— "I Will Place Ytm Under ]\[y Wings "— 
"Suffer no Grass to Grow on the War Path" — Are of Indian Origin — Examples 
of Indian Metaphorical Expressions. 518 



Origin of Music — Vocal and Instrumental— Indians are Naturally Musicians — Sing 
on Devotional Occasions— Like the White Man — Songs of Praise to Diety Like 
the Jews — Songs Consisted of Few Words — Short Phrases — Many Times 
Repeated — Language of Excitement- -Expression of Compassiim — Absence of 
Measure or Rhyme- -Voices Often Fine- -Words Preserved by Picture Writing — 
Indian Music Noted for its Simplicity — Scale of Music Limited — The Chorus in 
High Strain of Voice — Have Various Instruments of Music — Some Instruments 
Like those of the White Man —The Drum— Gourd Shell — Rattling 'Sounds — 
Description of Indian Implements of Music- -Longfellow's Hiawatha an Imita- 
tion of Indian Poetry— White Man's Old FashioTied Songs— Robert Kidd — 
Coincidence with Indian Songs--Saniples of Indian Music — Dog Dance of the 
Dakotas and others. 526 



Two Institutions among the N<irth American Indians— From the Atlantic to the 
Pacitic— From the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean — Medawin — Jeesukawin — 
Art of Medical Magic— Mystery -Prophecy — Ancient Origin — The Term Meda — 
Necromantic luHuences Exerted in Secret— Medawininne, a Magician— Meda- 
win, the Art of Magic -Formed into Societies or Associations -Admitting Candi- 
dates—Who May be Admitted— Ceremony of Admission -Art of Prophecy- 
Ceremonies of the Wabeno— Medawin, Deftuition. 535 


;ort of Bed 
Klian Elo- 
jui Niitnn- 
rbo Water- 
, EloiiUfut, 
sperii'uce — 
ig Exalted 
tors Ennm- 
— Speech of 
e of Indian 

n — Powerful 
(rrowed from 
"You Keep 
ly WiuKs" — 
11— Examples 

siciatis— Sing 
o Diety Like 
Many Times 
— Absence of 
ire Writing- 
be Chorus in 
niR 'Bounds — 
ha an Imita- 
obert Kidd— 
Dance of the 

tlantio to the 


Term Meda— 

^ician— Meda- 

initting Caudi- 

f Trophecy— 





Popular Idea of nn Indian Treaty — Tlie Notion of the Spanish Invaders— The 
English Idea — The Puritans— Treaty with Massasoit— William Peun— Treaties 
of United States— At Fort Pitt— Oreenville— Chicago— Prairie du Chien- 
Broken Covenants— Proverbial Deception— Black Hawk War. 54.T 



The Position the Indian Occupies- The Object of the Spaniards Right of Dis- 
covery-Early Colonists— Idea of Eliot Recognition by Unitod States Oovorn- 
rnent— Chief Justice Taney's View — "State of Puiiilago"— Winnebago Indians— 
Ponca Indians — The Negro Race as Compared with the Indian— The Conclusion. 



How Indians Attained Prominence among their People— Civil and Military Affairs 
ill Separate Departments — Illustrious Men — Road to Fame Oix-ii to All — Tlie 
Word Sachem— Prominent Indians Since the Settlement of the Continent — Brief 
Biography of Noted Chiefs. 570 



Remarkable Literary Production- Consisted of the Old and Now Testament — Trans- 
lated ii-lo the New England Dialects — Indians under Ueligious Instructions at 
Martha's Vineyard " Praying Indians " -Numlier — Curious Circumstances Lead- 
ing to Conversion of Indians -Questions Asked by Indians Concerning Eliot's 
Religious Teachings— Difficulties Ho Encountered in Trauslatiug — Death of 
Eliot. 598 



Reduced Possessions — Insignificant Proporti(ms — Tlie Indian Question — Preliminary 
Agencies to Civilization --Extinction, or Civilization What is Civilization A 
Matter of Opinion Various Forms of Civilization The European Form Which 
the Indian is Expected to Adopt -Work of the Puritans Rev. John Eliot m 
New England -Missionary Work Civilizing Influence of Whiskey— Discordant 
Examples of Puritans Distrust of the White Man's R(>ligion -Extermination of 
the New England Tribes Example of the Brothertowns The Iroipiois Six 
Nations— Their Progress in Our Civilization -Influence of William Penii--Good 
Work of Quakers Agricultural Instruction -The Five Civilized I'nbes of the 
Indian Territory To Become Civilized the Indian Must Become a White ^laii - 
The Indian Disappearing by Am, igamiition Reports of Indian Agents to that 
Effect— The Indian Problem -The White Man Prob'eiu. (5(14 



Population Overrated-Exaggorntions of the Early Explorers Report of the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs— Number ot Indians in the United States at the Pres- 



ent Time — Effect of Contusions Diseases— Destruction of Game — Semi-State 
of Starvation -Grndual Decrease —Cause of Decrease Becoming Removed How 
Indian Population Became Overestimated -Exayfjeration of Poi>ulation in New 
England— The Iroquois Nation— Exaggeration of Numbers— The West Indies - 
Numbers Overestimated — And so in Virginia— How a Small Number of Indiana 
Appear Large— Indians of Kentucky -No Permanent Indians there. Oil 



Anecdotes Illustrating Indian Character — Lost Confidence — The Good Man, and the 
Bad Man— Honor among Indians - Illustration —The Indian's View of the 
Trinity -More Room— Indian Mendacity— Indian Gratitude and Wit — Head 
Work— Indian Fidelity Indian Chief Pontiac —Selling Lands to the Whites- 
Example of Nature Giving the Missionary a Cold Shoulder— Indian Opinion of 
the White Man — A Singnlar Instance of a Thing Found— Indian Incredulity — 
Sample of Indian Justice -An Indian's Reply to a Challenge. (SIH 



Prejudice of White Man — Want of Correct Information— History Misunderstood 
and Exaggerated— Methods of Declaring War— On the Warpath —Their En- 
campments — Engagements — Prisoners — Running the Gauntlet — Adoption of 
Prisoners— Spanish Invaders Committed First Murder — Outrages by DeSoto 
and D'Allyou— Indians Retaliate — Attack and Bloodshed in New England by 
the Whites- Fear and Suspicion Aroused among the Indians — Indian Attach- 
ment to Their Lands— Their Efforts to Retain Them —Indians Aroused by the 
British Against the Colonists— Indian Massacres Stimulated and Led on by the 
Whites— One Faction against the Other — The So-Called Wyoming Massacre — 
True History of the Same— Burning of Joan of Arc — Other Instances of Man's 
Inhumanity to Man — History Misunderstood. 630 



Society Formed at Philadelphia — Before the American Revolution — Admirers of 
Indian Character— Adopting the Examples of Tammanend, a Delaware Chief — 
Sometimes Called Tammany— Character of this Chief as Described by Hecke- 
welder— Account of Preparation for Meeting — May 4, 1772, Old Styb — Account 
of Meeting, Mo. day, May 11, 1772— Toasts Drank at this Meetiiig — Patriotic 
Spirit of the Society— Yearly Festivals— First of May, Old Style, now May 12th— 
Members Marched in Procession Through the Streets — Hats Adorned with 
Buck's Tails— This Association the Origin of the Later Order of Red Men — 
Otlier Societies Formed— In New York under the Name of Tammany — Place of 
Meeting called Wigwam— Oject of Order of Red Men — Social, Fraternal and 
Benevolent — Founded on Customs, Traditions and History of the Aborigines- 
Three Phases of this Organization— First, Prior to Revolution— Second, from the 
Time of Peace to War of 1812 -Third, from 1813 at Fort Mifflin to the Present 
Time— Name Improved Order of Red Men Adopted March 4, 1835— Charter of 
Great Council Granted by Maryland — Great Council of the United States 
Organized March, 1847. 657 

[loveJ How 
tion iu New 
est Indies — 
>r of Indiana 

Man, and the 
"View of tlie 
1 Wit -Head 
the Whites^ 
^u Opinion ot 
Incredulity - 




Indian Dialects— Ojibway— Dakota - Comanche — Miami— Menominee— Shawnee- 
Oneida— Onondaga- Blackfeet — Tnscarora — Mohawk — Cayuga — MuHCogee — 
Zuni— Delaware— Mandan— Arapahoe— Sheyenue Osage— Nootkian—Comi)ari- 
K(m of Dialects— Comparison of Pronouns— Woyds and Phrases— Catalogue of 
Trees and Phmts- Catalogue of Animals. (XiS 



Definition of Indian Local Names— Names of States— Counties— Cities— Towns- 
Rivers— Streams— Lakes — Mountsins — Ranges. 7i)4 


th -Their En- 
-Adoption of 
es by DeSoto 
w England by 
Indian Attach- 
\.rou8ed by the 
Led on by the 
ug Massacre — 
inces of Man's 

1 — Admirers of 
ilaware Chief— 
ibed by Hecke- 
Styk— Account 
3ti'jg— Patriotic 
low May 12th— 

Adorned with 

ot Red Men- 
many— Place ot 
., Fraternal and 
Second, from the 

to the Present 
a35— Charter ot 

United States 


Indian Head - -- 23 

Falls of Niagara 32 

Map of Long River 33 

Captain John Smith -- 37 

Pocahontas --- 41 

I'erils of the Missionary 50 

Christopher Columbus... 58 

Ruins of Chichen 66 

Ruins of Uxmal 66 

Falls of Minnehaha 76 

Jewish Priest iu his Robes 98 

Tents of Ancient Israelites 115 

Group of Indians... 116 

Fort Winnebago in lasi 121 

Scene in Country of the Arap^Loes. 135 
Yellowstone Park, Country of the 

Crows 142 

Scene iu Pennsylvania, Home of the 

Delawares 144 

Scene in Western Montana, Home of 

theFlatheads 146 

Scene on the St. Lawrence, Border- 
ing on Country of Hurons 148 

Northern Wisconsin, Country of the 

Mt nominees 152 

Northern Minnesota, Country of the 

Ojibways.. 155 

Scene iu Northern Michigan, Country 

of theOttawaa 157 

Scene on Fox Lake, Illinois, Country 

of the Pottawattamies 159 

Maiden's Rock, Upper Mississippi, 

Country of the Sioux 1C3 

Scene in Alaska, Home of the Sitka 

Tribes 105 

Country of the Shoshonees, Moun- 
tain Trail 1(38 

Among the Rockies, Country of the 

Utes 170 

Mount Joliet, Country of the Illi- 

niwug 171 

The Beaver 172 

Totems. 173 

Eagle's Nest 177 

Collection of Flowers 184 

Signal of Peace 213 

"Who Are You?" 215 

Smoke Signal 218 

Blanket Signal 220 

Sign Illustrations 221 

Sign Illustrations _. 222 

Indian Character 223 

Indian with Bow and Arrow. - 231 

A Lesson in Archery 238 

Gardeau, Home of the Captive White 

Woman 240 

First Lesson in Hunting... 246 

Instrument for Making Fire 248 

Pleasures and Cares ot the White 

Man 249 

Buffalo Dance 250 

War Whoop.. 253 

Scalp Dance _ 260 

Indian Women Playing at Plum 

Stone 261 

Indian Game of Ball 264 





Amusements 270 

ProN'ctiiif,' Comliehls 271 

ludiiiu Wonu'ii Giithering Wild Rico 281 

Imliau Criidlos '?.Hi 

Modern Miirriayo Ceremony 2!)1 

Piiicntid Affection 2i»2 

( )jil)\vay VilliiKO 2!)'' 

Ciirib House _,. 2!>8 

Esiiuimanx Snow House 2i)9 

Iroiiuois Bark Hdusb 800 

Movable Wittwams 1501 

Coiuauebe Wigwam 802 

Successor to Indian Habitaticm 304 

Canoe Porta>,'e ;}().5 

InKpiois Bark Cano<'_ _ 808 

Indian Head and Im|)le»u>uts 818 

Weapons and Utensils _.. 817 

"Clear Sky" 820 

Oluopehelle. _ 820 

Ideal Indian Maiden 887 

Bh'ckfoot Chief 81:0 

Trinee of Wales 840 

Seneca Maiden 842 

Younw Seneca Warrior 843 

Dawn of Perpetual Peace -.. 345 

"Flight of Birds" 855 

The (treat Head - 8(i2 

White Man's Witch 3Go 

White Man's Witch-Finder 36() 

Harvest Festival 8(17 

Mandan Cemetery 877 

Printed Grave Post 883 

Knistenanx Medicine Man.. 888 

Indian Head 886 

Warnings of the Great Spirit 305 

Indian Doctor 408 

Indian Medicine Man 413 

"Wisdom Dwells with Contempla- 

ti(m" 41!) 

V Eisiu),' Sun 428 

'Bundle of Sticks 433 

Deer .- 452 

Iroijuois Hunters 455 

" Looking Down from a High Place" 458 

Catching Wild Horses.. 4G0 

Hunting in Disguise. 4()2 

The Indian's Successor 4()4 

Deer . 4(i6 

BtilTalo ---- 4()7 

Hunting Buffalo in Deep Snow 474 

Indian Picture Writing 477 

Supposed Form of Piasa Bird 478 


Indian Hieroglyphics 482 

Pipe of Peace 48f) 

Piecre of Wampum 493 

Use of Wami)um Belt.. 490 

Strings of Wampiun 497 

Speaking to the Council 49H 

Singing Birds 518 

Black Chmds.. 519 

"Under My Wing" 521 

Iro(|Uois Drum 525 

She-sbe-quoy 527 

The Silent Forest 535 

Initiation of Medawin o3S 

Medicine Ceremonies 540 

William Peim's Treaty 548 

"Cast Off" "... 5G2 

Pontiiic. 570 

Black Ha-vk 574 

Corn Planter 577 

Ellskwatawa 578 

Little Turtle 581 

Metea 583 

Osceola 585 

Red Jacket 590 

Shabonee - 591 

Joseph Brant 595 

Eliot Preaching to Indians..- 598 

Renmant of Fort Dearliorn 604 

"Inevitable Destiny" 611 

"Come to Stay" 617 

Indian Wigwam 618 

Pawnee Warrior C3(! 

On the War Path. 641 

Cruelties of the Spaniards... 640 

Burnnig of Joan of Arc 658 

Fort Dearborn in 1838 _ 65(; 

In Council 657 

Indian Lore GfiS 

GIol)e 704 

Lake Chantaucpui 71() 

Chicago in 1820 719 

Lake Gogebic ..- 730 

First State House at Kaskaskia 73(i 

Scene near Merrimac, Wis 749 

Scene on Lake Minnetonka 752 

Waukegau 79(1 

Waukesha 79S 

Scene on Lake Winnebago 801 

View in Yosemite Valley 805 

Scene on Devil's Lake 811 

Scene on Lake Geneva 813 






. 4l)H 
. 51H 
. 5Ut 
. 521 
. 52.") 
. 527 
. 5:5.". 
. o3H 
.. 54(t 
.. 548 
.. 502 
.. 570 
.. 574 
... 577 
. 578 
._ 581 

._ 58;^ 

.. 585 
.. 590 
... 591 
... 595 
... 598 
... 604 
... 611 
... 617 
... 618 
... 63r. 
... 641 
... 64(1 
.... 65;» 
.... 65(1 
.... 657 


.... 704 
.... 71(1 
.--. 719 
..-- 7:5i) 


.... 749 





... 80."i 

.... 8iy 



"The Proper Study ot Manldud is Mau" First Reliable luformaliou The Jesuit 
Missiouarii's LaHdiitiiii, Heuiu pin ami Others -Niagara Falls -1 he Lon^; 
River -Capt. Joliii Hiiiith PcK-aliontas—Sir Walter Raleigh— Characteristics of 
the TuJians -History at Fault Testimonies of Wiusiow, Trumbull aud Others- 
Later Developments The Race Fast Fading Away -The Indian Mentally - 
The Indian and His Couutry Occupation ot Same by the Whites— What the 
Indian Might Have Been -His Natural Abilities— Progress— Prospects. 

WfF, as has been said, "the proper study of 
|i mankind is man," then there has been 
4 1 much neglect on the part of ethnologists 
■^^ and students of history, concerning the 
aborigines of America, to win )se possessions we 
have succeeded. Nearly fcnir centuries have 
passed since the white man's first intrusion 
upon the native inhabitants of the country, 
now comprised within the United States, 
whose i;ndis[)uted possessions of that day, 
covering a vast continent, have at length been reiluced by the unceasing 
march of civilization to the most insignificant pro[)ortions, accom- 
plished in the raain through the deceptive means of civilized diplomacy, 
aided by aggressive warfare ; and the average citizen can now scarcely 
realize that witliin the memory of the living, tlie native red man held 
sway over nearly all that vast region of country, extending from the 
Pacific Ocean on the west to the Alleghany mountains on the east. 

A hundred years ago the study of Indian character and history 
was one attracting the attention of historians and philantliro[)ists to a 
considerable extent; but after the decline of Indian supremacy in this 
country, from the time of the decisive victory of Gen. Wayne over tlie 
allied tribes of the Northwest, less attention for a season was given to 
this subject. But in later times, since the complication of what is 




termed the Iiulinn question, iimler pressure C)f the nvnricious white 
man, in his desi^nis u[)()u tlio last remnant of the Indian domain, 
fostered l)y the exterminating^ policy of our national <^overnment, there 
has arisen a new interest in the wards of the nation, so called, and as 
if to make amends for the past, philanthropists and historians are 
beginniniif a^ain to give attention to the history and character of this 
injured and lon<^ sutferinj,' people; and quite a general desire is mani- 
fest on the part of reading and thinking people, to learn something 
more concerning the native red man, than has heretofore been brought 
to light. 

When America was discovered by Columbus, it was believed by 
him and his contemporaries to be a part of that region vaguely termed 
India, beyond the Ganges, and the newly discovered lands were styled 
Indies, afterwards West Indies, whereby the native inhabitants of this 
country became known as Indians, a term by which they have continued 
to be known to the present day. 

In approaching this subject, we must bear in mind that the 
American Indian of to-day, wherever he may be found, or under what- 
ever circumstances, is not the Indian as found in his primitive condi- 
tion at the time of the discovery of this country : and in tracing his 
character, his manners and customs, it requires no small degree of 
discrimination to distinguish the character of the Indian, as it has 
become changed under the influence of the white man's civilization, 
from what it was in his more primitive condition. 

The manners and customs of a people denote their character. 
Long continued contact of the whites with the Indian has necessarily 
had its effect upon his character and in many respects affected his 
manners and customs ; so that in the study of the Indian in this regard, 
if we would view him correctly, we must rely for sources of information 
upon the earliest impartial and most experienced writers; and then, 
too, in studying this question properly, we must have in view climate 
in connection with the topography of the country; we must separate 
the tribes of the forest, the plains, and the mountains. AVe must con- 
sider that the nomadic tribes of the great western plains, and the arid 
regions of the Southwest, became vastly different from force of circum- 
stances, ill their character, and varied much in their manners and cus- 
toms from the Indians of the forest or country where streams and 
inland bodies of Avater abound, and so too of the Indians in the 
country bordering upon the Atlantic Ocean. And in estimating Indian 
character in later times, we mxist have in view their contact with the 
whites under the varied circumstances naturally following the first 
meeting of the races. 







US white 
ut, there 
I, and as 
inns are 
r o£ thiB 
is niani- 
1 brought 

lieved by 
ily termed 
ere styled 
its of this 

I that the 
luler what- 
tive condi- 
racing his 
degree of 
as it has 

iffected his 
this regard, 
and then, 
iew climate 
ist separate 
e must con- 
and the arid 
e of circura- 
ers and cus- 
streams and 
ilians in the 
ating Indian 
tiict with the 
ins the first 

The Spanisli invasion of tlie country was founded upon a tliirst of 
avarice, and soardi for precious metals or mines of gold and silver. 
De Soto, with his military force, in his wanderings through 1' lorida and 
the Mississippi valley, scimus to have had in view no other ohj(H't tiuin 
this, whidi the Spaniards had an idea Avas to l)e found in abundaiu'e 
all over the newly discovered country; and his iiihuman treatment 
of the natives throughout his wanderings was in consequence of the 
belief tiiat they were withholding from him information concerning 
the gold and silver mines believed to exist in their ccmntry. 

Our earliest and most reliable information concerning the Indians 
of North America, however, is derived from the Frencli, and this largely 
throui;!! their Jesuit missionaries. It was natural that this should bo 
so, from the fact that these devoted people were necessarily re<[uired, 
in ])rosecuting their work, to become well infm-ined on this subject. 
To accomplish tiiis, they were especially recjuired to study Indian 
character, to search out the various tribes, tcj learn their dialects, ami 
to study their manners and customs anil general mode of life. 

As the Spaniards came solely as adventurers, with no fixed design 
of remaining in the country, they gave little or no attention to these 
various su])jects, and hence have left to us scarcely anything of import- 
ance in this regard. Bat little more can be saiil of the English wjio 
first landed upcm the Virginia coast. In their first settlement at 
Jamestown they had but little else in view than that which pertained 
to themselves and their own welfare, their attention becomin<r at once 
engaged in the direction of defending themselves against the luitives, 
wiiose ill-will they early incurred by their imprudent conduct towards 
them. The like may be said of the Puritans and other pioneer immi- 
grants in New England, and whatever is left to us by those early 
immigrants of that locality concerning the primitive Indians comes to 
us in the mt)st part as incident to their own general history in the 
first settlement of that portion of the country. But in w4iat is recorded, 
however, concerning the missionary labors of the Rev. John Eliot, 
in the early settlement of New England, we find that which affords 
some idea of native Indian character, and their primitive manners and 
customs. Much valuable information in this respect is also given us 
through Roger Williams, from his experience as a missionary, among 
the more southern New England tribes. 

The Indians were, at the start, treated by the English colonists 
more as a people having no rights which they were binintl to respect, 
than otherwise. According to the evidence of the noted Cotton 
Mather, the Puritans considered the natives as Pagans and outlaws 
from human society, hence they could not be expected to become very 



zeulously t'ii>,'(i;,'i'(l in tlin pursuit of knowliHlge concoiniiif; thcni, and 
it is not surprising tlmt tliay liiivo proservecl to us so littlo of viiluo 
roliiting to this bonightod people, us they considered them. 

lint the course of tiie French niissioniiries towards this people 
was far ditforent, being more liuniano, and more iu harmony with the 
81)irit of the religion which they brought with them, and souglit to 
impart. They tn^ited the aborigines more as human beings, wanting 
only, in their opinion, that light which the Christian nOigion atVorded 
to make tluuu ecjuals in their society. 

Father LeC'lcnHp speaking of the great work of the early French 
missionaries, (borrowing from u learmnl author) euliigizing tiie 
religious state, says: "There was nothing greater or more glorious 
thiui the conversion of the New World, which, after the grace of the 
Lord, must 1)6 attributed in all its parts to the Ajjostolic labors of 
religious in general, but es^)ecially to the untiring zeal of the Order of 
St. Francis, who have the iionor of having been the pioneers in this 
high and glorious enterprise." He further adds that the year 1(515 
must be acknowledged as the time of the establishment of the faith ii 
Canada, when, as he says, the hearts of the recoUet missionaries, in 
their extreme desire of gaining to Christ all the savages of the New 
AV'orld, became by inclination as great as all of Canada; grace there 
producing the same effect as in that of St. Paul, which became by zeal 
and charity as great as the universe. 

In missionary work in North America, to the French Jesuits is 
given the credit of being amt)ng the lirst, commencing in Eastern 
Canada, and extending at an early day throughout what afterwards 
became knc :ni as the Northwest Territory, covering a greater portion 
of the country of the tribes of the Algoncjuin group; but at what date 
these devoted missionaries reached the Northwest, so called, is 
unknown, and about which there is considerable dispute. 

An enthusiastic writer on this subject says, the Jesuit father was, 
no doubt, the first white man who paddled his light canoe over those 
inland seas, extending from the St. Lawrence to the further limits of 
Lake Superior; and long before civilization or emi)ire had extended 
their star westward, he had unfurled the banner of the cross on the 
shores of Lfd ^s Huron, Michigan and Superior; and the missions of 
St. Francois Xavier at Green Bay, of St. Ignace at Mackina, of St. 
Mary at the straits, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, show 
C(mclusively with what zeal and ardor these heralds of the cross pushed 
their "tabernacles in the wilderness," and made known to these wan- 
dering Arabs of the prairies the symbol of the Christian's faith and 
the mysteries of their holy religion. But it was not simply as sta- 



thorn, find 
[ti of viiluc 

his people 
ly with the 
Bought to 
;8, wnntiii<^ 
)!! iitVoi'tleil 

rly French 
gizing i\w 
re gh)rious 
nice of tlie 
L', hiboi's of 
lie Order of 
jers in thia 
year 1()15 
the faith iii 
iionaries, in 
)f the New 
^race there 
uuo by zeal 

Jesuits is 

ill Easti>rii 


iter portion 

t what date 

called, is 

father Avas, 
over tliose 
>iv limits of 
d extended 
ross on the 
nissions of 
ina, of St. 
itury, show 
■oss pushed 
these Avan- 
5 faith and 
iply as sta- 






tioned pri'acliers, that these good and great men nttoniptcd the con- 
version of the innumerable multitude who then swarnu'd the shores of 
the lakes, and s|>read fron) Lake Erie to the Ohio— from the ^liamito 
tlie l-'ather of Waters. They followed the Jiidian to his hunting- 
ground, threaded forests, swam rivers, bivouacked with tlnMr troupe in 
the iiumenso natural meadows which abound in that region ; endured 
hunger, thirst, cold, suU'ering, disease and death. 

Not a cape was turned, nor a river entered, Imt a Jesuit led the 
way. From the time wht'ii Charles Fiaymbault and Isaac Jogues ac- 
cepted the invitation of the Ojibways to visit them at Sault St. Marie 
in 1041, down to the middle of the eighteenth century, there seems to 
have been a succession of missions, not only along the borders of the 
great lakes, but at St. Joseph, now Vincennes. on the Wabash, among 
the tribes of that locality; at Peoria, among the Illinois: at Cahokia, 
ainoni' the Taniaroas orCahokias; atlvaskaskia, and along the shores of 
the Mississippi; from the mouth of the Wiscimsin to the mouth of the 
Ohio; and down the whole valley of the Mississippi to the Arkansas 
and the Natchez. 

In U\')i\ twenty years before Marquette and Joliet went on their 
voyage to the "River Meclia8i})pi," Father Jean Dequerre, Jesuit, went 
from the mission on Lake Su[)erior to the Illinois; .. id, it is said, 
established a missiim where Peoria is now situated, visited various 
Indian nations in the vicinity of the Mississippi, and was slain in the 
midst of his labors in 1()(')1. 

In lt'),")T. Father Jean Charles Drocoux, Jesuit, went to the Illinois 
and returned to Quebec in the same year. In 1070 Hugues Pinet, 
Jesuit, went also to the Illinois, and established a mission among the 
Taniaroas or Cahokias, at or near the present village of Cahokia, on 
the Mississippi river, where he remained until 108(), and was at tiiat 
mission when Marquette and Joliet went down that river. In the 
same year M. Bergier, priest of the seminary of (Quebec, succeeded 
him in his mission aforesaid, where he remair.Ml until he died, July 
loth, 1701, at the age of 7'.». 

In 1003, Father Claude Jean Allouez was appointed Yicar General 
of the North and West, incUnling Illinois. He labored among the 
Pottawattamies and Mianiis about Green Bay. He returned to (Quebec 
in 1005, and went to Illinois in 10()S, wiioro he visited the missions of 
the Mississippi. M. Augustine Meulan de Circe, priest of the semi- 
nary of Quebec, went to Illinois in 1070. He left his mission there in 
1075, and returned to France. 

Thus it will ap[)ear upon what is considered reliable authority, 
that for twenty years, that is from 1053 to 1073, and before the dis- 



covery of Marquette and Joliet, there was a succession of missions iu 
tho Illinois country and tlie Northwest. The authorities aforesaid, 
from which this information is derived, are principally from the 
memorials of these missions, preserved in the seminary at Quebec. 

Among the principal books upon which historians, during the 
past two hundred years, mainly rely for information in general con- 
cerning the American Indian in his primitive condition, are the works 
of Father Louis Hennepin, Baron La Hontan and Father Charlevoix. 

Hennepin accompanied La Salle as a sort of chaplain and his- 
torian, in his expedition to the country of the Illinois, in the year 1079. 
La Hontan was at the head of a military expedition iinder the French 
government in 1087, sent out to visit the various tribes through the 
country west of Lake Michigan, called by him the Illiiicse Lake, and 
require of them submission to the French King. The book of 
Father Charlevoix is comprised of a series of letters to the Duchess 
of Lesdiguieres. giving an account of a voyage to Canada, and travels 
through that vast country, and Louisiana, to the Gulf of Mexico, 
undertaken by order of the King of France, during the years 1720 
and 1721. 

The work of Hennepin has been the subject of some unfavorable 
criticism from many writers. Indeed, each subsequent writer inclined 
to such criticism, noticing his work, seems to strive to outdo the other 
in the severity of condemnation and uncomplimentary style of review. 
The work of La Hontan has shared the like and even worse fate, and 
the unti'uthfulness of his narrative in some respects, in the absence of 
explanation, has been shown up so completely, that his book has 
passed into obscurity, and no one has pretended to defend it, on the 
points of his alleged fabrications. 

As for the work of Hennepin, whilst fabrication has been so 
freely charged, as to some portions of his narrative, and a strenuous 
attempt has been made to discredit the whole work, but little else, if 
anything, has really been accomplished beyond that of throwing a 
suspicion upon certain portions of it, as to its correctness. 

Among those writers of later times, who have attacked the 
veracity of Hennepin, is Mr. Francis Parkman, in his book on La 
Salle and the discovery of the Great West, who, not content with 
statements and charges to this end in his text, and epithets of a most 
damaging import, entirely uncalled for in the opinion of many, not to 
say out of place, displays in the headings to one of the chapters of 
his book, the following: "Hennepin an Imposter." 

Let it here be said of this man, out of respect to his calling, 
if nothing more. Hennepin was not an imposter; but a bona JiAv man, 




ions in 
)m the 

ing tlie 
ral con- 
e works 
nd his- 
ar 1079. 

•ugh the 
ake, and 
book of 
d travels 

ars 1720 



the other 

f review. 

fate, and 

bsence of 

book has 

t, on the 

been so 
IU> else, if 
rowing a 

Icked the 
^k on La 
tent with 
|f a most 
ly, not to 
[apters of 

|s calling, 
fide man, 


historian and chronicler of events, who rendered much valuable 
service to succeeding generations. 

The principal point made by Mr. Parkraan against Hennepin's 
narrative is, that Hennepin never went down the Mississippi river 
below the moutli of the Illinois, as he claims. Mr. Parkuian concedes, 
liowevor. that he may have gone up the Mississippi and been captured 
by the Dakotas, as he states. 

Let it be conceded that Father Hennepin has exaggerated facts, 
as Mr. Parkman charges, any intelligent student of history, especially 
oiie liaviiig a fair degree of knowledge of the western country over 
wiiich Hennepin traveled, can easily discriminate between that which 
is correct and that upon which it is claimed he exaggerates. It is 
perfectly immaterial for the purposes of history wliether he went 
down the Mississippi or not; even if he did, nothing of importance 
wliatever is alleged to have resulted from that journey, either to the 
detriment or advantage of any one. Admitting all that is charged by 
Mr. Parkman, that the object of Hennepin's fabrication was "to make 
himself, instead of La Salle and his companions, the hero of the 
exploit.'' it was but a harmless ambition on the part of Hennepin, 
which in no way affected La Salle in whatever credit ho was entitled 
to, during his career as an adventurer and explorer in the Mississippi 

That Hennepin made up his narrative, to some extent, from the 
journal of Father Zenobe Merabre, on his descent of the Mississippi in 
1681, in company with La Salle, or from other sources, as claimed by 
Mr. Parkman, is no very serious charge against him. A reiteration of 
historic facts, originally penned by some other writer, is no great 
moral or literary offense. Even Mr. Parkman himself would have 
fv)and it very difficult to have completed his valuable history of 
La Salle's ox[)edition, without availing himself of what is writtcni by 
Fatlii^r Hennepin concerning it; and it would seem to ill-become him 
to call in question the very authority which has been so useful to him 
in making up his history. When Mr. Parkinan says '" The records of 
literary piracy may be searched in vain for an act of depredation 
miu'e recklessly impudent," and adds in the same connection, '"Such 
being the case, faith can we put in the rest of Hennepin's story?" 
he in effect charges, not only without proof, but rather against it, as 
he tacitly admits, that Hennepin Avas a man not to be believed under 
any circumstances. He charitably further adds, however. " Fortunately, 
there are tests by which the earlier part of his book can be tried; and, 
on the whole, they square exceedingly well with contemporary records 
of undoubted authenticity. Bating his exaggerations respecting the 



Falls of Niagara, his local description, and ovon his estimate of 
distances are generally accurate," and '"till he reaches the Mississippi, 
there can be no doubt that in the main he tells the truth. As for his 
ascent of that river to the country of the Sioux, the general statement 
is fully confirmed by La Salle, Tonty and contemporary writers." 

Here Mr. Parkmau falls into a very strange inconsistency. He 
first condemns the accused as '' an imposter," guilty of " literary 
piracy," and that having fabricated as to his journey down the Mis- 
sissi[)pi, as he alleges, he gives us to understand that in his opinion 
no faith can be put "in the rest of Hennepin's story," and yet in the 
next breath he declares that with the exception of his exaggerations 
respecting the Falls of Niagara, '"the rest of Hennepin's story squares 
exceedingly Avell with contemporary records of undoubted authenticity," 
and is "confirmed by La Salle, Tonty and contemporary writer.s." 
Now, if Hennepin is thus well supported by this array of evidence 
furnished by the accuser himself, on what rests the evidence for thus 
unreservedly branding him "an imposter," and for the innuendo that 
no faith can be })ut in "the rest of Hennepin's story?" 

Mr. Parkman seems to make a special point of Avhat he calls 
" Hennepin's exaggerations respecting the Falls of Niagara," as if it 
were something material as affecting his veracity. But he contents 
himself with but a general allegation on this point, giving no particu- 
lars or specifications admitting of a traverse of his charge. Let us, 
therefore, turn to what Hennepin has said on this subject and see if we 
can detect these exaggerations com[)lained of. The matter in question 
is f(mnd in Chapter VII of Hennepin's book, and is in the following 
words : 

" Betwixt the Lakes Ontario and Erie, there is a vast and pro- 
digious Cadence of AVater which falls down after a surprising and 
Jistonishing manner, insomuch that the Universe does not afford its 
Parallel. 'Tis true, Italy and Suedeland boasts of some such Things; 
but we may well say they are but Patterns when comjjared to this of 
which we now speak. A.t the foot of this horrible Precipice we meet 
with the river Niagara, which is not above half a quarter of a League 
broad, but is wonderfully deep in some [)laces. It is so rapid above 
this Descent that it violently hurries down the Wild Beasts while 
endeavoring to pass it to feed on the other side; they not being able to 
withstand the force of its Current, which inevitably calls them down 
headlong above Six hundred foot. 

"This wonderful Downfall is compounded of two great Cross- 
streams of Water, and two Falls, with the Isle sloping along the mid- 
dle of it. The Waters which fall from this great height do foam and 







in J 






inmte o£ 

ls for his 




" literary 

the Mis- 

s opinion 

yet in the 

ry squares 
I writers." 
)£ evidence 
ice for thus 
luendo that 

lat he calls 
ira," as if it 
he contents 
r no particu- 
iTp Let us, 
uul see if we 
V in question 
he following 

ist and pro- 
prising and 
>t afford its 
such Things; 
a to this of 
)ice we meet 
r of a Leagui^ 
rapid abovo 
Beasts while 
being able to 
Is them down 

>rroiit Cross- 
lUnig the mid- 
t do foam and 

l)oil after the most liideous manner imaginable, making an outrageous 
Noise, more terrible than that of Thunder; for when the Wind blows 
from off the South, their dismal roaring may be heard above fifteen 
Leaj^ues off." 

if is submitted wlu.ther this is not a fair description of tliis wonder- 
ful cataract, as it would a{)pear to an observer in this wiUl, unknown 
country of that day. AVhat fancy the mind might take on in viewing 
this ''vast and prodigious Cadence of Water," iinder the circum- 
stances, no one who has not had experience in wild scenery of this 
kind is prepared to imagine. Hennepin's statement of distances and 
measurements were at best mere guess work, nor does he j)retend to 
anything more accurate. It would be the height of unfairness to call 
in question as an exaggeration that which a man attempts to give as 
his supposition under casual circumstances, which is all that Hennepin 
si'ems here to have attempted or pretended. As well might Mr. 
Parkman call in (juestion the veracity of all the early explorers avIio 
i.! good faith have given us those hideous maps of the early Northwest, 
such as those by Marquette, Franquelin and others. 

If Hennepin's narrative contained exaggerations or errors, either 
from ilesign or misconception, they certainly are of that character that 
they harm no one. and in no event do they call for the unfavorable 
criticisms in which Mr. Parkman has, for some cause, seen fit to 
indulge. The work of Hennej)in is valuable, amongst other things, 
for the information it gives us concerning the various Indian tribes he 
visited, and his account of their manners, customs, and general charac- 
teristics, which is regarded as reliable as that of any of the early 
writers, and we are greatly indebted to him for his valuable contribu- 
tion to history in this regard. 

Since Mr. Parkntan has set out in his book the map of Franquelin, 
showing the colony of La Salle, mostly comprised of Avhat is now the 
state of Illinois, and gives it his endorsement as correct, or at least as 
"composed of atithentic data," perhaps his own work in regard to 
; accuracy may be called in question equally with that of Hennepin. The 
map which Mr. Parkman calls the great map of La Salle's discoveries, 
by Jean Baptiste Franqttelin, finished in lOcS-l, whilst it gives the 
general course of the Illinois river quite correctly, it is sadly at fault 
in most other respects. On this map the Desplaines river is repre- 
sented as something over five miles wide, whilst the Fox river, or as he 
terms it " /i*. Pc^fckou >/,''' which is much the most important stream of 
the two, is put down as a stream of no great conse(|uence, antl is iiuli- 
cated by only a very light mark. The rivers Chvk(((jou, represented 
as entering the Desplaines river just above the Kankakee and the 















Chassaf/aach and the river drs malufjofnia, entering the Illinois river 
fnim the west, just below the great Illinois town, opposite Starved 
Eook, have no place upon the maps of this day. There is also desig- 
nated upon this map by Franquelin, a range of mountains on each side 
of the Illinois river, below Peoria Lake or L. <le Pimitcdii, which 
would appear as laid down of equal importance with the llocky 
Mountains, as generally shown upon the maps of the country. These 
mountains, as laid down by Franquelin, find no place in fact, nor upon 
the maps of the present day, and however authentic some of tiie data, 
from which this map is made, may have been, these two ranges of 
mountains, and the other features pointed out, are exaggerations, 
which seem to have entirely escaped Mr. Parknian's observations in 
giving us his endorsement as to the correctness of the same. 

There are various Indian villages or cantonment? also indicated 
on this map. with the number of warriors belonging to each, the aggre- 
gate of which, as Mr. Parkman says, corresponds very nearly with that 
of La Salle's report to the minister. From the representations on this 
map it would appear that there was at the time referred to, when the 
country was first visited by La Salle, within a district of something 
like a hundred miles square, an Indian population furnishing "near 
3,.S00 warriors." 

These figures were mere conjecture, and as compared with 
estimates thereafter made, were an exaggeration of the facts, entirely 
unsupported by any subsequent evidence, and, indeed, unsupported in 
anv respect by anything further than the mere random estimate of 
those who may have furnished Franquelin with this information. 
There are no evidences which can be afforded us at this day that this 
small district of country in Illinois could ever have furnished, among 
its population, that number of warriors. This would indicate a ])o{)u- 
lation of not less than 20.000, which certainly could not haA'e existed 
at that or any subsequent perio I within that limited district of country 
referred to. 

The work of Baron La Hontan, before mentioned, is comprised of 
a series of letters written to a friend, and like that of Hennepin is 
A'aluablo for the information it contains concerning the native tribes of 
that day. His account of the habits, manners and customs of the 
Indians, it will be noticed, is generally adopted by later writers as a 
source of original information concerning tiiis people in their native 
condition, and even among writers of the present day it is regardeil as 
valuable authority in referring to that period, notwithstamling the 
suspicions which have been cast upon his work in some particulars. 

The principal point upon which La Hontan's book has been con- 



demned, is that of giving nii ucicount Ol his journey in going u[) wliat 
he calls the Long river, which he descril)e8 as flowing into the Mis- 
sissippi horn tlie west, some six or eight ihiys' journey by canoes, 
above the nioutli of the Wisconsin. The incidents which occurred in 
passing up this river, for a distance wliich he makes out to l)e several 
hundrt'd miles, he describes very minutely, and with so much particu- 
larity as to impress the mind with the correctness of his statements: 
but since that day, as the country through which he locates this Long 
river has become better known, there is no river found that satisfacto- 
rih' answers to -his description of this Long river; hence his book 
has been ccmdemned, and he, like Hennepin, has been branded amt)ng 
later historians as a falsifier. 

The truth t)f this matter, however, which nobody seems to have 
discovered, is sim])ly this: Baron La Hontan, like many other historians 
and travelers, gathered a large part of tiie material for his narrative 
from the natives or other travelers, and instead of relating the facts 
as to the manner of ol)taining this information, he has simply claimed 
it as original in his own experience and discovery. The Long river 
which he speaks of is simply the Platte river, and which stream he 
well describes in some respects. The information concerning it, the 
country about, and the natives he claims to have visited, he derived 
from the tribes of Indians he visited on the eastward, whoever they 
might have been. His map which he presents with his work shows 
that he had no knowledge of the Missouri river as being one of any 
inportance whatever; and especially had he no knowledge of the fact 
that this river came from the north, whereby his Long river would be 
intercepted in its course towards the Mississippi. The information 
which he derived seems to have led him to the conclusion that this 
Long river emjjtied into the Mississippi, which was then said to 
be the great river of the west, as its name indicates. 

To La Hontan, although discredited as he is, must be given the 
credit of being the first writer to mention the Rocky Mountains, and 
the great Salt Lake, the former of which he notes on his map, showing 
the locality of his famous Lt)ng river. 

After La Hontan had gone up this Long river to the highest 
point of his journey, designated on his map, as he claims, he says he 
proceeded to obtain information cf the country beyond that, which he 
gives in his narrative, and says it is derived from some slaves foxind 
among the people at that point, and whom he calls the Mozeemleck 
Nation. He says: 

"The Mozeemleck Nation is numerous and puissant. The four 
Slaves of that co mtry inform'd me that at the distance o£ 150 Leagues 

ug up wlmt 
ito tlie Mis- 
r by canoes, 
occurred in 
o be several 
iich particu- 
!8 this Lon,ij 
it satisfacto- 
ce liis book 
udeil among 

jins to have 
er historians 
lis narrative 
ing the facts 
iply claimed 
3 Long river 
;h stream he 
irning it, the 
, he derived 
vhoever they 

work shows 
■r one of any 
e of the fact 
ver would be 

on that this 
lieu said to 

be given the 
luntains, and 
nap, showing 

the highest 
IS, he says he 
lat, which he 

slaves found 
) Mozeemleck 

it. The four 
150 Leagues 

7%4Xkmlhna Houi"** af-tiu TAliU CI, AUK., wx^kmr^ <?,» ptictc tn. Utxifhth 








d ■ of 




p 1 


•III 1 

1 1 


||||; ;': 

''!*'iiiil<i<lii;i 1 1 
, : !Myiilil:l iiii " IB 1 


ili 1 


1 ^H |waMW|| iiiiy ii 

ii y iH 1 


1 1 





9wi 1 mi Mi'i 

B in iSfl 


rA^ Veil 



tnt «r kn»n>\'L^ttitXiJv of ^j!pCu*j tmMrk 'Jmtt. ly/>»tntMnf tm 
^ra/^'* plactj tfy h4Avnj ikmtan* JriM^ r cavf'tffi0td*^ t». 

■Km, tMWvty /ir/i r»t.*i> d fnrtn «m a e^mpuatU^n of 4 d t fi i tne */ 



HI A Map cfy Long Hivj 
ItArf^afl into that /nutJlpa 
jofMiiTi/ipi i*^Ji u kin 

\f%» fnuiU pnekj thtit art r%m I 
' h^uJt. tott hy Anatktr ^tm>/ u J 

\y-fUitj tkitt J ^tap i at unJi at 
1 "fh* Crvfij i^jhni- y Land tar 


1 r I,i. In lPH9,in which Ib shown hi«f«iiiau» U>nK River, the inforraatioi) caiTnii.K whi 

of havinK It empty Intothe Mi»«iHHippi l""'"'' '>' «l'e Mioso-ri Her, ,.f wl.i.l 

iM- no kii<.wlf.l».'i",fs IH evldt Jrchi his 

irwttLd tkty artjuch ajjcrna^y Mo« eemlek ptapU Jrew to mc upon j Barks ( 

^l^catxitny to fnv camputatum ftu:fi a Ve/jH mxt^ ^ tjaj^cf lanj jh,m tht prow to th^ rttrn 




IVoiii tlio riiu'*^ wlier*^ I tlit'ii wfis. tlit'ir jiiiiu'i|iiil llivor eniptifs itsrlf 
into a Salt Lakt^ <>t' tlircti liuiidred Lt>a<;ut's in Circuinteroiici", (lie 
iiumtli of whit'h i8 alumt two Lca^Mios bmad: That tlio lowf^r jiait of 
tliat Kivtu- is nilonitnl with hIx ii(»1)1(> C'itit'.s. siiin>mi(lo(l witli ntoiK* 
ci'iiuMiti'tl with fat Earth: Tliat tho Houses of tlicso Cities have no 
Hoofs, but are open like a Phitfonu, as you wee 'em in the map; Tiiat 
besides the above mentioird Cities, theie were above an Hundred 
Towns, f,M'eat and small, round that sort of sea, upon whicii they mivi- 
LHited with such boats as you see drawn in the Map: Tinit tho Peoplt* 
of tiiat Country made Stull's, Copper Axes, and several other Manu- 
faetures, which tlie Outa^famies and my other Inter[)reter8 could not 
f^ive me to understand, as being altogether unac([uainted witii such 
things: That their Crovernment was despotick, and lodged in the hands 
of one great Head, to wiiom th<^ rest paid a trembling submission: 
That the People upon that J^ake called themselves Tahuglauk, and are 
numerous ns the Leaves of Trees (such is the Ex[)ression that tiio 
Savages use for an Hy[)erbole | : That the Mozeendeck People supply 
tlio Cities or Towns of the Tahuglauk with great numbers of Little 
Calves, which thoy take upon the above mentioned Mountains: and. 
That the Tahuglauk make use of these Calves for several ends, for 
they not only eat their Flesh, but bring 'era up to Labour, and make 
Cloatlies, Boots, Sec, of their skins. They added. That 'twas their 
Misfortune to be took Prisoners by the Gnacsitares in the War which 
had lasteil for eighteen Years; but. that they hoped a Peace would be 
8[)eedily concluded, upon which the Prisoners would be exchanged, 
pursuant to the usual ciistom. They glor'd in the possession of a 
greater measxire of Reason than tho (hiacsitnres ccmld [u-etend ti>, to 
whom they allow no more than the Figure of a Man; for thoy hiok 
upon 'em as Beasts otherwise. To my mind, their Notion upon this 
Head is not so very extravagant; for I observ'd so much Honor and 
Politeness in the Convei'sation of these four Slaves, that I thought I 
had to do with Europeans: But, after all, I must confess that the 
Gnacsitares are the most tractable Nation I met with among all the 
Savages. One of the four Mozeemleck Slaves had a reddish sort of a 
Co{)per-Medal hanging upon his Neck, the figure of which is roj)re- 
sented in the Map. I had it melted by Mr. de Ponti.s, Gunsmith, who 
understood something of Mettals, but it became thereupon heavier 
and deeper colour'd, and withal somewhat tractable. I desired the 
Slaves to give me a circumstantial Account of these Medals; and 
accordingly they gave me to iinderstand, that they are made by 
the Tahuglauk, who are excellent Artisans, and put a great value upon 
such Medals. I could pump nothing farther out of 'em, with relation 



to tlio Cimntry, Coiumercf>, ami ("uHtoins of that romoto Nntiou. All 
tlu'v t'ould Hiiy was, tiiat tiio givat Kivcu" of that Nation nuiH all alon<^ 
Westward, and that tlie Salt liako into which it falls is threo hundrnd 
Lt'd'Mins in circiMnftMiMicc, and tliirtv in ltr(>adtli. its Month strotcliinj' 
n j^'niat way to the Sonfiiward. 1 would fain iiave satistiod my cnriosity 
in l)oin<^ an eye-witness of the Manners and Customs of the Tahui^lauk; 
but tiiat btnn<^ iminacticablo, I was forc'd to be instructed at second 
hand by these Mozeendeck Slaves: wiio assur'd me, upon the faith of 
n Savage that the Tnliuf^JMuk wear their Mtiards two Fingers breadth 
long: That their garments readi down to tiieir Knees; that they cover 
their head with a shar[) pointed Cap; that they always wear a long 
stick or cane in their hands which is tipp'd not unlike what we use in 
Europe; that they wear a sort of Boots u[)oii their Legs, which reach 
to the Knee; that their Women never show tiiemstilvos, whicii perhaps 
proceeds from the same Principle that prevails in Italy and Spain; 
and, in fine, that this Peo{)]e are always at war with the puissant 
Natitms that are seated in the neighborhood of the Lake; but, withal, 
that they never disquiet the strowling Nations that fall in their way, 
by re' son of tiieir AVenkness: An admirable Lesson for some Princes 
in the World, who are so much intent upon the making use of the 
strongest hand." 

The foregoing reference to the distant country spoken of very 
well describes the country of I'tah and New Mexico in many respects, 
and the whole goes to strengthen the theory that La Hontan's whole 
story in regard to the Long river and country beyond, and not a part 
of it, as he says, was gathered from natives coming from the distant 
"West, and instead of being discredited should rather be accepteil, and 
credit given to him therefor, for Avhat it is worth, upon this theory. 

The work of Chaj'levoix has been universally accepted as a 
faithful narrative of his travels, and a correct description of every- 
thing coming to his knowledge and observation. It is very full and 
satisfactory on the subject of the Indian tribes he visited or obtained 
knowledjre of, their habits, manners and customs, and general char- 
acteristics, to wdiich later travelei's and observers have been unable 
tt) add apything new. This work may therefore be received as 
standard authority upon the native American Indian in respect 

But Hennepin and La Hontan are not the only travelers and 
adventurers who have been charged with exaggerations in the contri- 
butions they have given to early American history. The truthfulness 
of the writings of Capt. John Smith, of early Virginia fame, has in 
later times been called in question in some material respects. Indeed, 



,. All 


ii<;limk ; 

fiiitli oi 


)y cover 

a long 

\isti ill 
ill riMKih 


1 Spain; 
t, withal, 
lieir way, 
^ Trincos 
se of the 

I of very 
ill's whole 
not a part 
lie distant 
iptecl, and 
|)ted as a 
|of every- 
fuU and 
iral char- 
n unafcle 
Iceived as 
n respect 

[elers and 
[le contri- 
le, has in 


it is now -luito freely admitted that tlio stories of Sniitii concerning 
his experience as a captain aim.n;,' the Indians of Virginia, contain 
exaggerations or d«^|)artures from tlie triitli, carrying, upon closo 
cxanrination, evidences that th.^ de8crii)tion of tiio natives, anil 
pspt^cially their manners and customs, which ho gives, are borrowed 
from tlin Turks, and impressed upon liis mind during his captivity 
and experience among tliat pt'i)[)Ie. 

He speaks of the ^'niut cliief I'ow- 
hiitaii as dwelling in state at numerous 
residences among his peoplt^; that he 
was ordinarily attended by a body 
j^'iiard of about forty or fifty of the 
tallest men of his country, and a strict 
militarv discii)line environed his dwell- 
ing i)laco with guards ihiy and night, 
who regularly relieved each otiier, ami 
whose neglect of duty, or in case of 
sluml)er while on duty, on their 
watches, were at the peril of a basti- 
nado, ''not unlike Jiat of the Turkish 
in its severity." 

The American Indians in their primitive condition had no such 
custom as here related; especially that of the Ixtslluddo. This is 
purely an Oriental custom, evidently im[)ressed upon Smith's nun<l by 
his experience among the Turks. He had had long experience among 
Turks and Tartars of that day, and their manners, customs and traits 
of (iharacter were necessarily strongly impressed \ipou his mind. On 
coming to America these impressions roraainetl, and in referring to 
the Indians of Virginia, wherein their manners, customs and traits of 
charactei were brought in cjuestion, (with Avhich he could not have 
been very familiar, from his limited experience among them) it is 
very natural that he should draw much from the Asiatic character- 
istics, which, from the force of circumstances, had become impressed 
upon his mind. 

The first thing that attracts our attention in Smith's narrative, 
leading us to doubt its accuracy, after the mention of his being taken 
captive by the Virginia Indians, is his mention of a handsome young 
woman, "the Queen of Appamatucks" whom he states is commanded 
to bring him water in which to wash his hands, while another stands 
by with a bunch of feathers as a substitute for a towel, with which he 
dries his hands. This is, more properly also, an Oriental custom. 
The American Indian had no such custom as would admit of a pro- 



ceeding of this kind. The Indians were hospitable to strangers, but 
the act of compelling a stranger to wash his hands was not within 
their acfs of hospitality. The Indians are not in the habit of washing 
even tiielr own hands. It is true they Avere friendly to water, but 
whenever they had recourse to that element it was for the purpose of 
bathing the whole body, in whicii they indulged (jaite frequently. 

Insignificant as this single instance might appear, it is a straw 
showing that the story of Smith, in regard to his experience among 
the Indians on the occasion of his captivity, is to be taken with many 
grains of allowance. 

His story of rescue by the ideal Indian maiden, Pocahontas, has 
been entirely exploded by writers of later times, among whom is Dr. 
AV. F. Poole, who lately reviewed this i)art of Smith's story in a com- 
munication to the Di((l, a literary journal published by A. C. McClurg 
& Co., of Chicago, Vol. 5, No. 00. 

Smith arrived in Virginia in 1()()7, and in the latter part of that 
year was, as generally conceded, taken a [)risoner by the Indians of 
that country, but was released, so that his detention was merely tem- 
porary. In lt)08 he wrote his first book called "True Relation," 
which was published the same year in London. In it he told the story 
of his capture and detention among the Indians, and related the 
various incidents attending, which were then fresh in his mind; how 
he was ctu'dially received by the natives, and in a most fiiendly manner 
sent back to Jamestown with four guides; but in which no mention is 
made of his miraculous esca[)e from death by the timely interference 
of Pocahontas. He mentions her in the same book as "a child teiine 
veartisold," wlio was sent to Jamestown ])v Powhatan in Mav, KJOS. t.) 
make incjuiry why certain Indians were detained as prisoners. Dr. 
Poole, in his article afor.'saHl, says: 

"Smith's first account of his capture and release was. doubtless, 
the true one. In October. KKlll. he returned to England and never 
went back to Virginia. He kept on. however, writing books about 
Virginia. In llil'i ap[)eared his 'Map of Virginia;' in lOld his 
' Description of New Englanc' :' iii Hi'JO his 'New England Trials,' a 
second part of which appeared in Ki'i'J. in these books he told his 
old stories over again, and there was a good deal of repetition; but t!i(» 
Pocahontas story had not yet apjieared. In ltl'J-1 his 'Ifeneral His- 
toric' was published, which was a summary of his earlier lH)oks, with 
some additions, among which was the Pocahontas story." 

The following is the Pocahontas story of KVJ4 as stated in tlic 
aforesaid ''General Historic:" 

"Having feasted iiim after the best barl)annis manner they could, 




;ers, but 
it within 
ator, but 
irpose o£ 

!i straw 
t> iunoiig 
ith nuiiiy 

utivs, bus 
)m is Dr. 
in a c<nii- 

:t of that 
luUaiis of 
irely toni- 
It lie story 
platotl the 
liiitl; how 
ly iiminier 
noutioii is 
lild tenne 
K'.OS. t.) 
n-B. Dr. 



1(1 iiovt>r 

ks aboxit 
KUC) his 
I'lials,' a 
' told his 

I but the 
leral His- 
)oks. with 

mI in the 
Ik'v could, 

a lou" consultation was held, but the conclusion was. two jj^reat stones 
were broui,'lit l)efore Powhatan; then as many as cuukl laid hands on 
him, dra<'-ged him to them, and thereou laid his head, and being ready 
with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the King's dearest 
dau'diter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms, 
and laid her own ujwn his to save liim from death ; whereat the 
I'^mperor Avas contented that he should live to make him hatchets, and 
her bells, lieads and copper; for they thought him as well of all occu- 
pations as themselves." 

■•Thereupon," as Dr. Poole remarks, "Smith made hatchets, bells, 
beads and copper for the space of two days, antl tlien was sent back to 
Jamestown with an escort of twelve guiiles. Smith's • True Pielation ' 
of lt)()S had none of this tragic, sentimental fiction." 

Smith, in his first published book, speaking of the occasion of his 
captivity, says of Powhatan: "He kindly welcomed me with good 
wordes, and great plattm-s of sundrie victuals, assurijig me of his 
fri('ndshi[). and my libertie within foure days." And he says that 
Powhatan having, with all kindness he could devise, scmght to content 
him. sent him home with four n)en. two of whom were loaded with 

Daring the time from KlOS to 1010, various persons wrote on the 
subject of Virginia, giving the progress of the colony at that time, and 
various incidents occurring, in which no mention is made whatever of 
tlu> alleged remarkable occurrence of saving the life of Smith at the 
interference of Po^nhimtas. 

Dr. Pook-. in reviewing this subject, in conclusion says: 

"The weak spot in Smiths character was his [jcrsoiud vanity and 
hoastfulness. He invented the Pocahontas story sixteen years after he 
alleged it to have occurred, in order to gratify his love of notoriety. 
Since he had left Virginia Pocahontas had married John Rolfe, an 
Englishman. In lOltishe had visited England, and had been received 
at court and in society as a royal princess. In the next book he wrote 
on Virginia, Smith could not resist the temptation to connect her name 
with Ills, and he would do it ii> a manner creditable to both. How 
could it bettor be done Mian by her sc 'iig his life in iCiOvi':' She was and could not deny it. Other v \ i sses who might bo (]uestioned 
were dead or were inaccessible. The only trouble was that he had 
never toli? the story before-. But tliis coiii.l be arranged. He would 
write a letter of similar import to Queen Anne (who was also dead), 
giving the date of ICiKl. and would print it with the story itself. The 
.sciieme was a success, for it has given the legend plausibilitv." 

But the story of Smith, relating to his sentence of tleatli and 




rescue by the chiefs daughter Pocaliontns, carries upon its fac<i its 
own evidence of untrutlifulness. The s".ying that '' liars should have 
good memories'" suggests further to those who would exaggerate upon 
facts or contemporaneous events, that their statements are open to the 
review and criticisujs of a long continued future; like the case of La 
Hontan, in so accurately mapj)ing out his Lv)ng river, entering the 
Mississip[)i, as he descril)es it. from ' le west. He seems to have had 
no idea that fut'" 'e explorers would discover the fact that I'.is account 
of tliis river was a fahrlcntion. So '.> !ien John Smith describes so 
minutely the manner of his '.ontemplated execution of the death 
sentence which had been pronounced on him, he did not seem to un- 
derstand the fact that the Indians who were thus dealing with him. as 
he alleges, had no sucli custom amimg them as putting a prisoner to 
death in the mode he describes; that their custom of executing the 
d''at!i sentence of prisoners was by burning at the stake. No such 
custom of putting a [)risoner to death as he describes was [U'acticed by 
the Indians whom he had fallen amongst. Doc ipitation, whicl.' he 
seems to have had in view, was an Oriental ctisior:, wiiich was iiii- 
pressed upon his mind by his experience anion'; tlie Tuks andXartai's, 
and he simply tvansffrred this custom to the peo-ilo he had fallen 
amongst in the New A^V)rhl, with no knowledge wliatever of what the 
Indian custom was in such cases; and even in England al that day the 
death sentence was executed, in the case of persons of rank, bv decapi- 
tation, and it was abcmt this time that Sir Walter I-lfdeigh was be- 
headed in England U[)on a trumped up charge by James I. 

If Smith had luen tak«!n captive among the Indians, as he relates, 
and had l)een condemned to death, the sentence would have been that 
he l)e burned at the stake, and in giving an account of it he could not 
truthfully have described the mode of execution otherwise; but the 
mode of [U'oposed execution as he describes was doubtless an inven- 
tioii of his own. He seems to attempt to describe the moii- of the 
pro|)Osed execixtion according to the custom in countries witii which lie 
was familiar. The Indians having no sharp-edged implomen!- with 
which to sever the head from tiie body, they were driven to hu i>x 
{)edient of substituting their war clubs. About just the etfect tJi' se 
clubs were expected to have, or precisely how death was intended to be 
produced by the use of them, we are left somewhat in doubt. "Whilst 
an Indian might slay an enemy in battle and leave his mutilated body 
on the field, he had no such custom of [mtting a pri.soner to death as 
would leave on his hands a mangled corpse. Their manner of i)uttiiig 
prisoners to death was by such mode an would leave ''c trace of tiie 
body behind. The fate of i)risoners decreed to be piu i death, says 




face its 

ilcl liave 

iite iipdu 

Ml to the 

se of La 

ring the 

have had 

i account 

cribos SI) 

he death 

3rn to nu- 
ll him, as 

fisouer to 

uting tae 
Ni) such 

acticed l)y 

which he 

h was iiu- 

iid Tartars, 

had fallen 

,t' what the 

lal day the 
)V decapi- 
1 was be- 
lie relates, 

o l)een that 
G could not 

to; but the 
an iiiven- 
oci. of the 
h ^vhich he 
„r,\ with 

t(. ho OK 

>tfect tl.'.-.e 
ended to be 
i)t. Whilst 
jlated boily 
to death as 
of putting 
Irace of the 
ih^ath. says 

(From to old EnuraviDR, after a PainUug takun from Life.) 







Charlevoix, "is nhvays to be buineil;"' such also is the testimony of 
Henuepin, niul, iiuUuHl, all other authorities. This was especially true 
in regard to the custom of the Indians of tlie Algonquin stock, which 
comprised the tribes of Viiginia, whom Smith had fallen amongst. 

In what is here said concerning the story of Capt. Smith, there is 
no disposition to call in question that portion of his narrative which 
bears upon its face the semblance of truth. Like many other early 
atlventurers in the New World, he was liable to be mistaken in many 
things; but that he has exaggerated and colored the truth in some 
respects cannot be denied, the same as many others of the early ad- 
venturers in this country have dcme; but, as Poole remarks, his exag- 
gerations or coloring of facts are in the main harndess, and arose from 
no evil intention, but rather from a desire to make himself appear as 
a hero of occasions to which he refers. 

He publ'shed the account of his first voyages to Virginia, and 
his own adventures, which is almost the only authority we have to 
;'esort to for the early history of that country, and for which he is 
entitled to all due credit. He died in London in HVdi, in the 52ud 
year of his age. 

The history of the noted Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, as 
it comes to us from Smith and other historians, is no doubt in the 
main correct, with the exception of the fact of saving the life of 
Smith in the manner which he relates. This was added by Smith for 
a [)urpo8e of his own, contributing to his personal glory as a hero 
during his adventures in America; and had he stated all of these re- 
nmrkal)le instaiu"es so ai to coincide with Indian customs and surround- 
ing circumstances, his exaggerations or coloring of facts might not 
have been called in (juestion. That Pocahontas was a remarkable 
young woman, and rendered valuable services to the English, tiiere is 
no dispute. Iler conversion to the Christian faith, and the readiness 
with which she adopted the habits of white civilization, mark tlu' 
general character of her race, and show how easily this people may ix- 
led to conform t(i our mode and habits of life. 

V hilst this work will doul)tless be looked upon as a defense of the 
Indian, us he stands before the world in his history as written by the 
white man, such is not the primary intention of the writer. The design 
hero is to present the true character and corrtH't history of tiu> Indian: 
to present his character as it is, and his history, especially that [)ai t 
which relates to his contact with the invading race, precisely as facts 
and events have occurred, gathered from authentic sources. When 
this is done faithfully and properly, it will amount to a defense of 
the Indian against the ])rejudices and false charges v Inch have from 




.timony of 
ciully trut) 
oc'k, wliicL 

th, there is 
five which 
ither early 
Ml in many 
h in sonii' 
) early ad- 
i, his exn^f- 
arose from 
' appear as 

rginia, and 
we have to 
'hich he is 
II the Tylnd 

'owhatan, as 
nibt in tlif 
the life of 
y Sniitii for 
as a liero 
these re- 
niii^ht not 
ish, there is 
mark tlio 
)[)le may 1)'' 

iMise of the 
•itten by the 

The design 

the Indian : 
ly that part 
sely as facts 
ces. When 
defense of 

1 have from 

the earliest time became engendered or brought against him; and the 
object in the course of this work is to correct tlie errors of history 
wliich have occurred either by design or inailvertence, that, so far 
as the efforts of the writer of this book is concerned, the excuse for 
our false [)reju(lices may no longer exist tiiwards this fading race. 

/ The popular idea is that the Indian is born a vagabond, a 
wanderer UDon the face of the earth, witli no d'^finite occupation 
or fixed abiding ])lace. accpiiring his means of subsistence by hunting 
and tisiiin<f. which he engages in, however, rather as an indolent 
pastime tjian otherwise; that he is warlike in his instincts and uidike 
people of tiie white race, and destructive in his nature/ As Mr. 
McCoy, a devoted missionary among the Northwestern tribes in 
the earlv part of the present century, before referred to in the forepart 
of tiiis chaptin'. well remarks: "A greater mistake than this could 
hardlv be conceived. Fea iess of successful contradiction we aver, 
that the supposition is vii! philosophical, and at variance with facts.'' 

Indian voutlis. he says, it is true, receive impressions which 
incline them to tiie pursuits of the chase; but these im[)ressions are 
made by the hunting habits of the people with whom they mingle, 
and are not innate. To illustrate, he says, the son of a blacksmith on 
Ijecoming able to lift a hammer, might choose to use it because it was 
the business of his father, and one the operation of which he had 
witnessed from his first recolh>ction; but who ever heard of a race of 
men avIio came into the world, with so strong a propensity to work in 
iron that it was almost or quite impracticable to follow other trades? 
And he l)rands as an absiirdity the supposition that an Indian 
child was born with an inveterate predisposition to hunting or war. 

This is ])roven by the fa *t that Indian children when taken into 
our schools before they have received impressions from the habits of 
tlieir kindred, manifest no mo..^' fondness for tlie bow than white 
children with whom they mingle. They ado[)t the same amusements 
witli etjnal facility; and so also white youtlis, taken captive bv the 
Indians, easily ado[)t the habits of their captors and become 
assimilated to them; all admitting the fact that there is naturally no 
difference between the propensities of the white and the red man. 
IJotli are more or less creatures of circumstances in I'egard to their 
conduct, ]m)])ensities and mode of life. More will ])e found on this 
subject ill tln^ cha[)ter of this work relating to " Wars and Massacres." 

How few there are among our race who in their denunciation of 
the Indian for his outrages upon the whites, since their landing uj)on 
the shores of the continent, who stop to consider the circumstances 
leading to such conduct, and as to whether some course could not have 



been adopted by which these outrages of which we complain could 
have been prevented, at least averted, to a greater or less extent. 

The outrages committed by De Soto in the country of the Appa- 
lachians so embittered the people in that portion of the continent , 
that their hostility to the white race never thereafter censed. Bui 
little else can be said concerning the conduct of the first settlers of 
Virginia. But the most forcible examples, or incidents of Indian 
outrages upt)n the whites, are afforded us in the history of New- 
England, which seems to lie at the foundation of our prejudices 
against the Indian, and in which our blindness to the truth of history 
seems to be the most extreme. All authorities concur that the 
Puritans and other early settlers of New England were received 
ht)spitably, and in a spirit of kindness, by the Indians of that 
country. Edward Winslow says: 

"We have found the Indians very faithful in their covenant of 
peace with us. We often go tt) them, and they come to us. Some of 
us have been fifty miles by land in the country with them. Yea, it 
Indh })leased God so to [jossess the Indians with the fear of us, and 
love unto us, that not only the greatest King amongst them, called 
Massasoit, but also the princes and people round about us, have either 
made suit unto us. or been glad of any occasion to make peace with 
us; so that seven of them, at once, have sent their messengers unto 
us to that end. Yea, an isle of the sea, which we never saw. hatli 
also, together with the former (?), yielded willingly to be under 
protection and subject to our Sovereign Lord. King James, so that 
there is now great peace among the Indians themselves, which was 
not formerly, neither would have been but for us; and Ave, for our 
pai'ts, walk as peaceably and safely in the wood as in the highway in 
England. We entertain them familiarly in our houses, and they are 
friendly in bestowing their venison upon us. They are a people 
without any religion, yet very trusty, quick of apprehension, ripe- 
witted, just.*' 

Another early writer says the Indians " were never known to in- 
jure an Englishman, either in person or property." Trumbull, the 
historian of Connecticut, says:\ " When the English or their children 
were L,st in the woods, and were in danger of perishing Avith cold or 
hunger, they conducted them to their wigwams, fed them and restored 
them to their family and parents.X By selling them corn when pinched 
with famine, they relieved their distresses and prevented them from 
perishing in a strange land, and uncultivated wilderness." A writer 
referring to this subject remarks, that when we consider the weakness 
of the first settlements in New England, and observe that they were 




I plain couli! 
£ the Appn- 
e continent, 
eased. But 
,t settlers of 
i of Indian 
ory of Now 
: prejudices 
li of history 
ur that the 
?re receive! 1 
ans of thai 

covenant of 

s. Some of 

em. Yea, it 

ir of us, and 

them, called 

. have eitlier 

:e peace with 

ientrers unto 

^r saw, hath 

to be luider 

unes, HO that 

which was 

Ave, for our 

highway in 

anil they are 

ire a peojtle 

ension, ripe- 

nown to in- 
•nmbull, the 
leir children 

ith cold or 

and restored 

lien pinched 

them from 
' A writer 
he weakness 
t they were 

on several occasions almost perished by famine and sickness, it is evi- 
<lence tliat the Indian must have been {)eaceably disposed towards the 
inhabitants, as there were several periods durinj,' which they could 
with ease have exterminated all the Colonists, and adds, if ever 
kindness, honesty and forbearance were practiced with scrupulous 
fidelity in the face of strong temptation inciting to an o])posite course 
of conduct, these virtues were displayed by the Indians on this 

But how poorly were these unsuspecting natives repaid for their 
generous hospitality to the Puritans! Their numbers constantly in- 
creased, and their intrusion upon the country of the natives con- 
tinued, pressing them step by step farther into the interior, commit- 
ting various acts of cruelty upon individual Indians who violated their 
laws, (H' dared to corae upon the ground which the Puritans themselves 
had acquired by acts of trespass upon the natives, in which the 
re([uots were driven to rebellion; and witiun two years after the 
fanune before alluded to, we are informed by Trumbull that a party 
under Captain Stoughton surrounded a body of Peipiots in a swamp. 
"They took eighty captives. Thirty Avere men, the rest wore women 
and children. Tiie Sachems promised to conduct the English to 
Sassacus, and for that [lurpose were spared for tlie present."' 

The reader Avill dou 'tless feel some curiosity to know what was 
done with the women ant children who were saved by those who had 
massacred in cold blood thirty men, save two taken prisoners in liattle. 
The same historian thus details the secjuel: '"The Poquot women and 
clnldren who had been captured were divided among the troops. Some 
were carrieil to Connecticut, others to Mas.sachusetts. The people of 
Massachusetts sent a number of the wonu n and boys to the West 
Indies, and sold them as slaves. It is supposed that about st'ven 
hundred Pequots were destroyed." 

The Puritan historian, alluding to the rebellion of the natives, 
Avhicii was thus terminated, says: " This happy event gave gn^at jov to 
the Colonists, a day of public thanksgiving was appointed, and in all the 
churches of New England devout and animated praises were ad v^.•es8ed 
to Him who j^'iveth His peojde the victory and causeth them to dwell 
in safety. But the Puritans, it seems, were not satisfied with the fate 
of the rebellious natives, but seemed to glory in their acts of barbar- 
ism — a remorseless spirit not credible to a people professing so much 
Godliness and Christian devotion." 

In Gookin's history of the praying Indians, the author consoles 
himself on account of the atrocities praetic(>d against the Indians, by 
the comforting reflection that " doubtless one great end God aimed at 



wns the punisliment and clestrnctiou of many of tlie wicked lieatheiis 
whose iniquities were now full." 

One of the most reliable sources of information wo have ever had 
concerning Indian character is that which comes to us tiirough whiti 
captives, or persons taken captive from our frontier settlements by tin 
Indians. The narratives of these captives, which are numerous in our 
literature, (juite generally concur on the principal points of Indian 
life and character, and all go to prove that wiiilst the Indian does not 
differ essentially from the white man in liis natural instincts, and 
whilst it nniy be true, as generally alleged, that the Indian is revenge- 
ful and unrelenting in retaliating upon an enemy in return iov in- 
juries, he is faithful and reliable to the last in his friendships, and 
that in his general character, uncontaininated by the vices of civiliza- 
tion, and virtues, he is far above the average of mankind. 

The truth of what is here claimed for the native Indian is [U'oven 
by the fact that among the large number of captives which have been 
taken and iletained among the In<lians since the first settlement of our 
country, es])ecially when captured young, in general they have left 
tiieir Indian friends, wlmn released from ca[itivity \)\ treaty or other- 
wise, with great reluctance, and many of tiiem refusing to leave theni, 
as in the case of Mary Jemison, the noted white wonmn of the Gene- 
see. Also in the case of Francis Slocum, or the white woman of the 
Wabash, taken when ab(mt seven years old, who spent her life among 
the Mianiis of that country, when discovered in her Indian life ])y 
her relatives, no persuasion could induce her to leave her Indian sur 

In many instances where captives have returned to their friends 
in civilized life, they have found it difficult to reconcile themselves to, 
or be contented in that condition of life, but have returned again to 
their Indian friends, showing that primitive life, such as that 
whic^h the Indian lived, naturally ])ossesses a charm in the human 

A noted instance in the history of Indian captives is that of 
John Brickell. who was taken prisoner in Western Pennsylvaina in 
early days by a party of Delaware Indians. When about ten yeius 
old he was taken to Ohio, where he was detained among that peojile 
in the vicinitv of the Maumee river for about four years, when he was 
released and returned to his friends in Pennsylvania. He says tliat 
while living among the Indians he had every opportunity of observing 
their umnners and customs and religion, as well as of becoming nn 
expert hunter. He says: "I lived as comfortal)ly wiih them as the 
circumstances of the nation would admit; they treated me very kindly, 



— i^^ 



1 lientheiis 

ve ever had 
lugli whiti 
eiits by til' 
3rou8 in oui- 
i of Iiulinii 
nn does iidt 
istiucts. ninl 
I is revoiij^^e- 
turn for iii- 
(Isliips, and 
i of civiliza- 

nii is proven 
Ai have been 
ement of our 
oy have left 
aty or other- 
o leave them, 
of the Geue- 
omaii of the 
sr life amon",' 
lulian life by 
r Iiulian sur 

their friends 
leniselves to, 

•ned again to 
uch as thiit 

n the liumau 

es is that of 
nnsylvania in 
Dut ten years 
; that people 
when he was 
He says that 
y of observinij 
becoming nn 
h them as the 
le very kindly, 

and in everv way as one of tlieniselves." He gives an aecount of the 
scene on taking leave of his Indian father, who had adoj)ted him into 
his family as liis son, which is truly affecting. His Indian father 
informed him of the making of the treaty with Generul Wayne, 
whereby he was at liberty to return to his white friends, in whicli. 
however. Jio expresses the liope that he may remain with him and his 
adopted Indian friends. He notes how tlie Indian children hung 
around him. crying and imploring him not to leave them. His Iiulian 
father said to him: " Now reflect on it and take your choice and tell 
nu? as soon as you nuiko up your mind." '• I was silent a few nnnutes. 
in which time it seemed as if I thought of almost everything. I 
tliou'dit oi the children I had just left crying; I thought of tlie 
Indians I was attached to, and 1 thought of my people whicli I 
ri'inembered ; and this latter thought predominated, and 1 said: • I 
will L'o with my kin.' The old man then said: 'I havn raised vou; J 
have learncul you to hunt. You are a good hunter: you have been 
better to me than my own sons. I am now getting old and I can not 
hunt. I thought you would be a su[iport to my age. I leaned on you 
as on a staif. Now it is broken. You are going to leave ine and I 
havt! no right to say a word, ])ut I am ruined.' He then sank back in 
tears to his seat. I heartily joined him in his tears, parted with him. 
and have never seen or heard of him since." 

Mr. Brickell was ado[)tod into the tribe as an Indian through an 
established custom called running the gauntlet, the ceremony of wiiich 
he thus describes: "The ceremony commenced with a great whoop 
or veil. We were then met by all sorts of Indians from the town, old 
and young, men and women. We there called a halt, and they formed 
two lines alxmt twelve feet apart, in the direction of the rivcsr. They 
made signs to me to run between the lines towards the river. I knew 
nothing of what tliey wanted, and started: but I had no chaiu-e. for 
they fell to beating me so that I was knocked down, and everythiie' 
that could get at me beat me, until I Avas l)ruised from head to foot. 
At this juncture a very l)ig Indian came up, and threw the company 
otf me, and took me by the arm, and led me along through the lines 
with such rapidity that I scarcely touched the ground, and was not 
once struck after he took me until I got to the river. Then the very 
ones who Ijeat me the wcn-st were now the most kind and oflicious in 
washing me off, feeding me, etc., and did their utmost to cure me. I 
Avas nearly killed, and did not get over it for two months." 

Among the later noted cases of Indian captivity is that of Mrs. 
Fanny Kelly, who was captured l)y a band of the Sioux Indians ot the 
upper Missouri country, whilst journeying with her husband and a 




smnll train of emigrnntH to Montaim in 1S()4, and iunon<^ whom siio 
WIV8 detained six months. H(U' ciiptivit) was sliort, and her trials 
necessarily, under the circumstances, rather severe; bat she says that 
durinj^ all of the time she was treated in every way with the utmost 
respect and kindness by the Indians. She s^^ys: "True, during the 
last few weeks of my captivity the Indians had done all in their i)ower 
for mo— all their circumstances and conditions would allow, and the 
women were very kind; but their people were not my people, and 
I was detained a captive far from home and friends and civilization." 

The wild Indian is already a being of the past. When another 
generation t-hall have gone, the whole Indian population of the 
United States Avill have adopted the ways of our own civilization oi' 
mode of life, and it is but a question of time when the race Avill 
become extinct by assimilation or amalgamation with our own. 

There is now in AVisconsin a people called Brotliertown Indians 
(of which more will be said in a subsequent chapter) who are tht^ 
descendants of several New England tribes, who have adopted tlie 
ways of our civilization, have become citizens of that state, and avIio 
are speaking the English language solely, having abandoned their 
own dialects ovi^r fifty years ago. They are essentially white men in 
all respects. They are but an example of what the whole Indian race 
of this (country will soon become within a short sjjaco of time, and this 
will be accomplished more rapidly if the Indians are left to themselves, 
than if effort is put forth by the white man to the end of hurrying on 
that condition of things. 

In this regard the Cherokee nation affords a striking illustration. 
This people who, at the beginning of the present century, ranked 
among the savage wild tribes, and who soon thereafter were abandoned 
by the United States authorities to the then wild Indian territory of 
the AVest, have come out of their primitive condition by their own 
efforts, nt)t only unaided, but rather having had obstacles constantly 
thrown in the way of their ])rogress, and may now justly claim to be 
as enlightened, or at least will show as good a condition of society, as 
the Avliite people in the neighboring states around them. An instance 
of native talent has been developed among them, which may be taken 
as an indication of the genius which it is fair to presume rests in 
every native tribe, wanting only in ojiportunity for like development. 
This example shows that the native Indian possesses a talent which 
circumstances may at any time unfold, even unaided by extraneous 
influences, in like manner as development of talent or genius may 
have occurred among our own race. Evidences in this respect con- 
stantly occurring, show that the American Indian race is not an 




ivlioin she 
lier trials 
5 saya that 
he utmost 
Lluriug the 
hoir power 
kv, iiiul the 
eople, and 
leii another 
on of the 
ilization or 
e race will 

isn Indians 
'ho are the 
idopted the 
te, and who 
loned their 
liite men in 
Indian mco 
ne, and this 
lurrying on 

XY\, ranked 
;orritory of 
their own 
claim to be 
society, as 
\n instance 
IV be taken 
ne rests in 
alent which 
senius mav 
espect con- 
is not an 

inferior one by any means; but that the Indian is susceptible of self- 
development, as circumstances may arise. Tlie example liere referred 
to is tiiat of a Ciierokee Indian, whose Indian name was tSequoyah, 
called l)y the whites Guess. 

The first school among these Indians, for purposes of instruction, 
was established by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions in 1N17. Sequoyah, then a youth, received insti iis t\)r 

a short time at this school. The English alphabet was found ill- 
adapted to the Cherokee language, in that it failed to properly convey 
to the mind the sounds in this language, and this attracted the atten- 
tion of this Indian youth. After making limited progress in his 
studies, it was noticed that ho had absented himself from further 
attendance, and it was further noticed by his nKjther that he was away, 
spending much of his time alone. After a time he presented the work 
ill which he had been engaged, that of tnaking an alphabet adapted to 
the Cherokee language. His work was announced and came to tiie 
attention of the missionaries about 1824. by whom it was examined 
and found to be a syllabical system and pronounced well adapted to the 
Cherokee language; whereupon it was immediately adopted, and has 
since been taught to all classes conjointly with the English. 

The Indian mind, which among all nations had been trained to 
the expression of ideas by their rude picture writing, it would seem 
was well adapted to conceive and understand an invention of this kind, 
and it can readily be understood how the Indian genius conceived this 
plan for an al[)h;ibet. Nearly all the words of the vocabulary end in 
a vowel; each vowel is preceded by thirteen combinations of the con- 
sonant, making sixty-four syllables, and to this scheme there are 
added tw(4ve characters to represent double consonants. Mr. School- 
craft avers that no other American language, with which he is 
ac(piaiiited, could be written by such a simple scheme. He savs it 
can not bo applied in the dialect of the Algonquin, the Inxpiois, the 
Dakota, the Appalachian or the Shoshonee, and consecj^uently its apjili- 
cation is limited. It provides for the expression only of sach sounds 
as occur in the Cherokee language, and still its utility in that language 
has been highly appreciated, and remain;' as a striking phenomenon iu 
the history of American philology. Exar'nles of the Cherokee alpha- 
bet will be found iu Chapter IX of + '> -vork, relating to Imlian 

The proportion of readers who have investigated the Indian 
subject, with reference to determining the truth and justice of his 
cause, is very s; cdl ; but the proportion who are ready to jump at con- 
clusions, and unhesitatingly declare against him, is exceedingly large. 







pro I 





TluH. Iiowi'ver. (It)i's iKit urirto (ilt(><?«'-'"'"'r f''<"" '^ f<I>int (tf injuHtico. Imt 
ratlier fioiii iniitti'iition t'roiii luindrt not j,Mvt'ii to ivfleetiou, following 
or iinit(itiii<,' iiiconKidorato t'xiiiii|ilt'H of others. 

It is impossible, in tlie iiiitnro of tliiii<,'s. tlmt tlie Iinliiui ciiii l)e 
cliiir<'i'iil»l(' with t'verythiiif,' bud that tlie piiblii- mind has I'oiitinuiilly 
ht'H|K'<l upon Inm. Tlio t'ountry of wliicli <>ur race found him in 
possosHion btdon;,'fd to him. and of it wo were invaders, in tiie li<rht 
of justice ho is not guilty of alt tin* eahimities whieii befell us from 
liis resistance to our invasion. We can not miy, in this connection, 
that we procured liis consent to the occupation of his ctmntry by 
trciilv, for there is no liistory of treaty transiictioiiB extant but what 
reveals the fact tliat all such treaties were niad(^ un(h>r some kind of 
compulsion. There is no instance on record where an Jndian. or any 
iiatioM of Indians, voluntarily appealed to the white nnin, and otl'ered 
to surrender to him his country. Individual trnnsnctions. for the 
(•(inveyaiice of particular parcels of land, wei'e unknown in Indian 
custom. Commercial transactions anion<^ them wei'e contined exclu- 
sivelv to per.sonal property. 31oreover, the Indian [)o[)u!ation of the 
whole North American continent scarcely exceeded, if it oven reached, 
that of a million iidiabitants. Certainly this limited population, 
scattered as it was over a vast continent, was not cajmbleof conunittin<^ 
outrai^es. to any very j^'riat extent. U])on the lar<j^o population of whites 
which, even in the tii'st few years of the invasion, v.-ere found upon this 
continent: so that our inijuiry, with reference to the wron<fs of the 
parties, should rather be directed towai'ds consideration for the Indian 
than that of the white umn. who entered upon the Indian's country 
on no other princi]il(> than that of <'oii(]U(^st: and it certainly do(>s not 
lie with liim to charge upon the concjuered party that he has been 
wroni,'(Hl by his retreatinj^^ adversary. 

The first vij,'orous presentation of tin- wronj^s of the Indian, at the 
hands of the white man in this country, is in a book lately published, 
entitled '"A century of dishonor." l)ein^ a sketch of the Tnited States 
Govi'rnnient dealin<^s with some of the Indian tribes, bv Helen Hunt 
Jackson, an authoress of distinction, and since deceased, which has 
pro(hiced a marked ett'ect U[)on the jmblic ndnd. and which has 
proliably caused more reflection in the minds of intelliirent people, 
uj)on the Indian subject, than any wm'k Avrittt^n liefore concernin<r it 

It is true that it has been set up in our defense, for our course in 
pursuing and dispossessing the Indian ot his country, that he was not 
using it to the best advantage, arrogating to ourselves the position that 
we were the superior race, skilled in the arts and sciences, and that as 
a consequence "the earth and the fullness thereof" of ri-'ht belouired 



to US. This argument simply goes upon tho theory that " might makes 
righ^' " There is no dispositioTi to take issuo with those who thus 
summarily dispose of the Indian question; it simply presents ]!<■ 
argument upon a basis of justice, nor scarcely a plausible one upon 
the face of the facts. The American Indian was mentally and 
physically the equal of the race who Jiave succeeded him. He culti- 
vated the soil; he maintained a system of society and civil government, 
which challenged Iho admiration of the philanthropist, and he had 
made such progress in the arts as the simplicity of his life 

Tins subject has been f()rcil)ly called to our attention by Mr. 
Lewis H. Morgan, in an article on Indian migration, published in tlu' 
North American lleview some twenty years ago, in wliich he notes thi 
fact that at the period of the discovery of America, whilst the Indian.- 
were ignorant of the use of iron, and consetjuently of the arts which 
recjuii'ed this metal, they had undoubtedly made great progress, as 
compared with their [iriuiitive state, and ho classifies them as existing 
at that time iu tw(j dissimilar conditions. First, are the roving Indians, 
depending for subsistence upon fish and game ; second, the village In- 
dians, depending chietly u{)on agriculture; and between these two, and 
connecting the extremes, as he stylos them, by accessible gradation, 
he derives what may be called a third condition in a class, which he 
designates partially roving and partially village Indians. 

The first class had developed many useful arts. They possessed 
the art of st ilvj'ig fire, nuddng a bow with a string of sinew, and the 
arrowhead pointed \.",th fiiiit and bone: making vessels and utensils of 
pottery; curing and tinning skins; making moccasins for the feet, and 
wearing apparel in gmieral; together with various implements and 
utensils of stone, wood and bone; of rope and net making from 
filai'ients of bark; finger weaving with warp and woof, or working the 
same material into sashes, burden straps, and other useful fabrics: 
bisket making with osier, cane and splints; making canoes from the 
skins of animals, birch bark and the trunks of trees, by digging out 
with iheir rude implements, assisted by boring with fire; constructing 
timber frame lodges, and tents covered with skins, bark or nnitting; 
shaping stone malls, hammers and utensils; and of making fish-spears, 
nets and bone hooks, implement.-* for athletic game,-*, musical instru- 
mer.ts, such as t!ie fiute and drum, wea[)ons and persomd ornaments of 
shell, bone and sti'ne. 

Tliev had also invented the art of picture writing, and had like- 
wi:*o developed a laiiguagoof signs, which became a medivim of com- 
munication between nations speaking different languages. They pos- 



;ht makes 
who thus 
jseuts IK ' 
one upon 
tally ivinl 
He culti- 
id he hail 
■ his life 

m by Mr. 

.hed in tlu' 
3 notes tl't 
le Inelian.- 
ai'ts which 
rogresH, as 
as existing 
iiij Indians, 
village In- 
'so two, and 
s, which he 

y possessed 
w, and thf 
utensils of 
le feet, and 
nionts and 
king from 
crking the 
ul fabrics; 
s from the 
igging out 
ir matting: 
lioal instru- 
namonts of 

ll had like- 
|im of com- 
They pos 

c)(>s;ied a form of government, and clearly defined domestic institutions, 
which served to regulate their domestic and political affairs. 

But whilst Mr. Morgan has thus classified the aborigines in ref- 
erence to the exter.t of their development in the useful arts, he con- 
cedes, in conclusion, that the difference between those of his two classi- 
fications will be found much less in degree than would naturally bo 
sup|)osed. The fact is that the classification whicli Mr. Morgan makes, 
so far as development in the arts is concerned, will scarcely admit of 
a distinction in this regard which he attempts to establish; for all 
classe?, whether they were roving Indians, depending for subsistence 
upon fish and game, or whether living in a more settled state, had 
arrived at about the same point in their development nud progress in 
the useful arts. 

There were scarcely any tribes of Indians, although they may 
have been called roving Indians, but that had their villages, to which 
they resorted at certain seasons of the year; and there were none wlio 
nii-'ht bo styled village Indians but that were given to this same spirit 
of roving to a greater or less degree, or possessed a spirit of adventur> , 
the same as that Avhich. to a certain extent, characterizes the white 

'§, III speaking of the progress which had been made by the aborig- 

ines in the arts at the time of the discovery, we rather assume that 
tliev had advanced from a uKU'e primitive condition ; and in discussing 
this subject most writers further assume that the Anu-rican Indian, 
in his occu[)ation of this country, was preceded by a race who were 
iiinch in advance of them in civilization, and who belonged to an 
entirely different stock from the aborigint>s of later times. This 
ancient peo[)le, l)y some, were styled the Moniid-bnilders; to whom 
were attributed the erection of the numerous mounds or tamuli, which 
} are found scattered over the continent, largely within the limits of 
■m wiiat is styled the Mississip]n Valley, many of which are f(miid by 
« enthusiasts on this subject to be in the form of fortifications for pur- 
% poses of d(>fense. 

I Conceding all that is claimed for ther,c numnds, and the people 

it wiio constructed them, they fail to mark a knowleilge of the arts of a 
I very extraordinary or superior character; no matter for what jiurpose 
f they may have been made, there is nothing abmit them in respect to 
J art to disprove, what may be a very reasonable presumption, that they 
■1 were the same stock oT people, and but the ancestors of those whom 
we call the aborigines or American Indians. That these mimnds or 
tumuli may have been erected for various purpof 3s would seem to be 
true, but the evidences afforded us show that they were generally 



erected for purposes of burial. On opening them the remains of hu- 
man bodies are found, deposited with utensils and implements, in con- 
nection with the boily, in imitation of the same custom which pre- 
vailed among the more modern aborigines. 

That class of mounds found so numerous in Wisconsin, called 
totem mounds, carry their own evidence of the modern Indian idea, 
that of totems or syndiols designating a band or tribe. 

Many Avho have written on this subject, in their enthusiasm to 
work out the chosen theory that they were the work of a superior and 
very ancient race, have seized upon very uncertain evidences in suj)- 
port of tills theory, and have been led to contend tiiat many of these 
mounds were artificial, hich, upon furtlier examination, have been 
proven to be merely natural tumuli, as in the case of Mount Joliet, 
so called, a mound situat-'d near Desplaines River, some ten miles 
above its contluenco with the K .ikakee. in Illinois. This, n[)on its 
first discovery, and for one hundred and fifty years thereafter, was an 
object of attraction to all travelers, from its regular formatit)n, pre- 
senting all the appearance of artificial work; but later iiivestigation 
sliows it to bi! a natural mound, and not the work of human hands. 
Mr. Drake, who seems to have given this subject much attention in his 
history of the North American Indian, reaches abcmt the same con- 
clusion in regard to these mounds. 

Rev. Isaac McCoy. ^\lio gave much attention to this subject, 
empiiatically dis[)utes the fact that tliest^ mounds atford any evidenct; 
of their being constructed by a people advanced in civilization and the 
arts, and reminds us that we never heard of a skeleton bt'^g found in 
one of these ancient niDunds with which was connected any marks of 
civilized nnm, and adds: 

"Ancient mounds, fortifications and other indications of the resi- 
dence of humiin ])eings, made probably centuries before the sprouting 
of our oldest oaks, sliow that they were made by savage, and not by civil- 
ized men. Hewn stones are not f(mnd; l)ut stone, when used, is as it 
was taken from the ])rook or loose quarry. In their c<mstruction tlier- 
is not a nean>r approximation to order in arrangement than would sug- 
gest itself to a savage jiiind. Indians erect their huts in their villages 
witiiout regard to the order which would proiluce streets. They arc 
placed promiscuously, as leaves fall from tlie trees, and tliey never 
plant their corn or other vegetables in rows. Similar indic^ation of in- 
difference t^; order characterize the anciiMit works to which we have 
alluded. AM wliich prove that our modern Indians are really tlie 
al)original race, and tiiat they never had been more civilized than they 
were when wo first became ac(£uainted with them." 



ns of hu 
ts, in con- 
hich pre- 

in, called 
liiin idea, 

Aisiasm to 
)erior ami 
3s in snp- 
if of these 
luive been 
int Joliet, 
) ten miles 
s, upon its 
ter, was an 
ation, pre- 
iian hands, 
ntion in his 
same con- 

lis subject, 
y evidence 
ion and the 
i>r found in 
V marks of 

if the resl- 
lot by civil- 
■d, is as it 
action thev- 

would 8Ui.r 

n'ir villages 
'fhey art' 
they never 
•ation of in- 
ch we have 
really tlir 
hI than thev 

And to the like eifect is the conclusion of Dr. Peck. Referring 
to this subject in his gazetteer of Illinois, he says: "Of one thing 
the writer is satisfied, that very imperfect and incorrect data have been 
relied ujjou, and very erroneous conclusions drawn upon Western 
antitjuities. Whoever has time and patience, and is in other respects 
(lualified to explore this field of science, and will use his spade and 
eyes together, and restrain his imagination from running riot amongst 
mounds, fortifications, horse-shoes, medals, anclAvliole cabinets of I'elics 
of the 'olden time,' will find very little more than the indications of 
rude savages, the ancestors of the present race of Indians." 

We have taken occasion in another part of tliis work incidentally 
to remark that the Indian has never yet written his own history. 
From the force of circumstances the field of Indian history became 
earlv monopolized by the white man. and although some faint attempts 
have been made within a few years past on the part of the native 
Indian to bring into our literature, for the informaticm of later genera- 
tions, something concerning this mysterious pe()[)le from their own 
native stand[>oint, yet, comparatively speaking, the Indian has never 
obtained a hearing in the white man's court of general pul)lic opinion. 

Some seven or eight years ago, a small work of some two hundred 
pages was published, entitled '"The legtmds, traditions, and laws of the 
Iro([Uois or Six Nations," by Elias Johnson, a native Tuscarorn chief, 
evidently a man of good English education. In the inti'oductory 
chajiter of his book he puts forth a brief but spirited defense of Indian 
character, and arraigns the white man in words of stirring elociuence 
for his acts of barbarism committed upon the Indian race. Addressinir 
his language to tiie white man, he says; 

"If individuals should have come among you to expose the bar- 
barities of savage white men the deeds they relate would quite ec^ual 
anything known of Indian cruelty. The picture an Indian gives of 
civilized Ixirbarism leaves the revolting custom of the wilderness ipiite 
in the background. You experienced tiieir revenge when vou ha<l put 
tlieir souls and bodies at a stake, with your fire-water that nmddened 
tiieir brains. There was a pure and beautiful s()iritualitv in their 
fate, and their conduct was much more infiuenced by it, as are any 
people. Christian or Pagan."' 

In citing instances of barbai'ism on the part of whiti^ men towards 
the Indians, in the early history of the continent, Mr. .lolmson thus 
refers to tiie destruction of the Pecjuots by the pious Puritans of Xi^v 

'•b thei'e anything more barbaric in the annals of Indian warfare 
Mum the narrative of the Pcquod Indians':' In one place we read of 


the surprise of nn Iiulinn fort by niglit, wlien the inmates were slum- 
bering, ui;consoious of any danger. "When they awoke they Avero 
wrapped in tiames, and when they attempiod to Hee, were shot down 
like beasts. From village to village, from wigwam to Avigwam, the 
murderers proceeded, 'being resolved,' as your historian piously 
remarks, 'by God's assistance, to make a final destruction of them,' 
until finally a small but gallant band took refuge in a swamp. 
Burning with indignation, and made sullen by des[)air, with hearts 
bursting with grief at the destructiim of their nation, and spirits 
galled >'nd sore at the fancied ignominy of their defeat, they refused 
to ask life at the hands of an insulting foe, and preferred death to sub- 
mission. As the night drew cm, they were surrounded in their disiuiil 
retreat, volleys of musketry poured into their midst, until nearly all 
were killed or buried in the mire. 

''There is nothing in the character of Alexander of Macedon, who 
'conquered the world and wept that he had no more to conquer.' to 
compare with the noble (pialities of King Philip of Mt. Ho})e, and 
among his Avarriors are a long list of brave men unrivalled in deeds of 
heroism by any of ancient or modern story. But in what country, and 
by Avliom were they hunted, tortured, and slain, and Avho was it tlidt 
met together to rejoice and give thanks at every species of cruelty 
inflicted upon those who Avere fighting for their AviA'es, their children, 
their homes, their altars, and their God? Wlien it is recorded that 
'men, Avomen and children, indiscriminately, were hewn down and lay 
in heaps upon the snow,' it is spoken of as doing God's service, 
because they Avere nominally heathen. ' Before the fight Avas finished 
the AvigAvams AA'ere set on fire, and into those hundreds of innocent 
women and children crowded themselves, and perisheil in the 
general conflagration,' And for those thanksgiA-ings Avere sent up to 
lieaA'en, the head of Philip is strung upon a pole and ex[)osed to tlie 
public. But this Avas not done by savage warriors, and the croAvd tluit 
huzzaed at the revolting spectacle assembled on the Sabbath day, in a 
Puritan chi:rch, to listen to the Gospel that proclaims pence and love 
to all men. His body Avas literally cut in slices to be distri'outed 
among the concpienu's, and a Christian city rings Avith acclamation." 

Continuing this subject, Mr. Johnson further reminds us of a 
special instance of l)arl)arism Avhich peculiarly attracts our attention. 
'• Avhore, by the Governor of JamestoAvn, a hand Avas seA'ered from tin' 
arm of a peaceful, aiofi'ending Indian, that he might be sent back a 
ternn- to his peo[)le.'' And, Mr. Johnson observes, it AA-as through tin' 
magnaiiimity of a daughter and King of that same ])eople that tlio 
English colony at JamestoAvn Avas saved from destruction, and that it 




ere slum- 
they were 
ihot down 
(rwnm, the 
\\ piously 

of them,' 
a swamp. 
dth hearts 
iiul spirits 
lev refused 
nth to sub- 
:ieir dismal 

nearly all 

.cedon, who 
'oiiquer.' to 
Hope, and 
in deeds of 
•ountry, and 
was it that 
\ of cruelty 
ir children, 
corded that 
>wn and lay 
id's servioe, 
was finished 
of innocent 
4ied in the 
sent up t(i 
Kised to the 
:> crowd thiit 
ith day, in a 
ice and love 
ids us of n 
nr attention, 
i-cd from til'' 
sent back a 
throuf^h till' 
^\^.^ that the 
and that it 

was tlirough their love anil trust alone that Powhatan and Pocahontas 
lost their forest dominions. 

In conclusion on this subject, Mr. Johnson says: "1 hav- writ- 
ten in somewhat of the spirit which will characterize a history by an 
Indian, yet it does not deserve to be called Indian paitiality, but only 
justice and the spirit of humanity; or, if I may be aUowed to say it, 
the siiirit with which any C'hrir.tian should In able to consiih'r the 
character and deeds of his foe. I would not detract from the virtues 
of vour forefather.s. They were at that time nnrivalled. but bigotry 
and superstition of the dark ages still lingered among them, and 
their own perils blinded them to the wickedness and cruelty of the 
meajl^• they took for defense. 

" Four, and perhaps two centuries hence, I doubt not some of 
your dogmas will seem unchristian, as flio Indians seem to you, and i 
trulv hope, ere then, all wars will seem as barbarous, and the fantastic 
dress of the soldier as ridiculous, as you have been in the habit of 
reni-esenting the wars and the wild drapery of the Indians of the 


"How long were the Saxon and Celt in becoming a civilized and 
Christian peojile? How long since the helmet, the coat of mail and 
the battle ax were laid aside?"' 

And Mr. Johnson might well have observed that Avhilst the coat of 
mail and tlio battle ax of our ancestors have been laid aside, there has 
been substituted in place of the before mentioned implements of war- 
fare, through the ingenuity of the refined and civili/ed white man, 
implements and engines of destruction in civilized warfare still more 
terrible; and marking more prominently a latent spirit of V)arbarism 
than the battle ax or other primitive implements of sanguinary con- 
test of the age to which Mr. Johnson refers, and affording a strange 
anaiuoly in the elements of our boasted modern civilization. 

But the Indian has contended against fate; his power is broken, 
and the charm of his ancient glory is among those things which are 
past, and his country, with its limpid streams, enchanting forests and 
majestic mountains, inherited from his fathers, shall know him no 
more. Pursued in his retreating footsteps by the onward march of 
civilized man, to the final extinction of h's race, under the crushing 
decrees of inevitable destiny. The murmuring streams of the vallev, 
the requiem winds of the surviving forests, but tell us of his wrongs, 
and seemingly unite in tones of n.ournful concord, in condt^mnation of 
his unjust fate; and how fitting are the sympathizing words of the 
poet, "Lo, the poor Indian." 



Speculation of Ethnologists— Lost Tribes of Isrnol — Roscmblanco Botwoon tlic 
Indiaus and People of Asia — Language of Northeastern Asia Similar to Amerieati 
Languages — Comparison of Words in Indian and Asiatic Languages— Wreck of 
Japanese Junk on Northwest Coast -Conclusiona Therefrom — Similar Customs 
with the Ancient Jt>ws The ]?ow and Arrow — Like those found in Asia— Tln' 
Indian has in all Ages Reproduced Himself Ancient Ruins — Ancient jMounds- 
Ancient I'ottery— Same Made by Modern Tribes— Indian Languages Eeveiil 
History -Testimony of Humboldt — Capt. Jonatlian Carver — Si)anish Authorities- 
Tradition of the Mexicans Former Spanish Occupation —Opinions of Numerous 
Authors— Uniform Characteristics anumg the Indian Tribes — Intelligence of the 
Native Indian — A Descendant of tht* Most Ancient Population — His Primitive 
Condition not Evidence to the Contrary. 

\W^r:^/HEEE has been muoli specu- 
'Hj; icA latiou aiiiong eiiinolo<ri:,ts 
•^jif concerinug the origin of tiie 
^ people, or aboriginal inlial)- 
itants, found upon the continent of 
the Western Heniispliere, now called 
North and South America, at the 
time of the discovery by Europeans: 
and as tinit; rolls on tiiere wiunns tn 
be an increasing interest manifest 
among lis, concerning this peoph". 
and especially as to the subject of 
their origin. 

Some have endeavored to derive 
tlieir origin fnmi the Mongols, others 
from the Malays; -whilst those mIid 
rely upon the account coming to us from the Jews, as to tlie Iteginning 
and progress of tht» Avorld and remarkable events in its history, aic 
inclined to adopt tlie theory that the aboi-iginal inhabitants of tliis 
country are descendants from what is known as the Lost Tribes of 
Israel, or those ten tribes spoken of in Jewish history, concernini^- 
whose descendants no acccmnt is given us. 

It is not the object here to combat any theory that may have been 
advanced ui)on this subject, for, so far as the means of proof can he 


(From .ut olj riiiiitinif ) 



Botwoon llu' 
■ to Aineric'iUi 
es— Wreck of 
lilar Customs 
in Asia— Tin- 
;nt INIounds- - 
,ia>;*^« Ri'vt'iil 
of Nmiiorous 
litjeueo ot tlu' 
His Priiuitivi' 

nnch speeu- 
[•igiu ot: tilt' 
riiuil iiilmb- 
iontiueut of 
now cuUihI 
It'll, at the 
iiiropt^ins : 
e aoeins to 
st uiHiiit'est 
lis people, 
subject of 

fed to derive 
i>fols, others 
^t those who 
e ])e<:jiiuuiiij; 
history, ure 
(lilts of this 
(,i Tribes of 

y have been 
roof can be 

attained, all must remain ecjually unsupported by anythinff like satis- 
factory evidence ; but in passing over this (question, it maybe suggested 
that, when we have examineil all theories, and exhausted all research 
in this regard, we have but to content ourselves with accepting things 
as we find them. 

liiquirv into the origin of the aboriginal inhabitants of this 
ct)untrv, anil their past history, is as unsatisfactory and mysterious to 
lis as the inquiry concerning the origin of matter itself, and as to 
evervthing having a material existence. We simply know that the 
land [)()rtion of the earth's surface, including the islands of the stui. are 
alike inhabited by the race of mankind, with such physical structures 
and characteristics of conduct as demonstrate the fact of their coming 
oriirinallv from ime common source. 

The fact that portions of the human family ai"e found inhabiting 
remote islands of the sea. it would seem, can lie accounted for in no 
other way tiian that, at some very distant period in the world's history, 
the earth was traversed and the waters navigated to the extent and 
with the like facility of the present day, from which the inhabitants of 
the earth became scattered over its surface as we now find tliein; and 
that at some time the art of navigation was lost or fell into ilisuse, 
whereby this communication was interrupted and ceased longer to 
e.vist. until restoreil in modern times; and, for aught we know, the in- 
habitants of the earth may at some time have navigated the air with 
complete success, as is l)eing attempted in modern times. 

If we accept as true the Jewish account of the Hood, or general 
inundation of the earth's surface, wherebv the race of mankind was 
totally destroyed, with the exception of those who were gathei-ed into 
the Ark of Noah, and that upon the diHap})earance of the waters this 
ark rested ujion Mount Ararat, and from those who were saved therein 
sprang or descended all the present inhabitants of the earth, then we 
may accept as rational the theory that the original inhabitants of this 
country, found here at the discovery by Europeans, came from Asia 
across that narrow strait on the northwest coast, as has been very 
generally contended for. 

Whoever has given this subject any considerable attention has 
not failed to find a marked resemblance between the aboriirines of 
America and the people of Asia. But discarding the Jewish account 
of the flood, it would be just as correct and eij^ually as consistent for us 
to suppose that the people of Asia are descendants from the aboriginal 
people of the American continent, as to sup[)ose that the people of the 
latter are descendants from the people of the former continent. 

Among those who have given the result of their investigation 




Concerning the origin of the American Inilinn, Mr. Jefferson, in his 
" Notes on Virginia," presents a very consistent and plausible theory. 
He says, "that if the two continents of Asia and America be separated 
at all, it is oidy by a narrow strait; so that from this side also inhab- 
itants may have passed into America, and tlie resemblance between 
the Indians of America anil the eastern inhabitants of Asia wonld 
induce us to conjecture that the former were the descendants of the 
I'ltter, or the latter of the former, excepting, indeed, the Escjuimeaux, 
wiio from the same circumstance of resem])lance, and from identity of 
language, must be derived from the Greenlanders, and these probably 
from some of the northern parts of the old continent." Mr. Jefferson, 
alsfi, like many others, puts great reliance in the test of language as 
indicating sources of origin. 

In the theory of Mr. Jefferson, the Esquimaux, it will be seen, 
who inhabit the frozen regions, are not included in the common stock 
of the American race, but are of European descent, coming through 
the Greenlanders from some of the northern parts of the old continent. 
Concerning the origin of the American Indians, Mr. John Mcin- 
tosh, in his comprehensive work on the No, \ American Indian, in 
giving his conclui'jions as to the result of his investigation, advances 
the opinion that the aborigines of North America, found here at the 
time of the discovery, with the exception of the Esipiimaux, came 
from nortlieastern Asia. The Es(|uimaux, he concludes, were a stock 
which came from northwestern Europe, thus pursuing the theory ad- 
vanced by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Mcintosh says: "Asia, no doubt, con- 
tributed, at diffei'ent periods, to the peopling of America with tribes of 
a different degree of civilization. The Tartars, Siberians and 
Kamschadales are, of all the Asiatic nations with whom travelers are 
ac(juainted, those who bear the greatest resemblance to the North 
American Indians, not only in their manners and customs, but also in 
their features and complexions. The Tartars have always l)een known 
as a race whose dis()osition led them to rove and wantler in quest of 
coiupu'st anil {)lunder. 

" Whilst the pn^sent Indians can be identified as the descendants 
of the Tartars or Siberians, and when it can be proved beyond a doubt 
that America was inhabited by a more civilized people than the present, 
it may fairly be conjectured tliat the original or more civilized inhabit- 
ants were exterminated by some great revolution, which had probably 
l)een affected by a Tartar invasion similar to that which, under Genghis 
Khan, devastateil the Chinese empire, and to that also which over- 
whelmed the Roman empire." 

The writer then proceeds to show how far the persons, features 




n, in his 
le tlioory. 
Iso inhiib- 
) between 
iia would 
nts of the 
dentity of 
) probably 

nifunj'e ais 

II be seen, 
imon stock 
g through 
. continent, 
ohn Mc'In- 
IndifUi, in 
1, tidvances 
lere at the 
laux, came 
re a stock 
theory ad- 
onbt, con- 
h tribes t)f 
nans and 
ivelers are 
the North 
)ut also in 
een known 
in (jiiest of 

lul a doubt 
le present, 
I inhabit- 
;r Genghis 
ich over- 

s. features 

and complexions of some of the Asiatic tribes coincide with tliose of 
the North American Indians. '• We are assured," says Mr. Mclntosli, 
"bv all tiiose travelers who made any in<iuirie8 after the nature and 
construction of the languages or dialects spoken in the northeast of 
Asia, that they partake in an i.minent degree of the idioms of the 
American languages."' Mr. Mcintosh then proceeds to make a critical 
c()mi)arison between the Nortii American Indians and the tribes of 
northeastern Asia, and proves to his own satisfaction that they are 
identically the same stock, with the exception of the Escpiimaux. 

In further establishing his theory he siiys: "By the discoveries of 
Capt. Cook in his last voyage, it has been established without a doubt, 
that at Kamschatka, in latitude (U) deg. north, the continents of Asia 
and America are separated by a strait only eighteen miles wide, and 
that the inhabitants (Ui each ccmtinent are similar, and frecjuently pass 
and repass in their canoes from one continent to the other. It is also 
certain that, during the winter S(>ason, liehring's strait is frozen from 
one side to the other. Capt. Williams(m, who was lieutenant to Cook 
in tiiose voyages, has also asserted that from the middle of the channel 
betw' ■^n Kamschatka and America, he discovered land on either side. 
This siiort distance, therefore, he says, should account for t\w peopling 
of America from the northeast parts of Asia. The same author further 
asserts that there is a cluster if islands interspersed between the two 
continents, and that he frequently saw canoes passing from one island 
to the other. From these circumstances we may fairly conclude that 
America was peopled fiom the northeast parts of Asia, and during our 
in([uirv we sliall endeavor t(/ point t)ut facts which tend to prove the 
particular tribe in Asia from whom the Nortli American Indians are 
directly descejuled. The Esquinmux, on the east of Labrador, are 
evidently a separate s])ecies of nu^n, distinct from all the naticms of the 
American continent in language, disposition, and habits of life, and in 
all these respects they bear a near resemblance to the Northern Euro- 
peans. Their beards are so thick and large that it is with dilHculty 
the features of their face can be discovered, while all the other tribes 
of America are particularly distinguished for the want of beards." 

"Whilst the language of a people may be adopted as a test of 
common origin to a certain extent, yet it must be conceded that tiiis is 
not in all respects the most reliable proof that may be adduced to this 
end. The manners and customs of a [)eople ara stronger evidence in 
establishing race unitv. These are more fixed and atford strcmjrer in- 
dications of character than mere language em[)h)yed in communication 
between individuals. 

But whilst words iu a language may become so far changed that 






tlifi orififiiml is succeeded l)y other and entirely ditTerent words, yet the 
general construction of ii lnn^un<^e may rt'nmin tiie Hume, imd in tiiis 
respect language may be reganled as furnishing evidence of as endur- 
ing a nature as manners and customs; and it is noted that the Ameri- 
can languages throughout both Nortli and South America are marked 
by the saiin^ pecnliar construction, and it is lilunvise noticed tliat tlin 
manners and customs of the aborigines, especially of North America, 
are in most respects essentially the same from the Atlantic to th Pa- 
cific, and from the frozen North to the (lulf of Mexico. These relate 
to their religion, their fasts, their feasts, their miule of traveling, their 
domestic relations, and their mode of life in general. 

Among other things Mr. !McIntf)sh makes a comparison of lan- 
guages, showing a similarity between the languages ot the American 
Indian and some of the Asiatic communities, from which some exami)le8 
are here subjoined: 



Lenni Lennpe- -A'/Zxc/* imanitto. 

• roiiuois A'/o/(. 
Kikkiipoos Kinliek. 
NarriiKansettB - Kccsli iik. 
Chippewiis yooKiirli, housoIi, 
Dnrieu IndiauK Taiituh. 
PocouehiH Tut. 
Curibbees Baba, 

Pottiiwatamies- -iV'fH « ft. 
Darien Indians— AVrxi/if/i. 

Pottawatamies — Ncowdli. 

Indians * Penobscot and St. Jobns- 


KaniHcliadalos — /Lo/t'/N((/( tiiul Kitchi 


Senioyads Ni>ob a nil Xioh. 

Tartars— A'ocA'. 

Honioyadfi — Koosoek. 

KaniRcliadali's y<iem'ck. 

Oloni'tza or Fins Taiito. 

W.'illac'hianH — Tut. 

Tartars on the Jenisea— i3a/»«. 


Tartars of Orenburg — Anna, 
T<)()8hetti — A\/ )()(«. 


Senioynds — AVoo. 

Tongusi — Kuitoii, 

Chileses— A''t'. 

Indians of Pennsylvania — Uakdlii. 

Cbippewas — />/.s',s/.s, JJascy. 

Pottawatamics — In doicn. 

Lenni Lenape — Nalih. 

Cbippewas — Weas. 

Cbippewas — Mickewali. 

Chi PI )e was — A'c.v ix, K inch is. 
Mackicanni— A'('t'.sor//t. 


Tcberkessi— AV. 


Tooshot ti — Haka. 

Koriaks — JJ-fncii. 


Koriaks — Andoon. 


Akaehini — Nak. 


Koriaks— H Vosi. 


Tongusi- Michewan. 


Koriaks — Kccdnvli i.s. 
Knrascbadales— A'eo.w n. 





Miarais— /i("(- 
Diikotns— Oircc/i. 

Shiiwnees— .l/ai/Mrt. 

Cliippfwas- Mittic. 
Cliprokees Attoh, 



Kftmscbii.liiles— A'<«>/sou'«/i. 

Tartars- -fJic. .Ice. 


Kamscliadalt's — l,<iirkw<th. 

HenioyadH — Mfitc. 
Tartars — (>ln<>li\ 

Leuui Lenape— r((H(/('M', 

(Ilit'iDkoes — Ki'eni. 
J)iirieu Indians — Txi 

Leuui Lenapc— /cAvf 
Cliippewas— ll'o////. 

Cliippewas — A'ec. 
Miaiiiis — .Vcc. 
Wvandnts — Dec. 


Somoyads — Tuu. 

Tobioebouski— /\'»r/(j. 
Piimyocolli — Tzcr. 


Kartaliui Kckn, Hvk. 
Koriaks — \\'(i<i<ilcli. 

THE FiusT rKRsoxAii PiioxoiN I (E^oin Latin). 

Kamsc'liadalos Xieali, 
Koriaks — Xi'dli. 
L('s>,'his Ih'c. 

Mr. Nathaniel J. "SVyetli, who spent a number of years in the 
ailventurous Indian trade west of the Kooky Mountains, and who be- 
tween 1882 and 1830 was an n<^ent or factor of the Hudson Bay Coni- 
jinny, was led to consider the subject of the origin of the American 
Indian. Ho says in the winter of 18;5;? lie saw two Japanese who liad 
l»een wrecked in a junk near the entrance to the straits of Fuca. and 
that if they had been dressed in the same manner and placed with the 
Chiuook slaves, whose heads are not flattened, he could not have dis- 
covered the difference between the two. This instance is but one in 
the long chain of proof which has been brought forward from numer- 
ous sources, leading to the irresistible conclusion that the American 
Indian is of Mongolian or Asiatic stock. 

Peter Jones, an educated Indian of the Ojibway nation, wlio iip- 
[tears to have been a man of remarkable intelligence, and who gave 
much attention to the history and traditions of his race, says: 

'•Iain inclined to the opinion that the aborigines of America 
came originally from the northern parts of Asia, and that they crossed 
over at Behring's straits. I think this su[){)osition may account for 
the prevailing opinion among almost all the tribes, that their fore- 
fathers were first placed somewhere in the West, whence they took 
their journey toward the sun-rising. The notion they entertain of 
the souls of the dead returning to a good coiiiitry toward the sun-set- 
ting, may be derived from a faint remembrance of their having come 
from that direction, and the love they still feel for the better land they 
left behind." 



Miiiiy writoi'H nml otliiuil()<,'i.sts Imvo found in tlio niitivo tribes ni 
Amoricii various traits and cuKtouis lii<o thoso of the Jtnvs, some of 
whii'li are idtMitically tiie same, presenting coincidoncos in this regard 
whicii it wouhl seem could not exist, except upon the tlieory tliat thiy 
sprang from, or were at some tin\e connected with, tlie hitter peophv 
And so in reganl to imphMuents in use by the natives of Ncrtii America 
at the time of the discovery, whicli were identical in many r;ispects 
with those in use by the inhabitants of A.iiii. The liow and arrow 
found in use by the natives of North America were essentially the 
sanu^ iinplenu'nts used by the Tartars and otlier inha])itiints of the 
Asiatic continent, including the ancient .lews. The stone ax in use 
by the aboriginal inhabitants of Ntjrth America was, in its form, not 
uidikci impleiUiMits of the kind in use l)y the inhabitants of the Old 
World; and many samples of these have been found which are of the 
.same gt>neral ])atter!i as the modern steel ax of the present (hiy. 

Among otiier evidenctis that go to prove race unity, or that the 
American linlinns of North and South Americ;i are of one stock, is 
tiiat whicli is called their totems or 8ym1)ols, which mark the identity 
of a tribe, band or family. This characteristic was found among all 
the tribes, it would appear, from the Arctic region to Cape Horn. 

On the subject of race unity, Dr. Williams, in his history of 
Vermont, published manv vears ago, in referring to the aborigines of 
this country, says: "They hail spread over the whole continent from 
the iJOth degree of north latitude to the southern extremity of Caj)e 
Horn, and these men everywhere appear to be the same race, and tht> 
same [)eo[)le in every part of the continent. The Indians are marked 
with a similarity of color, features and every circumstance of external 
appearance. Pedro De Cicca De Leon, one of the conquerors of 
Peru, who had traveled through many provinces of America, says of 
the Indians: 'The people, nuMi and womeTi, althougli there are such 
multitude of tribes or nations, in sucli diversities of climates, appear 
nevertheless like the children of one father and mother.' " 

In all ages of Indian history, from the light atf(n-ded us, they 
have revealed the same general physical characteristics. They have 
reproduceil themselves through succeeding generations without change. 
The black straight hair, the black glo.ssv i yi Mi" coHin-shaped face, 
produced l)y prominent cheek b ^s le peculiar red color, among 
others, have been recognized ;< 
ology and type of the Araeri 
remarks, fullness or laidviiess ol < -;cle. ' ight or shortness of stature, 
and weakness or vigor in body, may be C' isidered as the effects of food 
or climate, but the traits that preside over and give character to the 

1 1 characteristics in the physi- 
indian. As . Schoolcraft well 


ribes nf 

SOUH> of 

liat till y 
■ jicojtlo. 

111 arrow 
iiilly tlio 
ts of tlu' 
X in tise 
form, not 

the 01.1 

TB of tllf 


that t\w 

stock, is 

B iiltMitity 

imoii^ all 


listory of 
rij^ines of 
iient from 
of CaiH' 
and tlif 
nerors of 
, says of 
are such 
3s, appear 

us, tliey 
hey have 
ut i'han<^e. 
ped faee. 
n\ among 
the i)hysi- 
craft well 

f stature, 
ts of food 
ter to the 




iiiiiscular mass rihow theiuaelves m clearly in the well fed (3rtH<,'P and 
Dakota and the stately Algonipiin, as in the tish and rahhit fed Gens 
de terre (Muskego) on the confines of Canada, or the root-eatin*,' 
Shoshonee of the Hocky Mountains. 

•• Thus it is," says Dr. Horton, "the American Indian from the 
s<mthern extremity of the continent to the northern limits of his 
ran<'e. is the same exterior man. With somewhat variable stature and 
I'oiiiplexion. his distinctive features, thou^'h variously modified, are 
never etl'aced; and he stands isolated from the rest of mankind, 
identified at a «;lance in every locality, and under every variety of 
circumstances; and even his desiccated remains, which have withstood 
the destroying hand of time, preserve the primeval type of liis race, 
excepting only when art has inter[)08ed to [irevent it." 

In this connection it is pro[)er to note, that among the primitive 
Indians, j)hvsical deformity of person was seldom, if ever, known — a 
condition of things that would naturally follow from regular habits 
iind simplicity of life. 

In tracing race origin or coincidences among races tending to 
show common origin, we are struck with the marked similarity in the 
ancient ruins found in some latitudes in both the Old and the New 
World, and this more especially in that dry and peculiar climate in 
tli(> latitude of Egypt and Central America. The ]>yraniids and 
pe<'uliar style of buildings, or other superstructures, hiiu'oglyphics, 
and all, might well be taken us evidence that they were tiie work of a 
peo[)le at some time having communiccition with each other, and, 
indeed, such is the theory of Mr. Donnelly, advanced in his spirited 
and interesting Avork, entitled "Atlantis." 

That there are not more of these ancient ruins fimml in the more 
northern latitudes of this continent, marking a higher civilization at 
some earlier period, is Jio doubt due to the peculiar climate in this 
latitudi\ in which it is found that the most enduring stone dissolves 
or decomposes within a limited time. It is not so in Egypt or other 
(•(luiitries of like climate, where these ancient monuments or marks of 
civilization are found at thi.-. day in a good state of preservation. 

There is no doubt whatever, and nmny evidences have from time 
to time been brought to light to show, that the country of the "Western 
H<'mis[)here was, at some time, inhabited by people existing in a 
higher state of civilization than that of the native population found 
here at the time of the discovery. This is esjjecially proven by the 
meager ruins Avhich have been discovered in Mexico and Central 
America. But notwithstanding this disadvantage in the want of 
physical evidence, there is history in the language, manners and 




An ancient city of Mexico, In the Interior of the State, and Poninsula of Yucatan, Central America. 


These ruins ntand on a p'ain In the renlnsula of Yucatan. When llrBt illBcovered, they were covered 
with a thick forest. The most remarliable edlflceH lie in a Kroiip, and consist of ps-ramlds, coated with strnt 
and cuiadianKular stone edifloes and tcrraceH. One of these jiyninilds Is l!iO feet In height, sntiporting R 
temple oi] the same. On one nf the facades of the temple ire four human tlKures, slmiUar to Caryatldea, 
cut In the stone with i;reat exactness and elegance. Their hands arc crossed upon the breast, their heads are 
enveloped In gomethlni; like a casque. 




'e covered 
li'il with fltrni 
iHUiipnrtlni; i>. 
lo raryatldes, 
Tieir liea(l8 ar<> 

customs of tlie population here, wliioli, if pursued mid iiivesti- 
irdted ])r.)|)erly and with diligence, leads to certain results in detei'- 
niiiiii;" the past, certainly as unerring as the crumbling monnnient:- 
and tlini inscriptions remaining to us in portions of the Old World. 

in oi.'.uiing the numerous mounds found in various localities 
thrnuiihout the Mississijijji valley, ancient ])ottery of various patterns 
and sliillfnl r.^anufacture is found, l-ailing us to conclude that it was 
tlie work of a people in a civiliziHl condition of life, the art of making 
wbich was not possessed by the natives who were found here at the 
linie of tlie discovery ; lu'ither did these natives hav(v any tradition, 
it is said, as to the people who were the nnmufacturers of these 
utensils. Tlieir utensils, for the like pur[)ose, what few tlnn' had. 
were made of bark or wood, or something of the kind: l)ut if we will 
take tli'3 trouble to inquire into the language of the people found hen^ 
at the discovery, especially those of the Algonciuin group, we will 
lind evidence of some connection between these people and those v lio 
wer'! the manufacturers of this ancient pottery, leading us to the con- 
clusion that the same is the A\ork of thoir ancestors, ami that the term 
prehistoric, as applied to this pottery, is a hiisnomer. 

Two hundred years ago, or at the first appearance of the white 
man. if an Ojibway Indian v/ere shown an ir(ni kettle, and wliose 
utensils for tlie like purpose were made of bark, and who had never 
seen an iron kettle, and ho should be asked whar he called it. he wouhl 
sav ■• A-kcck," that is, a tiling made of earth, in other words cdrllirn 
irarc, from (i-ki'(\ earth, and (t-kcck, a thing nnide of earth: which 
would appear to be some evidence, from th(^ language of this peo[>le, 
showing that they were the descendants of those who manufactured 
this pottery; and that whilst the art is lost to the present descen<lants 
iif those who manufactured it. yet the historical fact in tiuestion is 
preserved in the language of their descendants of the piesent day. 

Tt seems to bt^ a prevailing feature in tiie writings of all pcisons 
who have discussed the subject of the origin of the American Indian, 
that this people came from some other continent. There are some, 
however, like the distinguished ethnologist Morton, and his disciples, 
Knott and (Hidden, who boldly strike out upon a ditl'erent theory, and 
claiiii for the .\nHU'ican a distinct origin: one. as they say, as indige- 
nous to the continent itself as its fiiiimt and Jlora. 

The American race, says Dr. Morton, differs esst ntially from all 
others, not excepting the Mongolians; nor do the feelilc analogi(>s of 
the language, and the more obvi(ms ones of civil and religions insti- 
tutions and arts, denote anything beyond a casual communication 
with the Asiatic nation: an, I evn these analogies may periiaps bo 



accouiitoil for, as Humboldt has suggested, in the mere coincidences 
arising from the wants and impulses in nations inhabiting similar 

Even Prichai'd, whose views in regard to the human race differ 
materially from those of Morton and hia school of ethnology, 
acknowledges that, comparing the American Indian tribes with each 
other, we find reasons to believe that they must at some time have 
existed as a separate department of people in the earliest ages of 
the world. 

Hence, in adopting theories of this class, we can not expect, in 
tracing the relations i:etween the American Iiulians and the rest of 
mankind, to discover proofs of their derivation from any })articular 
tribe or nation in the old continent. 

In the classification by the eminent ethnologist Blumsnbach, the 
American Indians are treated ;:.-; a distinct variety (»f tiie human ram, 
whilst in the threefold divisions of mankind, laid down by Dr. 
Latham, they all rank among the Mongolaide. Other ethnologists of 
acknowledged learning also regard them as a branch of the great 
Mvnigolian family, which at a remote period of the world's history 
found tiieir way from Asif- to the Ain<>rican continent, and there 
nunained for thousands of years, separate from tiie res' of mankind, 
[)assing meanwhile through various alternations of barbarism and 

It is admitted, however, that among all the various American 
tribes, from the Arctic ocean to Cape Horn, there is greater uni 
f>)rmity of [)liysical structure and personal characteristics than is seen 
in any other (piarter of the globe. There are varieties of them, it is 
true, and these are sometinms of a very striking kind. Tlie native 
tribt!s of red men in tlie tcn-ritory of tlie country nortli of the latitudes 
of tlie (rulf of Mexico differ in many respects from tl.e native inliab 
itants of South America, but all exliibit evidences of belonging to the 
same great branch of the human family. 

Tlie testimony of Humboldt on this point is, that the Indians of 
New S{)ain bear a general resemblance to those who iiihal)it Canada, 
Floridfi, Peru and Brazil; and that from Ca|)e Horn to tiie river St. 
jjawrence ami lieliring's strait, we are struck at the first glancci with 
the general resemblance of the features of the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the two continents, and perceive them all to be descendants of the 
same stock, notwithstanding the great diversity of their languages. 

Capt. Jonathan Carver, who, during the mithllo oF tin* last century, 
traveled (juite extensively through the country west and northwest of 
Lake Michigan, and who afterwards published a book giving an account 




e differ 
th each 
lie have 
ages of 

pect, in 

rest of 


ach, the 

lau Jiico, 

by Dr. 

jirists of 

he great 
\ history 
u\ there 
ism ami 

iter uni 
11 is seen 
u'lii, it is 
10 nativi-' 
^ hititude 
e iiihai) 
ig to tht- 

liuliaiis ot 


river St. 

Imce witli 


Its of the 


[thwi^st ol 
III account 




of his travels and experience among the native Indians of the country 
tliroU''h which he passed, has appended to his journal or narrative 
of Ids travels quite an exhaustive disquisition on the subject of the 
ori<dii of the American Indians, in which is collected the views and 
i^iiecnlations of some of the most eminent writers and ethnologists, 
wlio have neld to the opinion that the natives of North America 
oiiginally came from some other continent. From this narrative the 
following extracts will be found interesting: 

" Mt)st of the historians or travelers who have treated on the 
American aborigines disagree in their sentiments relative to them. 
Many of the ancients are supposed to have known that this quarter of 
tlie I'lobe not t^nly existed, but also that it was inhabited. Plato in 
his TiniiGus lias asserted that beyond the Island which he calls 
Atalantis, and which, according to his description, was situated in the 
Wostern ocean, there Avere a great number of other islands, and behind 
those a vast continent. 

"Oviedo, a celebrated Spanish author of a much later date, has 
made no scruple to aflirni that the Antilles are the famous Hesperides 
so often mentioned by the [loets; which are at lengtii restoretl to 
the Kings of Spain, the desceiuhmts of King Hesperus, who lived 
upwards of three uiousand years ago, and fi'oin whom these islands 
received their names. 

' Two other Spaniards, the one, Father Gregorio Garcia, a 
Doininicaii, the other, Fatiier Joseph De Acosta. a Jesuit, have written 
on tht> origin of tiie .Vniericans. 

"The former, who had i)een employed in thc^ missions of Mexico 
ami Peru, endeavored to prove from the traditions of the Mexicans. 
I't'rnvians and others, which he received on the spot, and from the 
vfiriety of characters, customs, languagt^s, and religion o1)servable in the 
(liltVrent countries of the New World, that dilfertsiit nations had con- 
tributed to the peopling of it. 

"The latter. Father De Acosta, in his examination of the means 
hy which the first [ndians of ,\merica might have found a passage to 
that continent, discredits tlu> conclusions of those who have supposed 
it to i)e by sea, liecause no ancitMit author has made mention of tiie 
lapass; and concludeK that it must be either by the north of Asia 
11(1 Europe, whicii adjoin to <;ach otlier, or by those regions which 
lie to V\i} southward of the Straits of Magellan. He also rejects 
the (issertion of such as have advanced that it was peopled by the 

"John De Fjael, a Flemish writer, has controverted tlm opinions 
of these Spanish fathers, ami of many others who havi^ written on the 






anme subject. The liypothesis he endeavors to establish is. that 
America was certainly peopled by the Scythians or Tartars: and tliat 
the transmigration of these people happened soon after the dispersion 
of Noah's grandsons. He undertakes to show that the most northern 
Americans have a greater resemblance, not only in the features of their 
countenances, but also in their com[)lexion and manner of living, to 
the Scythians, Tartars ami Sameoides, than to any other nations. 

"In answer to Grotius, who had asserted that some of the Nor- 
wegians passed into Amtn'ica by way of Greeidand, and over n vast 
continent, he says, tiiat it is well known that Greenland was not 
discovered till the year 9()4r; and both Gomel a and Herrera inform us 
that the Chichimevpies were settled on tiie Laiie of Mexico in 721. He 
adds, that these savages, according to the uniform tradition of the 
Mexicans Avho dis[)ossessed them, came from the country since called 
New Mexico, and from the neighborhood of California; consequently 
North America must have becMi inhabited many ages before it could 
receive any iniiabitants from Norway by way of Greenland. 

" It is no less certain, he observt^s, that the real Mexicans 
founded their empire in '.(02, after having subdued the Chichinieques, 
the Otomias and other Iwrbarous nations, who had taken possession of 
the country around the Lake of Mexico, and each of wliom si)oko a 
language peculiar to thiMnselves. The real Mexicans are likewise sup- 
posed to come from some of the countries that lie near California, and 
that tht^y performed their journey for the most part by land; of course 
they could not come from Norway. 

"De Laet further adds, that though some of the inhabitants of 
North America may have entered it from the northwest, yet, as it is 
related by Pliny and some other writtu's, that on many of the isrlands 
near the western coast of Africa, particularly on the Canaries, soum 
an''ient edifices were seen, it is highly probable from their being now 
deserted, that the inhabitants may have passed over to America; the 
passage being neither long nor ditHcult. This migration, according to 
the calculation of those authors, must have happened more than twn 
hundred years ago, at a time when the Spaniards were much troubled 
by the Carthaginians; from whom, liaving obtained a knowledge of 
navigation and the construction of ships, they might have retired to the 
Antilles by the way of the western isles, which were exactly half way 
on tlnMr voyage. 

"Ho thinks also that Great Britain, Ireland and the Orcades were 
extremely proper to admit of a similar conjecture. As a proof he in- 
serts the following passage from the history of Wales, written l)y Dr. 
Daviil Powol, in the year 1170: 



fe, that 
lul that 

of their 
ring, to 


he Nor- 
: a vast 
n-as not 
torin us 
721. Ho 
L of the 
?.Q caUod 
it could 

lession of 

Bpoke a 
tviso sup- 
rnia, and 

)f course 

)itiints of 
as it is 
B ish\nds 
ies, soiiKi 
eing !io\v 
a-ica ; the 
ording to 
than two 
dodgo of 
Ml to the 
half way 

lules were 
of ho iti- 
Mi by Dr. 

• This historian says that Madoc. one of the sons of Prince Owen 
Orwvnnith, being disgusted at tlib civil wars wiiich broke out between 
his brothers after tlie death of their father, fitted out several vessels, 
!ind having proviiled them with eve.'ything necessary for a long voy- 
ii-rp, went in quest of new lands to the westward of Ireland; there he 
discovered very fertile countries, but destitute of inhabitants. AVhen 
landin" part of his peo[)le he returned to Britain, where he raised new 
levi>-s and afterwards transported them to his colony. 

"The Flemish author then returns to the Scythians, between whom 
and the Americans he draws a parallel. He observes that several 
nations of them to the north of the Caspian Sea led a wandering life, 
which, as well as many other of their customs and ways of living, 
agree in many circumstances with the Indians of America, and though 
tlie resemblances are not absolutely perfect, yet the emigrants, even 
before they left their own country, differed from each other, and went 
not 1)v the same name. Their change of abode effected what re- 

•• He further says, that a similar likeness exists between several 
American nations and the Samoiodes, who are settled, accortliug to the 
Russian accounts, on the great river Oby. And it is more natural, 
continues he, to suppose that colonies of their nations passed over to 
America by crossing the icy sea on their sledges, than for the Nor- 
wegians to travel all the wav Grotius has marked out for them 

'• This writer makes many other remarks that are ecjually sensi- 
ble, and which appear to be just: but he intermixes witii these some 
that are not so well founded. 

"Emanuel Do Moraez, a Portugese, in his history of Brazil, 
asserts that America has been wholly peo[)led by the Carthaginians 
and Israelites. Ho brings as a proof of this asserti(ni the discoveries 
the former are known to have made at a great distance beyond the 
coast of Africa. The progress of which, being put n stop to by the 
senate of Carthage, th<ise who happened to be then iji the newly dis- 
covered countries, being cut off' from all communication with their 
countrymen, and destitute of many necessaries of life, fell into a state 
of barbarism. As to the Israelites, this author thinks tiiat nothing 
Imt circumcision is wanted in order to constitute a perfect resemblance 
between them and the Brazilians. 

"George Do Huron, a learned Dutchman, has written on 
tlie subj(>ct. He sets out with declaring tliat he does not believe it 
possible America could have been peopled before the flood, consider- 
ing the short jpace of time which ela[)sed between the creation of the 
world and that memoraV)le event. In the next place he lays it down 



(IS ;i, principle, tliat after the deluge men ami other terrestrial animals 
penetrated into that country both by the sea and by land; some through 
accident and some from a f(U'med design; that birds got thither by 
flight: which they were able to do by resting on the rocks and islands 
that art> scattered about in the ocean. 

" Ho further observes that wild boasts may have found a free 
passage by land; and that if we do not moot with horses or cattle 
(to wliich he might have athlod elephants, camels, rhinoceros, ami 
beasts of many other kinds) it is because those nations tliat passed 
tiiither were either not ac(piainted witli tiieir use or iiad no convenience 
to supjiort them. 

"Having totally excluded many nations that others have admitted 
as the probalile first settlors of America, for which he gives substantial 
reasons, h(* supposes that it began to bo peopled by the north; ami 
maintains rhat the [yriniitive colonies spread themselves by the means 
of the Isthmus of Panama, tlirough the whole extent of the continent. 

" He believes that the first founders of the Indian colonies were 
Scythians; tiiat the Plueiiicians and Carthaginians afterwards '^ot 
footin<x iu America across the Atlantic Ocean, and the Chinese bv wav of 
tlio Pacific; and that other nations inight from time to time have landed 
there by one or other of these ways, or might possil)ly have been 
thrown on the coast by tem[)ests. since, throiig\ the whole extent of 
that continent, l)oth in its northern and southern parts, wo meet with 
undoubted marks of a mixture of the novtli(>rn nations with those who 
have come from other places. And lastly, that some Jews and Chris- 
tians might hfive been curried there by such like events, but that this 
must have happened at a time wIkmi the whole of the \ew World was 
already peo[)led. 

" After all. he acknowltMlges that great dilHculties attend the de- 
terminatit)U of the question. Tlu.'se, he says, are occasioned in the 
first place by the imj)orfect knowledge wo have of the extremities of 
the globe towards the north and south polos; and in the next [)lace to 
the havoc which the Spaniards, the first discoveiers of the New World, 
made among its most ancient monuments; as witness the gnvit double 
road betwixt (^uito and Cuzco, an undertaking .so stupi^idous that even 
the most magnificent of those executed by the Romans cannot be com- 
pared to it. 

" He supposes also another migration of tlie Phoenicinns. tlinii 
those already mentioned, to have taken place: and this was during ii 
three years' voyage made by the Tvrian tleet in the service of King 
Solomon. Ho asserts on the authority of .Toso])hus that tho port at 
which this (Mnbarkation was made lav in the Mfnliterranean. The 

ue h 







of Wj 






ther by 


I ii freo 

n- cattle 

jros, aiul 

t passed 




n-th; and 

lo means 


>nies were 

vards got 

bv way of 

ive landed 

hiivi'- been 

a extent ol' 

meet with 

those who 


iind Chris- 


it that this 

World was 


nd the de- 

i(h1 in the 


•(Muities of 


\t phu'G to 
lew AVorld. 


•(>;it double 


IS tliatevtMi 


Kit be coni- 



cians. thiui 

s durini,' a 

' j'U 

•0 of Kxwc 


he J) 

ort at 

fleet, lie adds, went in quest of elephants' teeth and peaeooks. Xu tlie 
western coast of Africa, wliich is Tarshish; then to Ophir for gold, 
Avhich is Haite, or the Island of the Hispaniola: and in the latter 
opinion lie is supported by Columbus, who, when he discovered that 
island, thought that he could trace the furnaces in Avhioli the gold was 

It is dithcult to understand how it is that iia^uiry is so continu- 
ously being made into the origin of the American Indian, to the 
exclusion of inipiiry as to the primitive inhabitants of other portions 
of the globe. For some reason, ethnologists seem to have directed 
their attention more especially, in this regard, to the American linlian. 
If attention should be directed to the j)riniitive natives of other 
piu'tions of the globe, with the like force and diligence as to the 
Aniericaii Indian, perliap.? we might be aided more in our investigations 
concerning tlie latter people. 

If we are to acccnint for the origin of the, aborigines of America, 
we would be called upon to account for the <n-igin of the peojde of the 
Sandwich Islands and other islands of the sea. All these people may 
as well be classed as being as indigenous to the country as are tiie 
inliiibitants of Africa, the subject of whose origin seems to have 
remained one of passive inditference beyond a kind of general 
assumption that they were indigenous to the country wherein they 
live, a conclusion which may with equal propriety be acquiesced iu 
concerning tlie native inhabitants of America. 

In doing this, however, we are compelled to discard tlie Jewish 
account of the flood, or ge>iHral inundation of the earths surface, mul 
tlie destruction of the race '1 mankind at that period. As to the 
common origin of the native inhabitants of both North and South 
America, to which reference has heretofore been made, the best 
authorities, as already mentioned, concur that the characteristics 
and language of this jieople go to establish this fact. 

As to the aboriginal inhabitants of North America, the evidences 
we have, as to a common origin, are a[»[)arent to every one who has 
given attention to this subject, and are cjuitn conclusive on this point, 
even as to those tribes and nations whoso languages are radically 
ditl'eveiit. and in comparison with each other have not the h-ast simi- 
larity, at least in words, and are found to possess certain uniform 
charju'teristics, manners and customs, and habits. They mII have the 
same, or essentially the same, religion; th(>y all have the same mode 
of warfare; they all possess the same general character ; they all have 
tlu' like feasts, fasts and dances. The weapon of the bow and arrow 
prevailed among all the tribes and nations; the flint arrowhead was 



fouTid nmontr all the tiibes from tlio Atliuitic to the Paeiflc, nnd so 
likewise was the stone ax used aiuoii<^ them of a uniform pattern. 

In their feasts, that of the sacrifice of the white dog was oljserved 
in the same manner and for the like purpose among all the tribes and 
nations. The dance called striking the post, which was a species of 
war dance, each })ledging to engage in some contemplated invasion oi' 
resistance to an enemy, manifest by striking a post around which tlic 
warriors gathered, and the custtmi of scalping an enemy slain in battl(> 
were also the same among all the tribes of North America. All of 
these manners, customs and traits have been taken as conclusive 
evidence of a common origin of all these native inhabitants. 

We frequently speak, from conjecture, of a prehistoric race in 
America, that is, of a supposed race existing before the native red man, 
entirely different from him. and living in a higher state of civilization, 
a nation who cultivated the soil, built and lived in permanent dwellijigs, 
and understood the arts and sciences. AVhilst this higher state of 
civilization spoken of miglit iiave existed on the Western Hemisphere 
at some period in the earth's existence may not be denied, yet there 
is no proof, or even fair })resuniption. that such a [jeople. if they ever 
existed, were not the ancestors of the aborigines found here at the 
time of the discovery. The native Indian possessed as high an order 
of intellect as the white invaders of his country. The common notion 
is, that a high order of intellect among mankind can only exist among 
people highly developed in civilization and tiie arts and sciences. 
This popular error has led to many false conclusions. The familiar 
saying that nations grow weaker and wiser is a maxim <>f much force 
and trutii. 

The beginning of ci^'ilization is but the beginning of vice and cor- 
ruption, and the history of tiie world goes to prove that it is but a 
(question of time when vice and corruption will prevail, and when human 
society will relapse into its original condition, from the overgrowth of 
what we call civilization. The human mind is not necessarily strength- 
ened by influences of this kind. This is shown in tracing and com- 
paring the character of the American aborigines with that of the first 
European invaders. The 8[)aniards, in point of intellect, were not 
superior to the race they sul)jugated, and this is shown in the marked 
character of the peo[)le of Mexico, coming down to the present day. 

A high order of intellect (U)es not necessarily imply the ingenuity 
to construct steamboats, railroads and telegra|)hs, nor does it imply 
the industry and skill necessary to erect lofty edifices and commodi<ms 
dwelling houses. This is a mere question of individual skill and 
enterpiise. There is such a thing as inferiority and sui)eriority of 




OH 10 IN. 


c, and so 

ribes mill 
species of 
vtision or 
yhirh the 
1 ill battle 
. All of 

ic race iu 
> reil man. 
!!• state of 
yet there 
they ever 
lere at the 
1 an order 
ion notion 
:ist aiuoug 
ncli force 

races with reference to the native capacity of mind, whilst both may 
continue to live in a native condition of society, neither rising to what 
we term civilization. 

The native Indian and the native African, at the period of the dis- 
covery of America, were l)oth living in the like simplicity of life, yet 
one race was superior to the other, so that superiority in native capac- 
ity does not necessarily imply a condition of civilization, or a want of 
it. This is a question oi circumstances. We speak of the savage 
races (which is understood to imply a condition where the hand of 
every man is raised against another with destructive intent, their 
whole lives teeming with barliarous acts towards each other), whilst 
the truth is that in regurd to barbarous deeds among mankind, the 
civilized people, or those who have passed for such, frequently far 
excel in barbarism those people of the earth whom we have styled 

The native condition of society presents nn example in general of 
the true ty^m of fraternal life, whilst a condition of civilization presents 
a condition of inconsistency, strife and destruction. The most inhu- 
man wars, the most ai)palling destructions among maukiud, are those 
examples afforded us through civilized nations. 

;e and cor- 
is but a 
Ml huniaii 
Ljrowtli of 
and com- 
f the first 
wore not 
le marketl 
nt day. 
< it inqily 
skill and 
eriority of 



Jral Trnditions— FreserviuK History by HioroK'lyphii's— Belts of Wampum — Mode of 

'rnmsiiiittiiitr Ilistoriciil Events— Had tlieir Hoiaers and tlieir /EsopH — Traditions 
Vaj,'iu> and Hliadowy — Serve, however, Some Purpose — Traditions of a Dehijie — 
Traditions of the Origin of their Race— The Mnuihum — Traditions of a Fiood— 
liepresenlation of the Ark Ceremonies Commemoratintf tlie Flood —Pottawat- 
tamie Tradition— Creek Indians— Tradition of Their Origin— Tradition of the 
()jil)wayH Of Their ()rij,'in—Nauahl)ozhoo ^lystcrioiis Power — Ori^'in of Indian 
Summer— Shawnee Tradition— Forei>,'n Oritfin-^Iontezuma— Cortez— New Kn- 
Kland Indians Tradition -Sauk Indian Tradition— Tradition of the ('hicka- 
SHWs Tradition of the Osa^es Tradition of the Scneeas (xreat Hill People 
Irociuois Nation -Iliawalha— Mysterious Power His Mrniculous Disappear- 
ance—Tradition of the A rrapahoes— Tradition of the Blaokfeet— The Bouncks — 
Tlieir Tradition. 

HE American Iiulian. unlike 
the more civiliztHl niiti<nis nt' 

yj If the Old World, possessed no 
^"•^ perfected art whereby lie 

could perjietnate and transmit his 
history down through succeeding gen- 
erations, further than by oral tradi- 
ticms. His mode of communication 
was bv words spoken, using signs in 
the mtinner of deaf mutes, between 
persons speaking different languages. 
He had, however, a system of hiero- 
glyphics and symbols which he in- 
scribed upon the bark of trees, 
dressed skins, and other nniterial of 
like perishable nature. He had no 
mode of inscription upon prepared 
stone or other like enduring material. 
Hence, his meager history, so far as 
he has any, has been preserved 
through family or tribtd trailitions, assisted to some extent by liis 
art of preserving the recollection of isolated events through 









-Mode of 
. Delude— 
a Flood— 
ioii of tilt' 
I of Indian 
-New Kn- 
le ('hicka- 
1 People 

II, unlike 
lations of 
jessed i><> 
reby lie 
isiiiit his 
iil tradi- 
sitriis ill 
lit' liiero- 
•h he iii- 
)f trees, 
iterial of 
had no 
so far as 
it by his 

belts of wampum, BO coiiinion among the Indians in primitive life, 
as also an article or medium of exciiange in commercial transactions. 
These belts, which will be further noticed in another part of this work, 
were of various classes, (me of which was manufactured specially for 
use in treaty negotiations between tril)e8 or nations, and were so wrought 
as to preserve or serve as a reminder of treaty stipulations. 

The Indian mode for preserving their history by oral traditions, 
proves that thev were a people of method and intelligence. Several 
liiiiiilies. and sometimes the families of an entire village, would 
assemble together at night in their council house or some capacious 
wi<'wam, where some older member of the tribe, which perhaps would 
be some noted cliief who had be<'oiiii' the repository of historic; events 
of his tribe, would recite to the assi'inbled listeners, young and old, an 
account of their history from the earliest times, as pre.served in their 
traditions from generation to generation, including the time of his own 
life. The rule was that all [iresent, and especially the young, should 
take note and bear in mind during their lives the information thus iui- 
iiarted to them. In this manner every youth was instructed ie the 
history of his tribe. Their general rule was that history could be 
prestMved with accuracy for the period of seven lives. That which 
rea<'hed back beyond this periixl was not relied upon as being accurate 
bevoiul dispute. 

.1. 1). Walker, of Arizona Territory, says that the Pima Indians, 
dwelling in that locality, select several promising youths of their tribe 
from time to time for repositories of their traditions, and they are care- 
fuUv instructed in the historical legends pertaining t<i their tribe. 
Iwiiig recpiired to commit them faithfully to memoi'y. They, in turn, 
instruct their successors, and thus preserve the traditions in the exact 
language recited by their ancestors of many years ago. They have 
knowledge of the tribe that built the old Casa Gi'aude and other vast 
buildings, whose ruins now excite such curiosity. 

The Indians not only liatl their Homers, but they had their .l^sop.s. 
Some trilies had regular story tellers, men who had devoted a great 
deal of time to learning the myths and stories of their peo{)le, and who 
possessed in addition to a good memory a vivitl imagination. Tim in- 
(hilgent Indian mother would fretpiently send for one of these, and 
having prepared a feast for him she and. her children would await the 
fairy stories of the dreamer who. after his feast and smoke, would en- 
tertain them for hours with his fanciful sketches and mythical visions, 
which were interesting and beautiful in their rich imagery, and which, 
like many similar productions of the ancient Greeks, have at times 
been given erroneous positions in history and ethnological data. 



Although thf'so ludiiiii triulitioiiH at times apiM'ur a) ho vague and 
shadowy, we can scarcely resist the inipressiou in many instances that 
they may have sprung originally from substantial sources, or servf as 
some slight iiidicatinn pointing towards real I'acts. In this c(tnn('ctioii 
it is iuti'rcsting to notejiow curiously these traditions l)ear rest-inhlancf 
to our own and those of other nations, and many insist tliat tiiey atl'i)ni 
us stmie aid in unraveling the mystery which surrouiuls this [leople 
conceriiiiii' tiieir ori<rin. 

We learn from yiv. Catlin, who. among other tribes, spent some 
time among the ("hoctaws. that they have always had a tradition of a 
great tleluge, iu descrii)iiig which they say there was total darkness 
for a great time over the whole of the eartli. Tin* Choctaw doctors, 
or mvsterv men. looked out for davli''ht lor a lont; tinu), until they 
at last despaired of ever seeing it, ai\d the whole nation was verv 
uidiappy. At last a light was discovered in the north, when there 
was great rejoicing, until the light was found to be a great uioun- 
tain of water rolling on. and wiiicii destroyeil them all except a few 
families who had expected it and built a great raft on which they were 

From the same source we are iid'ormed that the C'hoctaws have a 
band amongst them called le Crawfish l)and. They have a tradition 
that this band at a very remote period in the past lived under ground. 
They were a species of crawfish and used to come np out of the mud, 
and wenton their hands and feet, living in a large cave deep under the 
ground, where tiiere was no ligiit for several miles. They neither 
spoke nor could they understand any languagt^ at all. The entrance to 
their cave was through the mud. The Choctaws used to lie and wait 
for them to come out to the sun, when they would try to talk to them 
and cultivate an ac(inaintance. One day several of them W(>re r>in 
upon so suddenly by the Choctaws that they had no time to go through 
the mud back to their caves, but were driven in at another entrance 
through the rocks. The Choctaws then tried a long time to smoke 
them out, and at last succeedeil. They treated them kindly, taught 
them the Choctaw language, taught them to walk on two legs, made 
them cut otf their ti>e nails, and pluck the hair from their body, after 
which they ado[)ted them into their natitm, and the remainder of them 
are living under the ground to this day. 

The AVinnebngoes also have traditions of a flood or genera] 
inundation of the earth's surface, but. says Mr. Fletcher, their govern- 
ment agent fifty years ago, it is impossible to determine what was the 
character of their traditions of this event, previcnis to their first 
interview with the whites. It is not impossible that the traditions of 




no nnd 
*H thai 
■rvt' iiH 


,• nlViU'il 


it sollli' 
oil 1)1' n 
til tlu'V 
us very 
n theiT 
t in<mu- 
pt H few 
ley weic 

s hiivc M 
he luuil, 
luler the 
raiice tt) 
mil wait 
to thtMii 
Ivere run 
() smoke 
f. taught 
rs, made 
(ly. al'ttT 
of them 



was the 

lieir first 

litious of 

♦ lie (liliige for this trihe were based in part on tlie scriptural account 
communicated to tlieni by white peoplt^ 

Humboldt, wiio visited South America in tin' forepart of the 
present century, found u tradition of the Hood among tlie unreolainn'd 
tiil>(>s of tlie Cordilleras of the Andes. '•Such tradition,"' says Mr. 
.Scho<»lcraft, "in which heroic traits are ascril)ed to the suivi.tirs of ii 
universal deluge, existed in the wild cosniogonies of the thin tribes 
of the |irairie and forest grou[)s, of a western origin of the I'nited 
States and Mritisli Anu'rica." 

Mr. Catlin informs us that the Mandans had a tradition of a 
creat flood, which at .sonm period visit<'d tlu» earth, which event they 
comniemoiate every year at their annual religious ceremony of four 
(lavs. First among the objects of these annual religious (x-casioiis is 
a celi'i)ration of the event of the subsiding of this flood, which they 
(•idled Mee-nee-ro-ka-ha-sha, (sinking down or settling of the waters). 

[n tin' cindre of the Mandan village was an open circular area of 
one liundred and fifty feet in diameter, kept always clear as n public 
ground; iu the middle of which was n curb, somewhat like a large 
hogshead, standing on the end. made of planks and bound with i;oo[ts. 
sonu' eight or inne feet high, which the Mandans rtdigiously preserved 
and protected from year to year free from mark or scratch, and which 
they called the /*/// canoe. It appears to have been a symbolic repre- 
sentation of a part of their traditionary history of the flood, which 
thev had in sonn; way received, and were thus endeavoring to perpetuate 
in the minds of the whole nation. 

The ceremonies in (juestion are not assigned to any particular 
d;iv in the year, as these pt^ople do not keep a record of days or weeks; 
Init it occurs at a particular season which is designated by the full 
(>\pjinsion of the willow leaves under the bank of the river; foi', 
according to their tradition, the twig that the bird brought home was 
a willow bough ami had full grown leaves on it. and the bird to which 
they looked was the mourning or turth* dove, often seen to bo feeding 
(111 tiio sides of the earth-covered lodges, being, as they call it, n 
nit'dicine liird, which is not to be harmed by any one; and e^en their 
(logs are instructed not to do it injury. 

The ccn-emony described by Mr. Catlin commenced in the morning, 
when groups of Avomen and children were gathereil on the to[)S «)f 
tiieir earth-covered wigwams. They then all commenced screaming, 
the dogs began to howl, and all eyes were directed t(> the prairies on 
tlie west, where was beheld, a mile distant, a solitary individual 
descending the bluff and making his wav towards the villajre. The 
whole community joined in general expression of alarm, as if they 





were ill (l(u»«^fM" of instiiiit dt'istrurtioii; l)(>\vs wert' strung-, tlit'ir horses 
Wfiv I'iiiiijlit u|)i)ii tilt' ju'dirio and run into tiio villaijc. warriors 
blai'ktMH'd tlu'ir faeces, ami cvcrv prcpjiratioii niadti as if for instant 
coinl>at. Till' tisjfiirt' disruvcM-cd on tlic prairiti continued to approach 
witli dii,'nititMl step in direct lino towards tlio villaj^c. All cvrs wim-c 
upon liiiii, and lie at lon<;tli camn in and proc(>nded towards the ceiitri' 
of the vilhii^e where all the chiefs and i)ravei stood ready, and rectMved 
him in a cordial manner. reco<^iiiziiu,' him as an old uccjunintance. 
pronouncing his name Nu-inohk-muck-a-iiah. I first or onlv man I. 

The l)ody of this strange personage, which was nearly nak(>d. was 
painted with white clay, so as to reseinhle at a little distance a white 
man. He wore a rohe of four white wolves' skins falling l)ack ovt 
his slioulders. On his head he had a sjdendid head-dress. ni;ide of 
two ravel. "s <|iiills. and in lii>-. left hand he carried a large pipe, wliicli 
lu' set'ined to watch and giiai'd as something ol gi'cat im|)Oi'tance. 
After |)assing the chiefs anil braves he appi'oached the medicine Indyr, 
which he had the means of dpening. and wli'ch had been ndigioush 
closed during the yeai'. except through tin* perfoinianci* of the religious 
rites of that day. 

Having enten>d the Imlge, he appointed four men to put it in 
readiness for the ctM'emonies, by sweeping and strewing a profusion nf 
grecMi willow boughs over tho floor, and decorating the sides likewix 
with willow boughs. While thes(* preparations were going on. ainl 
during the whole day. this |iersonage went through tlie villai,'e. stopping 
in front of every lodge and crying until the owner caint! out and asked 
him who he was and what was the matter. To this he replied bv 
relating the sad catastropht* which had liap|>ened on the earth's surface 
bv the ovei'tlowiiig of the waters, saying tiiat he was the only |.ersoii 
sa\'ed from tliis unusual calamity: tlial lie laiKied his big caiioe on tlif 
high mountain in the west, where he tlnn resided; that he had com. 
to o|)eii the medicine lodge, which must needs I'eceive a nresent "( 
some edged tool from the owner of the wigwam, that it iniLrht be 
sacriticed to the water. If this were not done, he assured them tliei' 
would be another !!ood and none of them \m uld be saved, as it 
with such tools that the big canoe was :Ma<l.'. This being complied 
with, the implements received were deposited in the medicine lod<,rr. 
.\fler the last da\ of tin* ceremony, in the presence of llit» whole peopir 
of the village, they were thrown into tiie river in a deep p!ac<>. from 
whence tliev can nevei' b(> recovered, and are thus saciificed to tin 
Spirit of tin- waters. 

On the second day tliis my.sterious personage continues the 
corenioiiies of the occasitui. Having smoked his jiieilicine pipe, aiid 






Ml i^ 







'fs weri' 


kod. was 
> a white 
ack ovr 
, ina(l»^ t>f 
[i(>. wliirli 
[no Idiln''. 
- rtiligi'His 

) |)iit it ill 
•ol'usion "f 
>s likmvisi 
iir on, ami 
11(1 aski'il 
|.litMl li\ 

S SlU't'il*!' 
Iv |,l'ISi>II 

(ic on till' 
hilt! coni'' 
n'l'St'iit ol 
iniu'ht 111' 

fWl thtT' 
MS it WilS 

■iiie hidili' 

\(llll |)(MI|lll' 

>!act\ i'l'oni 

llM'tl to till' 

ilinnt's till' 


addressed a short speecli to the people, stimulating them to put their 
trust in tlie Great Spirit, he calls into the lodge an old raetlicine or 
mystery man, whose body is painted yellow, and whom he appoints 
master of ceremonies of the occasion. After tliis Nu-raohk-muck-a-nah 
shaktjs hands and takes leave of him, by saying that he is going back 
to tlie mountain in the west, from whence he will return in just a year 
from tliat time to open tlie lodge again ; whereupon ho leaves the village 
and tlisappears over tlie bluffs from whevice he came, and no more is 
seen of this surprising ciiaracter during the occasion, as was understood ; 
the fact being, however, tlmt he reappeared in another garb, and took 
part in the remaining ceremonies with others of the village. 

Mr. Catlin furtlier informs us that lie learned from a distinguisiied 
Knistenaux on the uppe: Mississippi, that the aforesaid trilxi had a 
tradition of a great freslu'f and Hood, wliich took placid many centuries 
lM>fore and destroyed all the nations of the earth, wiiidi event it seems 
they connect with the formation of the gi'eat Pipe Stone (^nari'v in 
what is now the state of Minnesota. Their tradition is that all tlie 
liiltes of the red men assembled on the Coteau du Prairie to get out 
of tilt way of the waters: and after they jiad all gathered here from all 
parts, the waters continued to rise until at length it C(»vered them all 
in a mass, and their flesli was converted into red pipe stone. Tins 
legend, so firmly bc'lcvcd in by many tribes, is assigned as a rea.soii 
why this pipe stone ([uarry was so generally hehl among the Indians in 
such sacred esiiMMii. 

The Maiidans say of their origii that they were originally shut 
out from the light of heaven, and dwelt together near a subterranean 
lake. A grape vino which extended its roots far into the earth to tlii> 
place wlitM-e they were, gave them the first intimation of the light upon 
llii> faci^ of the earth. Hy means of this vine, one-half of the tiibe 
clinilied up to the surface and were delightthl with its light and air, 
Its .M I fruits and game. The otlit>r half were left in their dark 
•>ris. 1: house, owing to the bulk and weight of an old woman, who by 
,er corpulency tore down the vine and proventetl any more of the tribe 
t'-om ascending. 

Tl'.e Navajoes, in regard to thi>ir origin, like the Mandans. claim 
that they caini> out of the twiitii. Tradition would indicatt* that tiiey 
aiigrated from th(> northeast. 

Tlit^ Pottawattapiie" bcli;v'^ in two spit'fs. symbolizing good and 
evil. One they call Kitcheuianito ( (»reat Spirit) ; the other, IMatche- 
iiniiiito I Evil Spiri'.). The;, say that when Kitchemanito first made 
tlll^ world, he filled it with a class of beings who only looked like men, 
hut who wore perverse, ungi atoful, wicked dogs, wlu) never raised their 




oyeK from tJie gvownil to tlinnk liin: for anytliiii^'. Sociii;;- this, the 
Clreat S[)irit plunged tliciii, witli tin' world its(>lt', into ii i^Mcjit laUf find 
drowntnl tlieni all. Ho tlit^n wi'.hdrew tiio earth from the water, ami 
made a man. a very handsome young man, l)nt ho being vei'v lonesonii' 
anil sad. Kitrhemanito took pity on him and scmt him a sister to eiieer 
him in his loneliness. 

After many years the young in.i:i liad a di'eani. whicli he told his 
sister. "Five young men,"" said lie, '• will conm to your lodge dodr 
tliis night to visit you. The (ri'eat Spirit forhids you to answer oi- 
even look up and smihi at the first I'oui': Imt when t!ie tUtii comes, yini 
may speak and laugh and show that you are pleased. Slie acted 
accordingly. Tin^ ti 'st of the five strangers that caUed was I'sama, oi- 
tolmt'co, aiul having heen repid.sed, iu* fell down and died. The 
second. Wapako, or u pumpkin, shared tin* same fate: the third. 
Eshkossimin. in- melon, and tin' fourtii, Kokees. or the bean, met tin' 
s.'ime f.u'. But when Damin or Mondamin. which is mai/e. presi-nted 
tumseif. slie ojn'ned the skin tapestry door of her lodge, laughed \i'\\ 
heartily, and gave him a friendly reception. They were immedialely 
married, ami from this union the Indian sprung. Damin forthwith 
buried the four unsuicossful suitors, and from their ''raves there irrew 
tol)acco, melons of all sorts, and beans; and in this mant' "■ *iie (ireat 
Spirit pi'oviiled that the race which he had made rliontii have 
S(»mething to otb r him as a gift in their feasts and ceremonies. 
and also Komething to put in their akeeks or kettles along with 
their meat. 

The ('re<Oc Indians have a tradition that they sprung fioni the 
ground between the Catawba and .Uabanni rivers: that the * ii'eat Spirit 
brought them out. and that they were the sole rigiiltul possessois of 
tlm soil. They bebevt^ that lad'ore the creation there existed a great 
l)ody of water upon the earth. Two pigeons were sent forth in search 
of land, but found nothing. On going forth tlu* second tim(>. they 
pmcured a blade of grass, after w ; icli tin* waters Hui)sided and tlie 
land iippeared. They have no traditnm of their peojile living elsewhere 
than in North Anu'riea, and have no tradition of this country ever 
being oc('U|(ied i)efore them by a more civili/ed peoplt> than them- 
selves. They have ii vague tradition that the eouidry was occupieil 
before them by a people of whom they have n<i definite knowledge. 
'I'lie nann* tlii'y have* for America is the " Land of the Indians," or 
"Lnn.lof the Ked Teople." 

According to Peter Jones, the educated Ojibway. the people of 
thnt nation s ly that thercMvertM-reated by Kitchemanito ( (Ireat Spirit ), 
or K6zhumuiiedo (Merciful or Benevolent Spirit), and placed on tlie 



is. thr 
kt! tunl 
'I', anil 


) chft'i- 
oil I liis 

re lloKl" 

wcr t>v 

n's, you 
' acti'<l 
aiiui, or 
I. Tlu- 
y tliirtl. 
met tilt' 


t'tl VI' rv 
wo <^w\\ 
lie (ircat 
!iL liavo 
)iiU witli 

roll! tilt' 

111 Sjiirit 

lessors ol 

I II rri'cilt 

II St'Ml'l'll 

|mt>. tlit'V 

and tilt' 

Isi'vvln I'l' 

try tivcr 

n tlit'iii- 





Itt'oplo of 
It Spirit). 
ll on tlu' 

continent of America: that every nation speakinj^a different lan>,'na<,'e 
is a separate creation: that wlien the Great Spi/it ;,'av.^ them their rr- 
li.rion he told them how to act. ar.d they think it would he wrong to 
forsake the old ways of their forefathers. 

The Ojilnvays have n traditit>n that before the f,'eneral deluge 

there lived two enormous creatures, each possessed of vast power. 

One was an animal with a gr^-at horn on ins ht>ad. the other was a 

hn"-e toatl. The latter hati the whole management of the waters, 

keening them secure in its own body, and emitting only a certain 

quantitv for the watering of the earth. Between these two creatures 

there arose a quarrel, which terminated in a fight. Tli;^ toad in vain 

tried to swidlow its antagonist, hut the latter rushed upon >'.. and with 

his horn pierced a hole in its side, out of which the wattM' gushed in 

floods, and soon overllowed the face of the earth. At this time Nan- 

ahhozlioo was living on the earth, niid. ohsei'ving the water rising 

hi'dier and higher, he tletl to the loftie-^t mountuin for refuge. Per- 

ceivin" that even this retreat would soon lie inundated, he selected a 

Inrt'e cedar tree on which to ascend if the waters should rise up to 

Shim. Before they reached him he caught a number of animals and 

;fowls and put them into his bosom. I''iii!ill\ the water covered the 

imttiintain. Me then ascended the cedar tree, and as he went up he 

Ipluckeil its branches and stuck them in the belt around his waist. The 

"Wtrei^ grew and kept pace with the water for a longtime. .\t length he 

Ati biHiiloned tiie idea of remiiining any longer on the tree, and took the 

sraiiclies he had plucked and with them constructed a raft, on which 

^lic phiced himself with the animals and fowls. On this raft he flouted 

i^ilibout for a long time, till all the mountaiiis were covered ami all the 

"^Piisls of the earth and fowls of the air perished except thoi-'' he had 

^villi liiiii. 

-* \\ length Naiiahl)ozhoo thought of forming a new world, but did 

!ot know how to accom|ilish it without any materials, unlil the idea 
ecurii'd to him that if he could only obtain some of the earth which 
'Hs then under the water, lie might succeeil. Iit> accordingly emploved 
lie ditVereiit animals he had with him that were accustoiueil to diving, 
'irsl. he ser.t the loon down into the water in tu'der to bring up some 
f the old earth: but it was not able to n»ach the bottom, and after 
Bmaining in the water som»< time <'amv' up dead. Nanahbo/hoo then 
ic.ok it. blew upon it. and it came to lit'** again. Hi> next sent the 
ftter, which also failed to reach the bott<im and vnuw up dead, but was 
Bflt.ired to life in the same manner as the loon. He then tried the 
'jkill of the beaver, but without success. These diving animals having 
wilt'il. lie took the muskriit. who was gon(> a long time and came up 



(lead. On taking it up Nannhbozhoo found, to his great joy, that it 
had readied the earth, ami had retained some of tlie soil in each i 
its paw.s and mouth. He then blew upon it and bi'ought it to 1 , ic 
again, at the same time pronouncing many blessings upon it, sayi :>r 
that as long as tlie world he was about to make should exist, the miihk- 
rat should never become extinct. 

Tliis prediction of Nanahbozhoo is still spoken of by the Indiims 
when referrijig to the rapid increase of the muskrat. Nanahbozliio 
then took the eartli so brought him, and having rubbed it with iii.s 
hands to fiia dust, lie placed it on the waters and blew uj)on it, wii-ii 
it began to grow larger and larger, until it was b(»yond the reatdi nf 
his eye. In order to ascertain the size of the world and the pro;fr( >s 
of its growth and expansion, he sent a wolf to run to the end of it, 
measuring its extent by the time consumed in the journey. Tlie liist 
jtmrney he performed in one day. the sectmd took him five days, tlie 
third ten, the fourth a moiitli, tlien a year, five year.s, and so on, until 
the world was so large that \aiialil)ozlioo then said tliat tlu> world \\iis 
large enough, and commanded it to cease growing. After this Naiinh- 
bozhoo took a journey to view the new world he had made; as In 
traveled he created various tribes of Iiuliaiis and ])laced tliem in ditlVr- 
ent i)arts of the earth, giving them various religions, customs ainl 



This Nanalibozhoo now sits at the north pole, overlooking all tin 
transactions and ail'airs of the peo|)le he has placed on the earth. 'I'ln 
northern tribes say tliat Naiialil)ozhoo always sh'eps during the wiiiti'i. 
but previous to his falling asleep fills his great pipe and smokes Im 
several days, and that it is the siimke arising from the mouth and |ji|ri 
of Nanahbozhoo wiiicli produced what is called *' [ndian summer." 

This Nanahbozhoo JnM-e referred to is the same character tin 

poet Longfellow adopts in Jiis celebrated poem of Ojibway Indifiii 

legends, which he styles Hiawatha, lieiiig the naiiui of a siniiln: 

character noted in the traditions of the Inxpiois nation, and winch 

name is a word in the Iroijuois language; and the mode of produciin' 

the Indian summer, above alluded to, is referred to by Longfellow ii 

his poem in the following lines: 

" From Ills iiipo tlit> Hiiioko iloBCoiuliiiK' 
Fillod the wky with liHZt> aiul vapor, 
FHUmI (lie air with ilrcaniv Hoftiiesa, 
(lave a twinkle to tin- water, 
Toiidioil tijc ruKk'wl liilJH with Biiioothnoss, 
IJrou^lit tlw ti>mU>r ludian snmiiier." 

We are informed by Col. James Smith, for several years ])otw( 


l"')o and lTot> a captive among the Indians of Northern Olii(\ timt 



,-, tllHt It 

, each f 
it to liiV 
it, »ayi ;;; 
the muhk- 

le Iiulii' IS 
iahl)o/Ji 1(1 

with ills 
1 it, wli-ii 
) reach <>f 
e pro;iri >s 

end of It. 

Tlie liist 

• daya. tlic 

•■,0 on, until 

world \\a> 
his NaiNih- 
ade; an In- 
ui in dill' 1- 
iistonis iiml 

ing all till 

th. Th.. 

lit' willtiT 

nukes I 111 
and iii|ii 
iracter tin 
ay Indiiii, 
(I similar 
lUlll wlnrl, 
njftellow ii. 


ar« betwi'iM. 
Ohio, that 


tiie Wyandota have a tradition of a remarkable squaw of their tribe, 
wiio was found when an infant in the water, in a canoe made of bull- 
rushes. She bet-me a j^jreat prophetess and did many wonderful 
tiiiiK's. She turned water into dry land, and at length made this 
cdiitinent, which was at that time only a very small island, and but a 
few Indians on it; but even these few had not sufficient room to hunt, 
11 nd so this squaw went to the water side and prayed that this island 
nii'dit be enlarged. The (Ireat Si)irit heard her prayer and sent 
liii-o'e numbers of water tortoises and muskrats, who bnmght with 
tiiem mud and other materials for enlarging the island, and by which 
means they say it was increased to its present size. Therefore the 
white people ought not to encroach upon them, because their great 
grandmother made it. 

Tiiev say abcmt this time the angels, or heavenly inhabitants, as 
tlii'v called them, frequently visited their forefathers, and instructed 
tliem to offer sacrifice, burn tobacco, buffalo and deer bones, but that 
lliey were not to burn bears or raccoon bones in sacrifice. Tlie 
Ottawas, who were a cognate tribe of tiie Pottawattamies. Jiad the like 
tradition of the latter people. 

Sir Alexander McKenzie informs us that the Chipeyans, a tribe 
of the Athapasca or Athabasca stock, have a tradition that they 
iiriginally came from another country, inhabited by a very weak 
iicople, and had traversed a lake which was narrow and shallow, and 
u here they had suffered great misery, it being always winter with ice 
and snow. According to the tradition of the Athapasca family, to 
wiiich this tribe belonged, this people came from Siberia, agreeing in 
lircss and manners with the ])eople now found upon the coast of Asia. 
Tlio Shawnees have a tradition that they are of foreign origin; that 
their ancestors came from across the sea, and that they formerly maJj 
vftarlv sacrifices for their safe arrival in this country. 

The following tradition is from the letter book of the United 
States. St. Louis Superintendency, Misstmri, recorded May Mh, ISl'J, 
im heing received fnmi the lips of a Shawnee, named Louis Kogers: 

"It is many years ago since the numbers of the Shawnees were 
very great. They were on an important occasi(>;i encarai)ed together 
(III 11 prairie. At night one-half of theia fell asleep; the others 
HMuained awake. Those who kept awake abandoned the sleepers 
iMifore morning, and betook themselves to the course where the sun 
ri, ,s. The others gradually pursued their route in the direction 
where the sun sets. This was tli<* origin of the two nations, tlie first 
of whicli was called S'.awnee, and the <itlnr Kickapoo. 

'• Prior to this separation, these nations were consid red one, and 



were blessed with tlio bounties <if heaven above any blessings wliii li 
arc now enjoyed by any deseription of mankind. And they ascnim 
their ju-esent depressed condition and tlio withdrawal of the favors nf 
Providence, to tlio anger of the Great IJeiiig at their se[)aratiou. 

'•Among tlie many tokens of divine favor, which they formei y 
enjoyed, was tlu! art of walking on t\w surface of tiie oceiiii, by Avhii ii 
they crossed from tiie east tt> America without vessels; also the art 
of restoring life to the dead, by the use of lue^dical arts continiuid inv 
the Spaeth of six hours. Witchcraft and ])ro}theey were with them ;it 
their inghest state, and were practiced without feigning; and, in fini'. 
such were the gifts of heaven to them, that nothing fell short of tin ir 
inconceivable power to perform. And after the Shawnees have 
wandered to the remotest west, and returned eastward to the 
place of separation, the world will have finished its career. It is 
believed by the Shawnees, that the consummation of this prophecy is 
not far distant, because they have, in fulfillment of the ])roplier\. 
reached the c .-me western point, and are now retrograding on 
their steps." 

]\b)iitezuma told Corfez of a foreign connection between tiic 
Aztec, race and the natives «)f the Old World. His words coming Id 
us throu<,'li Spanish sources, are to the following etVecl : His speecii is 
this — "i would have you to understand before you begin your di.s- 
course, that we are nc*^ ignorant, or stand in need of your persuasions, 
to believe that the great prince you obey is descended from our 
ancient (^uetzalcoatl. Lord of the Seven Caves of the Navatla<|U('s, 
and lawful king of those seven nations which gave bi^ginning to our 
Mexii-an (Mupire. JJy one of his pro[ihecies, which wo receive as an 
iid'allible truth, and by a tradition of many ages, preserve<l in oui 
annals, we know that he departed from these counti'ies, to con<|U('i 
new regions in the East, leaving a ))romise, that in process of tini". 
his descendants should return to model our laws and mend (un 

Cotton Mathei', the noted Puritan divine, says of the Massacliu- 
setts Induins; "They l)elieve that their chief god Kamantowit madi' 
ft nmn and wonnin of stone, which, upon disUke, In* broke to pieces, 
and made another man and woman of a tree, which wert* the fountaius 
of all mankind; and that we all have in us immortal souls, which, il 
we ar»! godly, shall go to a splendid enteii inment vvitli Kanuuitowit, 
but, otherwise, must wander about in restless horrors forever." 

.\ccording to Kev. Jedidiah Morse, in his report to the Secretiiiv 
of War on Indian affairs in l^'i'J, the Sauk [mlians had a traditiin 
that the lireat Spirit, in th' tiist [)lace. created from the dirt of tin' 







gs whit li 

y iis(M'ili(' 

I'tivort? .if 



by whit li 

o the lilt 

imiod iui- 

li tliom at 

(1, in iiiH'. 

•t of thi ir 

leoH hiivi' 

H original 

er. It is 

rophepy is 


riuliiig on 

tweou till' 

coining til 

s s|)ci3ch is 

Your (lis- 


from our 


ing to our 

I'ivci lis an 

(mI in our 

o con<nu'r 

ss of tini". 

niciul our ! 

Massacini- # 

Lo\\ it niiiiii' % 

to pieces, ^j 

' fountains :| 

-, whicli. if % 
aiaantowit, / 


» S»»crotarv j. 

11 irutlitii'H 1 
lirt of till- i5 



eartli two men; hut, finding that these alone wouhl not answer his|mr- 
i)ose, be took t'rom oacii miin a ril) and made two women; from these 
four sprung nil red men; tluit ihey were all one nation until they 
heiiaved so badlv the CJreat Spirit came among them and talked dif- 
ferent languages to them, which caused them to separate and form 
ditlerent nations. 

Mr. Fletcher, United States Indian agent for the Winneliagoea 
.some llftv years ago, gives tlie following tradition then current among 
tiiat people, from Siio-go-nick-kaw ( Ijittle Hill ). a chief of that tribe: 

'• Tiie (Ireat Spirit first waked up as from a dream, and found 
himself sitting on a chair. On finding himself alone, betook a piece 
of his bodv, near his heart, and a jiiece of earth, and from them made 
!i man. He then procet'ded to mak<» three other men. After talking 
ii while with the nu'n he bad created, the Great Spirit made a woman, 
who was tliis earth, and is the grandmother of the Indians. The 
four men which wei'e first created are the four winds, east, west, north 
and soulli. Tiie earth, after it was cr(>ated, rocked about: and the 
Ciieat Spirit made four l)easts and four snakes, and put them under 
the earth to steady and support it. But when the vinds blew the 
lieasts and snakes could not keep the earth steady, and the (ii'eat 
Spirit made a great butl'alo and put him umler the earth; this buffalo 
is tht* land which keeps the earth steady. After the earth became 
steadv. the (IreaL Spirit took a j)iece of bis heart and nuub^ a man, 
and then took a piece of bis flt^sh and made a woman. The man knew 
a great deal, but the woman knew but little. The Great Spirit then 
took some tobacco and tobacco seed and gave them to the man. and 
gav(^ to the woman om; seed of every kind of grain, and showed her 
every herb and root that was good for food. 

"The roots and herbs w»'ro made mIhmi the earth was made. 
When the Great Spirit gave tobacco to the man. he told him that when 
lie wanted to speak to the winds or the beasts to ])ut tobacco in the 
tire and they Mould bear him, and that the Gi'eat Spirit would answer 
him. After the Great Spirit gave these things to the man and woman, 
lie told them to look down; and they looked down, and saw a child 
standing between them. The Great Spirit tobl them that thev must 
take care of fhtMduldren. The (ireat Spirit then created one man 
and one woman of evcu'y trilx* and tongue on the (>arth, and told them 
ill Winnebago that tlitn' would live on the ci^nfre of the earth. The 
Gi-eat Spirit then made the beasts and birds for fh(> use of man. He 
then looked down U[)ou his children and saw that they were happv. 
The Great Spirit made the fire nnd tobacco f(»r the Winnebagoes. and 
all the other Indians got their fire ami tobacco fiom them; and this 




is the rensou v, liy all the other tribes cull tlie Winnebaj^o their dear 

" After the Great Spirit had made ail these things, he ilid uot 
look down on the earth again for one hundred and eighteen years. He 
then looked down and saw the old men and women coming out of their 
wigwams, gray-hoadtnl and stooping, and that they fell to pieces. Tht; 
Great Si)irit then thought that he had made the Indians to live too 
long, and that they increased too fast. He thencluuiged his plan, and 
sent four thunilers down to tell the Indians that tliev must fijrht. 
and they did fight and kill each other. After that the Indians did not 
increase so fast. Tiie Good Spirit took tiie good Indians who were 
killed in battle to himself; but the bad Indians who were kilhul went 
to the west. After awhile a bad spirit waked up and saw what the 
Good Spirit had done, and thought he could do as much ; so he set to 
work and tried to make an Indian, and made a negro. He then tried 
to make a black bear, and made a grizzly bear. Ho tiien made some 
snakes, but they were all venomous. The bad spirit maile all the 
worthless trees, the thistles and useless weeds that grow on the earth. 
He also made a fire, but it was not so good as the fire that the Good 
Spirit made ami gave to the Indian. 

"The bad s[)irit tem[)ted tlie Indians to steal, and murder, and 
lie; and when the Indians who conimitteil those crimes died, they went 
to the bad spirit. The Good Si)irit commanded the Indians to be 
good, and they were so until the bad spirit tempted them to do wrong." 

Tlio early traditions of all the Now England and Atlantic coast 
tribes point to a migration from the southwest. Such were the tradi- 
tions of the Massachusetts group of small tribes, the Narragansetts or 
Wampanoags of the Mohicans, and the maritime tribes. The Lenni 
Lenapo of Pennsylvania told a tradition to the Moravian missionaries, 
detailing the crossing of the Mississippi by that people long after the 
pas.sage of the Irtxpiois and the Allegaiis. 

The stmthern Indians represent themselves as having come orig- 
inally from the west; and, after crossing the Missi8si[)pi at higher or 
lower points (at eras more or less remote), as having conquered tiie 
original Florida tribes, and taken their places. Like early accounts 
of migration are given by the, Choctaws, Crooks and 
Cheiokoes. Tiie Creeks proceeded eastward across Florida to the 
Ocmulgee branch of the Aitamaiia, tiioir oldest town and pormanent 
resting place. The old tribes against whom they fought were the 
YamacrawB, Ogechees, Wapoos, Santees, Uches, Yamasees, Utinas. 
Paticas, and Icosans-terms, some of which only linger in tiieir verbal 




to bo 

lerod tlio 
;ekH aiul 
a ti) tho 


if verbal 

Whon the old tribes west of tlie Mississippi nre nsked the diroction 
tlipv came from, they {X)int south. Thoy caiuo up over tho fertile, level 
iilains and hilly uplands of tho forbidding' and inipassaiilo peaks of 
tlio llockv Mountains. Such is the account of the t^uappas ( Kapahas 
of Do Soto's day), Cedrons, Kansas, and tho generality of the great 
prairie or Dakota group west of tho Mississip[)i, and of the lowas, 
Sioux, and Winnebagoes who had crossed the stream at and below St. 
Anthonv's Falls, and above the junction of the Missouri. 

Mr. Heckewelder says the Indians consider the earth as their 
universal mother. Their traditions teach them that tlu^y were created 
witiiin its bo.soni, where for a long time they had their abode, before 
tliev came to live on its surface; that the (treat Spirit undoubtedly 
intended at a proper time to put them in the enjoyment of the good 
tilings ho had prepared on earth, but ordained that their first stage of 
existence should be within it. Mr. Heckewelder remarks that, 'this 
fabulous account of the creation of man coincides renmrkably with the 
ancient Egvptians and tl e Urahmins of India." 

The traditions of the Cliickasaws say that the white |teoph< were 
the favorites of the (rreat Spirit; that he taught them to communicate 
with each other without talking; that no matter how far they are put 
apart, they can make each other understand; and that he also taught 
the wliite people to live without hunting, and instructed them to make 
anything that they want; but he oidy taught tiie Indians how to 
hunt, and that they had to get their living by hunting or perish, and 
the white people have no right to hunt. They say they got the first 
corn just after the fiood, from a raven which tiew over them and 
ilr()|>ped a part of an ear; they were told by the (treat Spirit to plant 
it. and it grew up; that they worked in the soil around it with their 
fingers. They never had any kind of tools; but when they wanted 
lo-^'s or poles a certain length they had to burn them; and that thev 
made heads for their arrows out of a white kind of Hint rock. 

Tiie Chickasaws, by their traditions, say that they came from the 

west, and part of their tribe remained there. When about to start 

eastward, they were provided with a large dog as a guard, and a pole 

as a guide. Tho dog would give them notice whenever an enemy was 

near at hand, and thus enablo them to prepare for defense. Tlie polo 

they would plant in the ground every night, and the next morning 

tht y would look at it ami go in the diroction it leaned. They continued 

their journey in this way until they crossed the great Mississippi river, 

iand proceeded to the Alabama river in the country whore Huntsville 

[in that state now is. There the pole was unsettled for several davs, 

[but finally it settled and {)ointed in a southwest direction. They then 




stfirtc'd on that roTuse. pliiiitiii;,' ilio |m>1<< every iii<;lit until they ^nt In 
wluit is oilled the CMiickasfiw Old Fieldrt. where the pole stoixl jiert'eetiv 
ereet. All then caint' ti> tiie conclusion that tiiis was tiie |ironiisi .1 
land, and there the main l>ody of them accordiii^dy remaim i 
until they migrated west of the state of Arkansas, in the yeais 

The I'ot-to-yan-te tribe, of the refjions of California, under.stooil 
to lie one of the trihes or hands of tin' Honaks or Hoot |)i','^'ers. lia\.' 
the following,' tradition concernin<,' their ori<:jin and existence, as <xiv( u 
liy an Indian chief of that trii)e: 

••Tiie first Indians that lived were Coyotes. AVlien oiif of their 
nundier died, tlw body l)ecame full of little animals, -ir spirits, as Ih' 
thou<,dit them. After crawliiii,' over the body for a time, they took all 
manner of sha[)es; sonn' that of the deer, others that of the elk. tlir 
antelope, etc. It was discovered, however, that i,'reat nund)ers avciv 
takin*; wind's, and for a wiiihs tiiey sailed about in the air; but 
eventually they would tly olf to the moon. The old Coyotes (or 
Indians) foarin<^ that tht^ earth mi<;ht become depopulated in tiiK 
way. concluded to stop it at once; and ordt>red that when any of llnii 
people died, the body must l>e burnt. Ever after they continued \<< 
burn the Ixidy of deceased persons. Then the Indians l)e>^an tn 
n.ssume the shape of a man; but at first they were very imperfect in 
all their parts. At first they walkeil on all fours, then they be<ran tn 
have some meni!»ei's of tli(> iiuman fi'ame — one finifei". on<^ toe, one eve. 
one eai'. etc. After a time they iiad two tinijers. two toes, two eve^, 
two ears. etc. In all theii' lindis and joints they were yet very imper 
feet, but pi'o<,'reHsed fi'oni period to |)(>riod, until tiiey becanu^ ])erfei't 
men and women. In the course of their transition from tiie Coyote tn 
Ininian liein^'s. they not in the habit of siltin<,' upri<,'ht, and lost tlmir 
tails. This is with many of tliem a .source of re<,'ret to this day, ;i- 
they considei' a tail (piite an ornament; and in decorating' themseivi^ 
for a dance or other festive occasions, a portion of tiiem alwa\~ 
decorate tliemselves witli tails." 

Tiie following' ti'adition is taken from the otlic'al reconlsof tlieSt, 
Louis Indian Superintenih'ncy : 

••The ()sa<,'«'s believe tliat the first nnin of their nation came out 
of a shell, and that this man wiien waikini,' on eartli met witli tin 
(treat Spirit, who asked him where! he resitled and what he ate. Tip 
Osaj^e luiswered that he had no place of residence, jind that he uli 
nothin'^. The Great Hpirit jj^ave him a bow and arrow and told him tn 
^o a huntin<(. So soon as the Great Spirit left him lie killed a dem 
The Great Spirit <,'ave him tire and told him to cook his meat, and in 

as ffivt II 

of tlll'il 

rits, IIS 111' 

V took 111! 

n V\\i. tlH' 

bers vfiv 
> air; I'n' 
)Vot«'s ('ir 
ul in tlii> 
ly of tlitir 
iitiinu>il tci 
b('^-iui til 
|iilit'i'l'*'«'t ill 

V l)i'jj;aii til 
one i'_vi\ 

two tiVf^. 
rv iiiiiKT 
w, jjt'rt't'ft 
('(.yoto til 
lost tlii'ir 
is liny. ii> 
licmsi'l ve- 
in alwuy- 

-(,f tilt' St. 

II ('nuu> mit 
I't with tin- 
at<'. 'I'll'- 


at Ik' fit' 

tdld liiin til 

l(>il a (li''i 

cat. ami tn 



eat. Ho also toKl him to tako the skin and covor hinisolf witii it, n\u\ 
also till' skins of other animals that he wo -id kill. 

"Dno dav, as the Osago huntin<,', Im cann' to a small river to 
drink. He saw in the river a l)eaver hut. on whicii was sittinj^ Iho 
ihief of the family. He asked the Osage what ho was lookinj,' for, so 
near his lod<,'(>. The Osage answered that being thirsty he was forced 
to come and drink at that place. The beaver then aske<l him who he 
was and from whence he came. The Osage answered that ho had 
come from hunting, and that he had no |ilaco of residence. •Well, 
then.' said the beaver, "you appear to be a reasonablt> man. I wisii 
vou to come and live with nu;. 1 have a huge family, consisting of 
manv daughters, and if any of them should bi^ agreeable to you, yoii 
inav marrv.' The Osage accepted tin* offer, and some time after nnii'- 
ricd one of the beaver's daughters, with whom lH^ had many children. 
Those children have formed tho Osngo people. This marriage of the 
Osage with the beaver has been the cause that the Osages do not kill 
the beaver. They always sup[>osed that by killing the beaver they 
were killing the Osages." 

The tradition of the Seneeas in regard to their origin is that they 
broke out of tho earth from a large mountain at tho head of Can.m- 
daii^nia lake, which mountain they still venerate as the place of their 
birth, which they call (leuundewah, or gri;at hill, and from which this 
people are known among themselves and cognat(* tribes as (la-nun-do-o- 
no. "Tho Great Hill People." Tho Seneeas, they say, were in a fort 
on tho top of this hill, which became surrounded by a monstrous ser- 
pi'ut, wlii»s(* head and tail camo togt^ther. It lay there a long time, 
confounding the people with its breath. At length they attempted to 
make their escape, but in marching out of tho fort they walked down 
the throat of the serp»'nt. 

Two orphan children, who had escaped this general destructi<m 
by Iteing left on this side of tho fort, were informed by an oracle of 
the mt^aiis by which they could get rid of their formidable enemy by 
taking a small bow and a {)oisoned arrow, made of a kind of wiUow, 
and with that shooting the seri)ent under its scales. This tiiey did, and 
the arrow proved effectual, for, on its penetrating tho skin the serpent 
became sick, and exttMuling itself rolled down the hill, destroving all 
tlii> timher that was in its way, in tln^ nu'antime disgorging. At every 
motion a human head was discharged and rolled down the hill into th« 
lake, where they all remained in a petrified state, having the hardnesw 
and appearance of stones. 

Down to lati^ date the Indians were accustomed to visit that sacr^d 
place to mourn tho fate of their people ami celebrate some pe( uliar 









ilM ilM 



1 2.2 


1-4 111.6 




WEBSTfeR.N.Y 14580 

(716; 37?V--,03 










y M^< 





rites. To the knowledge of Avhite people there has been no timber on 
the great hill since it was first discovered by them, though it lay ap- 
parently in a state of nature for a great number of years without culti- 
vation. It is asserted that stones in the shape of Indians' heads may 
be seen lying in the lake in great plenty in the vicinity of the great 
hill, which, tradition says, are the same that were deposited there at 
the death of the sei'pent. 

The Seuecas have also a tradition, that previous to, and for some 
time after, their origin at GenundeAvah, the country, especially about 
the lakes, was thickly inhabited by a race of civil, enterprising and in- 
dustrious people, who were totally destroyed by the great serpent that 
afterwards surrounded the great hill fort, with the assistance of others 
of the same species, and that the Senecas went into possession of the 
improvements that were left. 

The Senecas say that in those days the Indians throughout the 
whole country spoke one language ; but the great serpent, by an un- 
known influence, confounded their languages so that they could not 
understand each other, and this was the cause of their division into 
nations. At that time, however, the Senecas retained the original 
language and continued to occupy their mother hill, on Avhich they 
fortified themselves against their enemies and lived peaceably until, 
having offended the great serpent, they were cut off as before 

The Onondagas have a legend that they sprang out of the ground 
on the banks of the Oswego river. 

The Iroquois nation have a somewhat curious tradition as to the 
circumstances through which their national league of the original five 
tribes was first formed. This tradition alleges that a remarkable 
person grew up among them, originally known as Tarenyawago, who is 
represented as a person of great wisdom and who taught this people 
arts and knowledge. He possessed supernatural powers and hnd a 
canoe which would move without paddles, being propelled by his will, 
in which he ascended the streams and traversed the lakes. He taught 
the people hoA/ to raise corn and beans, removed obstructions from the 
water courses, and made their fishing grounds clear. He helped them 
to get the mastery over the great monsters which overran the country, 
and thus prepared the forests for their hunters. The people listened 
to him with admiration and followed his advice. He excelled in all 
things. He excelled their good hunters, brave warriors and eloquent 
orators. Having given his people instructions for observing the laws 
and maxims of the Great Spirit, he laid aside the high powers of his 
public mission to set thera an example of how they should live, where- 



upon he erected a lodge for his dwelliug, pinnted corn, kept near him 
his magic canoe and selected a wife. 

In relinquishing his former position as a subordinate to the Great 
Spirit, lie also dropped his original name, and at the instance of his 
people torik that of Hir.watha. He chose to become a member of the 
Onondaga tribe, and took up his residence in their fruitful valley, 
which was the central point of their government. Suddeidy there 
was an invasion of a ferocious band of warriors coming fr<mi the north 
of the great lakes. A ' thev advanced there was made an indiscrimi- 
nate slaughter of men, Avoraen and children, and the public alarm was 
extreme. Hiawatha advised his people to call a general council of all 
the tribes that couid be gathered together from the east to the west, 
appointing a meeting to be held at a suitable place indicated, on the 
banks of Onondaga Lake. All the chief men accordingly assend)led 
at this place, as Avell as a vast multitude of men, women and children, 
in expectation, of deliverance. 

Hiawitha, for some reason, delayed his attendance; messengers 
were sent for hin, who found him in a pensive mooil, and to whom he 
expressed the foreboding that evil might come from his attendance. 
But these presentiments were overcome by the representations of the 
messengers, and thereupon he put his wonderful canoe again into the 
watery element and set out for the council, taking with him his only 
daughter; proceeding up the current of the Seneca river, he soon 
appeared among his people at the great council. 

As he walked up the ascent from the lake to the council ground, a 
loud sound was heard in the air above as if caused by some rushing 
current of wind. A spot of matter was discovered descending rapidly, 
and every instant enlarging in its size and velocity. Hiawatha, as 
soon as he had gained the eminence, stood still, and caused his daugh- 
ter to do the same, considering it cowardly to tiy and impossible to 
avert the designs of the Great Spirit, 

The descending object disclosed the shape of a large white bird, 
with wide, extended and pointed wings, coming doAvn upon the ground 
swifter and swifter, and with a powerful swoop crushed the daughter 
of Hiawatha to the earth. Not a muscle moved in the face of 
Hiawatha. His daughter lay dead before him, but the great and mys- 
terious white bird was also killed in the shock. This bird was cov- 
ered with beautiful plumes of snow-white shining feathers, one of 
which was plucked by each warrior, with which lie decorated himself; 
and, hence, it became a custom among this people to assume this kind 
of feathers on the war path. Subsecjuent generations, it is said, sub- 
stituted the plumes of the white heron, which led this bird to be 



greatly esteemed. But still greater wonder followed, for on removing 
the carcass of the bird not a trace of the daughter could be discovered ; 
she had completely vanished. At this the father was greatly atfectetl 
and l)ecame disconsolate, but he aroused himself and [miceeded to the 
head of the council with dignified air, covered with his simple robe of 
wolf skin, taking his seat among the chiefs, warriors and counselors 
assembled. On the second day of the council Hiawatha arose and 
proceeded to give to his people his advice as to how they should best 
provide for their future welfare. He said: 

'•My friends and brothers: You are members of many tribes, 
and have come from a great distance. We have met to promote the 
common interest and our mutual safety. How shall it be accomplished? 
To oppose these northern hordes in tribes singly, while we are at vari- 
ance often with each other, is impossible. By uniting in a common 
band of brotherhood Ave may hope to succeed. Let this be done, and 
we shall drive the enemy from our land. Listen to me by tribes." 
Whereupon he proceeded to assign positions to each one of the five 
tribes of the nation their respective position in their newly constituted 
league, addressing each separately. To the Mohawks he assigned the 
country on the Mohawk river, next to the Hudson, as the first in the 
nation, because they were warlike and mighty. The Oneidas he assigned 
next in position on the west, as the second nation, because they always 
gave wise counsel. To the Onondagas, Avhose habitation was at the 
foot of the great hill, he assigned the third in the jiation, because 
they were all greatly gifted in speech. To the Senecas, whose dwell- 
ing was in the dark forest, and whose home was everywhere, he assigned 
to be the fourth nation, because of their superior cunning in hunting ; 
and the Cayugas, the people living in the o])en country, possessing 
much wisdom, he assigned as the fifth nation, because they understood 
better the art of raising corn and beans and making houses. 

On the next day Hiawatha's advice was concurred in by the great 
council, and the five tribes were united in a bond of union, since called 
the League of the Iroquois. After this Hiawatha took leave of the 
council, announcing his withdrawal to the skies, whereupon he went 
down to the water, seated himself in his mysterious canoe, when sweet 
music was heard in the air above, and his mystical vessel, in which he re- 
mained seated, Avas lifted gently from the surface of the Avater, ascend- 
ing higher and higher till it vanished from sight and disappeared in 
the celestial regions of the Owayneo (Great Spirit) and his hosts. 

It seems that this mythical personage tlie poet LongfelloAv took 
and l)lended into various OjibAvay legends, forming that masterly pro- 
duction styled the " Song of Hiawatha," Avhich added so much to his 



literniy fame. Whilst the Ojibways had a similar supernatural per- 
sonage in their traditions called by thorn Xdiidhhozhuu, yet he does 
not seem to have served so fully to bring (nit what the poet desired to 
present in this net-work of Ojibway legends. 

The marvellous power of Hiawatha, given him in the foregoing 
Iroquois legend, in propelling and guiding his niystieal boat, is 
carried by the poet Longfellow into his Ojibway legend iu the follow- 
ing lines: 

"Paddles none had Hiawatha, 

Paddlos nono lie Lad or needed, 

For Ids thoughts as paddles served him, 

And his wiahcs served to guide him; 

Swift or slov/ at will ho glidt^d. 

Veered to right or left at pleasure." 

It is observed that this mythical story of Hiawatha, as the ancient 
law giver of the Irotjuois, and his miraculous disappearance from 
among his people, singularly corresponds with that historical occur- 
rence, or that given us as such, concerning the ancient B[)Hrtan law 
giver Lycurgus, who, after preparing a complete code of laws for the 
Spartans, and giving them advice as to the future, mysteriously dis- 
appeared forever. 

It also possessed a similar feature to that given us in the 
account of the great law giver of Israel, who, after his mission had 
been accom2)lished, in like manner was not allowed to continue 
longer among them, and of whom it is written: "And the Lord 
said unto him: This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto 
Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed; I have 
caused thee to see it with thine eyes, bui, thou shale not go over 
thither. So Moses, the servant of the Lord, died there in the land of 
Moab, accoi'ding to the word of the Lord. And he buried him iu a 
valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor: but no man 
kuoweth of his se{)ulclire unto this day." 

The Arapahoes had a tradition, that before there were any 
animals on earth it was covered with water, except one mountain on 
which was seated an Arapahoe crying, and who was poor and iu dis- 
tress. The gods looked upon him with pity, and created three ducks 
and sent them to him. The Arapahoe commanded the ducks to dive 
down in the water and bring up f^omo dirt. One of them obeyed. 
After a long time he came up, but had failed to find any dirt. The 
second duck went down and was gone still longer than the first. He 
also came up without finding dirt. Then the third duck went down 
and was gone likewise a long time, but when he arose to the surface 
he had a little dirt in his mouth. Directly the waters disappeared, 



and left the Arapahoe the sole possessor of the land. Thereupon the 
Arapahoe made the rivers and the woodland, placing the latter near 
the streams. He then created a Spaniar'i and a beaver, and from 
their union came all the people of tlie earth. The whites he made 
beyond the ocean. He then created all the animals that are on earth, 
all the birds of the air, fishes of the streams, the grasses and all 
things that grow on the earth. He made a pipe and gave it to the 
people. He sliowed them how to make bows and arrows, how to make 
fire by rubbing two sticks, how to talk with their hands, and how to 
live. He also instructed all the surrounding tribes to live at peafie 
with the Arapahoes. All these tribes came to the Arapr<]ioes, who 
gave them their goods and ponies. The Arapahoes never let their 
hearts get tired Avitli giving, and all the tribes loved them. 

The Blackfeet have a tradition or myth, that an old man, who 
lived far in the north, made the earth and all tilings upon it; that 
there is a great river in the north where this old man played; that 
there are there two huge rocks, which he used to play with as boys 
play with pebbles, and that these rocks have worn a deep trail in the 
solid rock. 

Captain Clark, in his book on Indian sign language, says that a 
chief of the Bonack tribe, at the Fort Hall agency, gave him the fol- 
lowing tradition in regard to the creation, as told him by his grand- 
father: He said that they had a great father who made them. In 
what shape this father was at the present day they did not know, but 
perhaps in that of a cloud, the snow, or a storm, but it was the Big 
Grey Wolf who was the father of the Bonacks, and the Coyote was the 
father of the Shoshonees. The Grey Wolf was a God, and when the 
Bonacks died they went to where he lived. This wolf formerly lived 
ill a rock near Win-ne-mucka, in a huge hollow rock. The trail made 
by this wolf in going in and out, they say, is still visible, and his foot- 
prints are in the solid rocks and can be seen to-day. His grandfather 
told him that the earth was once covered with water, except the high- 
est peaks, and the Avind blew so hard that the water washed out the 
deep ravines, which are now seen, but this was before any people were 
made. The Shoshonees have a tradition or myth of the creation much 
like that of the Bonacks, showing an intimate relation between the two 

Capt. Clark gives the following tradition among the Crow Indians 
as related to him by an old chief: "Long ago there was a great flood, 
and only one man was left, whom we call 'The Old Man' because it 
happened so long ago, and because we have talked about him so much. 
This god saw a duck and said to aim, • come here, my brother. Go 



down and y;et some dirt and I will see what I can do with if The 
duck dived and was gone a long time. Coming to the surfaco, he had a 
small bit of mud. The god said he would make something with it, and 
added, 'We are here by ourselves, it is bad!' Holding the mud in his 
haml till it dried, then blowing it in different directions, there was dry 
land all about. The duck and the god and the ground were all that 
existed. He then made the creeks and mountains, and after that they 
asked each other to do certain things, llie duck asked the god to 
make certain things, among the rest, Indians on the prairie. The god 
took some dirt in his hand, blew it out, and there stood a man and a 
woman. A great many Crows sprang up at once from this dirt, but 
they were blind. The first nmn created pulled open one eye and saw 
the streams and mountains, and then the other and cried out that tin? 
country was fine. The first woman created did the same, and they 
told the rest to do the same, and to this day the peculiar marks about 
the eyes show the manner of opening them. The first two then asked 
the god for sonething to hide their nakedness. The god told the 
woman and explained to the man how to perpetuate their species." 

From investigation it would ai)pear that nearly every tribe, if not 
all of them, without exception, had its legends of origin not unlike 
those which are here given. Late ex[)lorations and more intinmte ac- 
quaintanc'i with the Indians of Alaska, to the most northern limit, 
shows this same class of legends concerning their origin, all going to 
still further strsngthen the theory of a common stock among all 
American tribes. One of these legends is given by Lieut. C. E. K. 
Wood, who visited Alaska in 1877, and styled by him the T'link(!t 
legend of Mount Edgecundje, and which was given him by Tah-ah-nah- 
klick, one of his Indian guides. 


OpinioDof James Adair-Tho Indians Descemletl from tlie People of Israel-He Assisns 
Twenty-three Arf,'iuuouls lor this Opinion — Similarity Between the Langnatjes — 
Comparison of Words and Sentences — Opinion of liev. Jedidiah Morse — Simi- 
larity of Kclitrions Customs— Dr. Boudinot Favors this Tlieory Rev. Etiian 
Smith— Evidence in Favor of this Theory — The Indians Acknowledge bnt One 
Great Spirit like the Jews Father Charlevoix Presents Evideuee in Support of 
this Theory — Indians Were Never Known to Worship Images— Evidence of 
William Penu -Features of the Face like the Hebrews — And so with Dress^ 
Trinkets and Ornaments— Their Fasts and Feasts, like the Jews - They Reckon 
by Moons and ('omit Time like th(> Hebrews — Have their Prophets — Abstain from 
Unclean Thiu^s -Salute the Dawn of Mornin;,' by Devotional Ceremony — In 
their Lodf,'e Tales and Traditions Twelve Brothers are Spoken of— Custom in 
Mournint,' for the Dead, like the Jews- Have a Custom of Burnt Ot!'eriuKS — Had 
B Custom like the Jews of Annointinff the Head— The Indian Medicine Lodge 
Corresponded to the .Jewish Synagogue— Had a Secret Order lleseml)ling that of 
the Jews— Their Medicine Man Corresponded to the " Wise Men." Matthew 
II, 1 — The Bow and Arrow was (Common to the .Tews— The Indian Tent was like 
that of the Jews — Lived in Tribes like the .Jews. 

jKwisM Hicat riiiEST IN ins 


ANY writers have <;iven special atten- 
^\^ / \ / \;' tion to an inquiry into the subject of 
the American aborigines, with refer- 
ence to di.scovering an afiinity of tliis 
people with the Jews, or people of Israel. 

Among the class of writers aforesaid is Mr. 
James Adair, who resided forty years among the 
American tril)es, and who wrote a book on the 
subject, Avhich was pid)lis]ied about the year 
1775, in which he, without hesitation, declares 
that the American aborigines are descendants 
from the Israelites, and so complete is his con- 
viction on tliis head, that he declares he finds a 
perfect and undisputable similitude in each. He 
says: "From the most accurate observations I 
could make, in the long time I traded among 
the Indians of America, I was forced to believe 
them lineally descended from the tribes of 


\FF1NITY WITH TllK ,lj;\VS. 


AmoiiiT the enrlv nntlioritios oitod, to show that tlio Ainorionn 
Indinns are desceinlniits from thi- Isrnelites. Mr. Adair seems to ho tlio 
principal one, and since his time, all writers who have favored liis 
views, refer with unreserved confidence to the evid(Mice furnished l)y 
hira to this end. 

One of the earnest writers in support of this theory in lattM- times, is 
Hex. Etlian Smith, of Poultney, A^t., as shown in liis bookentith'd •• N'iew 
of tlie Hebrew, or tlie Tribes of Israel in America." published in iSlio, 
wlier(>in he undertakes to prove, citinij Mr. Adair and otlu-rs. tliat the 
American Indians are descendants from tlio Lost Trib(>s of Israel. 

Mr. Smith sums up the ar<;unients of Mr. Adair that the natives 
of tliis continent are of tlu^ ten tribes of Israel, to the following effect: 
1. Their division into tribes. 2. Tlieir worslii[) of Jehovah. ;5. 
Their notions of a tlumcracy. 4. Their belief in the administration of 
nngels. 5. Their language and dialects. 0. Their manner of counting 
time. 7. Tlieir prophets and higli priests. 8. Their festivals, fasts 
and religious rites. '.). Tlu'ir daily sacrifice. 10. Tlieir ablution-; 
and anointings. 11. Tlieir laws of unclcanliness. 12. Their absti- 
nence from unclean things. !'•). Their marriage, divorces and punish- 
ments of adultery. 11. Tlieir several punishments. 15. Their cities 
of refuge. 1(5. Their purifications and preparatory ceremonies. 17. 
Their m-naments. Is. Their manner of curing the sick. lit. Their 
burial of the dead. 20. Their mourning for the dead, 21. Their 
raising seed to a deceased brother. 22. Their change of names adapted 
to their circumstances and times. 2i3. Their own traditions; tiio 
account of English writers; and the testimonies given by S[)aniards 
and other Avriters of the primitive inhabitants of Mexico and Peru. 

Many of those who contend for Jewish origin of the American 
Indian insist that evidence of this fact is found in the languages of 
the Indians, whicli appear clearly to have been derived from the 
Hebrew. This is the opinion expressed by Mr. Adair, in which Dr. 
Edwai'ds h.'iving a gcHxl knowledge of some of the Indian languages, 
concurs and gives his reasons for believing this people to have been 
originally Hel)rew. 

Tiie languages of the Indians and of the Hebrews, he remarks, 
are both found without prepositions, and are formed -with prefixes and 
Buffixes, a thing not C(minn)n to other languages; and he says that 
not only the Avords, but the construction of phrases in both are 
essentially the same. Tlie Indian pronoun, as well as other nouns, he 
remarks, are manifestly from the Hebrews. The Indian laconic, bold, 
and commanding figures of s[>eech, Mr. Adair notes as exactly 
agreeing with the genius of the Hebrew language. 




Kclfitivo to tlio H(!l)rnisin of tlieir fi^urn, Mr. Adnir <riv(>B the 
following iiistaiico from an uddross of a cai)taiii to lii.s warriors, ou 
going to buttlo: "I know that your guns are burning in your hands; 
your tomahawks aro tliirsting to drink tho blood of your enomies; 
your trusty arrows aru impatient to be upon the wing; and lest delay 
should burn your hearts any longer, I give you the cool refrosiung 
words: .lain llic iiolij ark; •iid (iifdij lo cut off the dcrolcd ntcniij.'''' 

A table of words and [)hrases is furnished by Dr. Boudinot, 
Adair and others, to show the similarity, in some of tlie Indian lan- 
guages, to tho Hebrew, and that the former must have been derived 
from the latter. The following is an exaini)le atl'ord(>(l from the 
sources quoted: 










Ale, Aleiiu. 


Yaii or Wah. 












Isb, Ishie. 







Eweh, Eve. 




His wife. 



Tliis man. 






Roof of a house. 









To pray. 






Hind part. 









linsliinj,' wind. 



Ararat, or biyh luouu^. 






My skin. 



Man of God. 

Aslito Alio. 

Ishda Alloa. 

Waiter of the biyh priest 






Very hot. 

Hern liara or hala. 

Hara hara. 

Praise to the first cause. 



Give me food. 

Natl ni bonian. 

Natoni bamen. 

Go thy way. 

J3ayoii boorkaa. 

Bona bonak. 

(^Tood be with yon. 

Halea tibon. 

Ye hali ettonboa. 

My ueekhico. 

Yeue kali. 


I am sick. 

Nana guale. 

Nance heti. 

Rev. Jedidiah Morse, in his tour among the Western Indians, says 
of the Indians' language: "It is highly metaphorical; and in this and 
other resjiects they resemble the Hebrew." "This resemblance in 
their language" he adds, "and the similarity of many of their 



reli<;ions custoius to those of tlie Hobrows, cortainly give plnusiMlity 
to tlio ingenious theory of Dr. Boudinot. cxliihited in his iiiterostiii"^ 
work, llir Shu- in llic West."' 

Dr. Boudinot spoaiis of Koiiie liidiuns iit a phice c/iIKmI (lohocks, 
wiio culk'd tlio higli iiioiiiitaiii !it the west Aranit. He says that the 
Penobscot Indians caUed a hij^li mountain by tiie same name; that 
he himself attended an Indian relijjfious danco. conceniiug which he 

"Tliey (hmce one round: and tiien a stn-ond. siii<,nng lial-lial-hal, 
till they finished the round. They then gave us a third round, strik- 
ing up the words le-le-le. On tlie next round it was the words, 
lu-lu-lu, dancing with all their might. ])uring the fifth round was 
yah-yah-yah. Then all joined in a lively and joyful chorus, and 
sung halleluyah; dwelling on each syllable with a very long bnuith, 
in a most pleasing manner." And he says, "there could bo no decep- 
tion in all this. Their pronunciation was very gutteral and sonorous, 
but distinct and clear." 

Rev. Ethan Smith, in his book before mentioned, remarking on 
this circumstance, says: "How could it be possible that the wild 
native Americans, in different parts of the continent, should l)e f(mnd 
singing tliis phrase of praise to the Great First Cause, or to Jaii — 
cxcliisirclii TTchrcir, without having l)rougiit it down by traditicm from 
ancient Israel ? Tiie positive testimonies of such men as Boudinot 
and Adair are not to be dis[)ensed with nor doubted. They testify 
what they have seen and heard. And I can conceive of no rational 
way to account for this Indian song, Imt that they l)r()ught it down 
from ancient Israel, tiieir ancestors." 

Dr. Boudinot furtiier says of the Indians: "Their languages in 
their roots, idioms and particular construction, appear to have tiie 
whole genius of the Hebrew; and what is very remarkable have 
most of tiie peculiarities of that language, especially those in which 
it differs from most other languages." 

It is also insisted by many, as further evidence showing the 
Jewish origin of the American Indian, that they have had their 
imitation of the ark of the covenant in ancient Israel. Rev. Ethan 
Smith says, that different travelers, and from different regions, unite 
ill this, and refers to the fact that Mr. Adair is full in his account of 
it. He describes it as a small stpiare box, made convenient to carry 
on the back; that the Indians never set it on the ground, l)ut on rocks 
in low ground Avliere stones were not to l)e had, and on stones where 
they are to be found. Mr. Adair, in reference to this matter, says: 

"It is worthy of notice that they never place the ark on the 



grouiitl, nor set it on the Imro enrth when i\n'y ait> ciinyinf^ it ngiiiuHt 
111! eut'niy. On hilly ground, where stones lire plenty, they place it ou 
tlit'ni. But in level Inml, upon sliort lo^s, nlwiiys resting themselves 
(i. e. the carriers of the ark) <>n the same materials. They have also 
as strong a faith of the power and holiness of tiieir ark as ever the 
Israelites retaiiKul of theirs. Tiie Indian ark is de<- ,id so saered 
and dangerous to touch, either l)y tlieir own sanctitied warriors, or the 
spoiling enemy, <liat neitiiei of tlieni dare meddh^ with it on any 
account. It is not to bo handled by any except the chieftaii; and his 
waiter, under [H'ualty of incurring great evil; nor would the most 
inveterate enemy dare to touch it. The leader virtually acts the part 
of a jiriest of war. jiro fciiiporr. in imitation of the Israelites fighting 
under till' divine military banner/'' 

It is said that among all the al)original trilu's niid nations of both 
Noith and South America, whatever may have been said by the Span- 
iards to the I'ontrary, tlit>y acknowledged one, and only one Ciod, and 
this again is taken by tiH> ailvocates of the Jewish origin of the 
AnuM'ican Iiidians as further ])ror, +liat this people are descendants of 
the Jew.s. Dr. Boudinot says of t'l ' Indians, that they were never 
known, whatevi'r mercenary ^.tanian''- may have written to the con- 
trarv, to pay the least adoration to image's or dead per.sons, to celestial 
luminaries, to evil spirits or to any created beings whatever; in which 
Mr. Adair concurs, adding that none of the numerous tribes and na- 
tions, from Hudson Bay to the Mississippi, have ever been known to 
atttMupt tli(^ formation of any image of (lod. On this subject Ilev. 
Ethan Smith says: 

" ])u Prat/ was very intimate with the chief of those Imlinns 
calletl * The Guardians of the Temple,' near the Mississip[)i. He in- 
(juired of them the nature of their worship. The chief informed him 
that they worsliipi)ed the great and most perfect Spirit, and said: ' He 
is so great and powerful, that in comparison with him all others are 
as nothing. He made all things that we see. and all things that we 
cannot see.' The chief went on to s[)eak of (lod as having made 
little spirits, cnlUnl free scriydils. who always .stand before the Great 
Spirit, ready to do his Mill. That 'the air is filled with spirits, scmie 
good, some bad, and that the bad have a chief who is more 
wicked than the rest.' Here, it seems, is their traditional notion of 
good and bad angels, and of Beelzebub, the chief of the latter. This 
chief, being asked how God made man, replied that '.God kneach^d 
some clay, made it into a little man, and, finding it was well formed, 
he blew on his work, ami the man had life and grew up.' Being 
asked of the creation of the woman, he said that ' their ancient speech 



iimde no mention ol any ditftM-eiict*, only tlmt tlio mnn was nmdo first. 
Mosos' (U'countof tlio I'ornmtioii of tlio wonmii, it sponis, liinlbntin lost.' " 

CMiiirlt'voix, Kpt'iikiiij^ of tlin Indian traits and roli^'ious iMistonis, 
and in icftTiMicii to tiu-ir icst'ndilin^ tlin .lows, says: 

" Tlio greatt^st Part of tln'i?" Fcusts. tlinir Sonj,'s and tb(ur Dances, 
appear to nie to liave had their Kise from Religion, and still to pre- 
serve some Traces of it; bnt one mnst have good eyes, or rather ii 
very lively inuigination, to perceive in them all that sonn^ travelers 
liave pretended to discover. I Jnive met with some who conld not 
help thinking that our savages were descended t'roni the Jews, and 
found in everything some ntlinity between those barbarians and the 
peo[)le of God. There is, indeed, a resendjlanco in some things, as 
not to use knives in certain nn-als, and not to break the bones of the 
beast they ate at those times, and the separation of the women during 
the time of their usual infirmities. S^ t ■ persons, they say, have 
heard them, or thought they heard them, p ounce the word Hallelu- 
jah in their songs. But who can believe f hi. t when they pierce their 
ears and noses they do it in pursuan't of tli'' law ! circumcision? 
On the other hand, don', we know thai the custom of circumcision is 
n ore ancient than the law that w:is given to A braham nnd his poster- 
ity. The feast they niaile at the return u£ Uie hunters, and of which 
they must leave nothing, has also beeji taken for a kind of burnt offer- 
ing, or for a remain of the passover of the Israelites; and rather, they 
.say, because when any one cannot compass his [)ortion, he may get the 
assistance of his neighbors, as was practictnl l>y the people of God, 
when a family was not sufficient to eat the whole Paschal Lamb." 

Kev. Ethan Smith, in his book before mentioned, refers to a letter 
from Mr. Calvin Cushnian, missionary among the Choctaws, to a friend 
in Plainfield, Mass., in 1S2-4. in which ho says: 

" By information received from Father Hoyt respecting the formei* 
traditions, rites and ceremonies of the Indians of this region, I think 
there is much reason to believe they are descendants of Abra- 
ham. They have had cities of refuge, feasts of first fruits, sacrifices 
of the firstlings of the flock, w Inch had to be jjerfect, without blemish 
or deformity, a bone of which must not be broken. They were never 
known to worshij) images, nor to offer sacrifices to any God made with 
hands. They all have some idea and belief of the Great Spirit. Their 
feasts, holy days, etc., were regulaled by scrciis, as to time, i. e., seven 
sleeps, seven m»)ons, seven years, etc They had a kind of box contain- 
ing some kind of substance which was considered sacred, and kejit an 
entire secret from the commoi/ people. Said box was borne by a num- 
ber of men who were considered pure or holy (if I mistake not, such 



a box was kept by the Cherokees). And wlienever they went to war 
with another tribe they carried this box; and such was its purity in 
their view that notlung would justify its being rested on the ground. 
A clean rock or scaffold of timber only was considered sufficiently pure 
for a resting place for this sacred coffer. And such was the venera- 
tion of all of the tribes for it, that whenever the party retaining it 
was defeated and obliged to leave it on the field of battle, the con- 
querors would by no means toucli it." 

The celebrated AVilliam Penn, who saw the Indians of tlie eastern 
shore of the continent before they had been affected by the ill-treat- 
ment of the white people, in a letter to a friend in England concern- 
ing this people, says: 

"I found them with like countenances with the Hebrew race; 
and their ciiildren of so lively a resemblance to them that a man would 
think himself in Duke's place, or Barry street, in London, when he 
sees them." Here, without the least previous idea of those natives 
being Israelites, that shrewd man was struck with their perfect resem- 
blance of them, and with other things which will be noted. He speaks 
of their dress and trinkets as notable like those of ancient Israel ; 
their earrings, nose jewels, bracelets on their arms and legs (such as 
they were), on their fingers, necklaces made of polished shells found 
in their rivers and on their coasts, bands, shells and feathers orna- 
menting the lieads of females, and various strings of beads adorning 
several parts of tlie body. 

Mr. Penn further adds that the worship of this people consists 
in two parts, sacrifices and cantos (songs). The first is with thuir 
first fruits, and the first buck they kill goes to the fire ; and that all 
who go to this feast must take a piece of money, which is made o': the 
bone of a fish. (" None shall appear before me empty.") He speaks 
of the agreement of their rites with those of the Jews, and adds: 

"They reckon by moons; they offer their first ripe f'-nits; they 
have a kind of feast of tabernacles; they are said to lay their altars 
with tAvelve stones; they mourn a year; they have their separation of 
women; with many other things that do not now occur." Here is a 
most artless testimony given by that notable man, drawn from his own 
observations and accounts given by him, while tlie thought of this 
p80{)le's being actually Hebrew was probably most distant from his 

Mr. Adair says that the southern Indians have a tradition tliat 
their ancestors once had a sanctified rod, whicli budded in one night's 
time, which is hehl by some to be a tradition of Aaron's rod. Some 
tribes of Indians, it is said, had, among their numerous feasts, one 



whicli they called the hunter's fenst, answering, it is daimeil l)y some, 
to the Pentecost in ancient Israel, and which is described as follows: 

"They choose twelve men, - ho provide twelve deer. Each of the 
twelve men cuts a sapling ; with these they form a tent, covered with 
blankets. They then choose twelve stcnies for an altar of sacrifice. 
Some tribes, he observes, choose but ten men, ten poles, and ten 
stones. Here seems an evident allusion to the twelve tribes, and also 
to some idea of the ten separate tribes of Israel. Upon the stones of 
their altar they suffered no tool to pass. No tool might pass upon a 
certain altar in Israel." 

In their feasts of first ri{)e fruits, or green corn, the custom of the 
Ii.dians is to eat none of their corn or first fruit till a part is given to 
God. In the Indian feasts they had their sacred songs and dances, 
singing Hallelujah, Yohewa, in syllables which compose the words, and 
it is asked what other nation besides the Hebrews and Indians ever at- 
tempted tiie worship of Jehovah. 

Mr. Adair, in further su{)port of his theory, says: "As the nation 
had its particular symbol, so each tribe has the badge from which it is 
denominated. The sachem of each tribe is a necessary party in con- 
veyances and treaties, to which he afiixes the mark of his tribe. If 
we go from nation to nation among them Ave shall not find one who 
doth not lineally distinguish himself by his respective family. Tiie 
genealogical names which they assume are derived either from the 
names of those animals whereof tiie cherubim are said in revelation to 
be compounded, or from such creatures as are most familiar to them. 
They call some of their tribes by the names of cherubimical figures 
that were carried on four principal standards of Israel." 

The Indians count time after the manner oi the Hebrews. They 
divide the year into spring, summer, autumn and winter. They 
number their years from any of those four periods, for they have no 
name for a year, and they subdivide these and count the year by lunar 
months, like the Israelites who ccmnted by moons. They begin a year 
at the first appearance of the first new moon of the vernal equinox, ac- 
cording to the ecclesiastical year of Moses. Till the so-called captivity 
the Israelites had only numeral names for the solar and lunar months 
except Al)ib and Ethamin; the former signifying a green ear of corn, 
and the latter robust or valiant, and by the first of these the Indians 
(as an explictive) term their passover, which the trading people call 
the green corn dance. 

In conformity to, or after the manner of the Jews, the Indians of 
America have their prophets, high priests and others of a religious 
order. As the Jews had a sanctum sanctorum (holy of holies), so in 



general have all the Indian nations. There they deposit their conse- 
crated vessels, none of the laity daring to approach that sacred place. 
Indian tradition says that their fathers were possessed of an extraordi- 
nary divine spirit, by which they foretold future things and controlled 
the common course of nature; and this power they transmitted to their 
offspring, provided they obeyetl the sacred laws annexed pertaining 

Mr. Adair, it must be remembered, in referring to words in the 
Indian languages, has reference to tliose tribes which at that day were 
living in the southern colonies, classed by ethnologists as the Appa- 
lachians, and who were the Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, Senii- 
noles and Muscogees. In speaking with reference to these Indians he 
says, Ishtoallo is the name of their priestly order, and their pontifical 
office descends by inheritance to the eldest. There are some traces of 
agreement, though chietly lost, in their |)ontifical dress. Before the 
Indian Archimagus olHciates in making the supposed holy fire for the 
yearly atonement for sin, theSagan (waiter of the high priest) clothed 
him with a white ephod, which is a waistcoat without sleeves. In re- 
semblance of the Urim and Thummim, the American Archimagus 
wears a breast plate maile of a white conch shell with two holes bored 
in the middle of it. througli which he puts the ends of an otter skin 
stra[) and fastens a buck-horn white button to the outside of each, as if 
in imitati<m of tiie precious stones of the I'rim. 

In this statement. Rev. Ethan Smith tliinks Mr. Adair exhibits 
evidence of which lie himself seems unconscious, saying that the 
general name of all their priestly order is Ishtoallo, and the name of 
the high priest waiter is Sagan. It is thought by some that the former 
word is a corruption of Isli-da-elvah, a man of God; see 2 Kings, iv, 
21, 22, 25, 27, 40, and other places. That the latter word Sagan is 
the very nanu> by which the Hel)re\vs called the de^mty of the high 
priest, who supplied his olHce, and performed the functions of it in 
the absence of the high priest. 

The ceremonies of the Indians, in their religious worship, says 
Mr. Adair, were more after the Mosaic institutions than of Pagan 
imitation; which could not be if a majority of the old nations were 
of heathenish descent. They were ntter strangers to all the gestures 
practiced by the Pagans in their religious rites. 

Mr. Adair further speaks of the saci-ed adjuration of the Indians 
by the great and awful name of God; the question being asked, and 
the answer given. Yah, with a profound reverence in a bowing posture 
of body immediately before the invocation of Yo-he-wali; this he 
considers tt) be Hebrew, adjuring their Avitnesses to give true evidence. 



He says it seems exactly to coincide with tlie conduct of the Hebrew 
witnesses even now on like occasions. 

Mr. Adair, in likening the Indians to the Jews on account of 
their abstinence from unclean things, says that eagles of every kind 
are esteemed an unclean food, likewise ravens, crows, bats, buzzards, 
swallows and every species of owl. This he considers as precisely 
Hebrew, as also their purifications of their priests, and purification 
for having touched a dead body or any other unclean thing. He 
further says that before going to war, the Indians have many prepar- 
atory ceremonies of purification and fasting, like what is recorded of 
the Israelites. 

Rev. Mr. Chapman, missionary of the United States Foreign 
Missionary Society, at the Union Mission, in a letter of March 2-4tii, 
l.S'23, gives an account of some of the manners and customs of the 
Osage Indians, which would seem to have some bearing on the question 
under consideration. He went with a large company of these Indians, 
whose object was to form a treaty of peace with the Cherokees, to 
Fort Smith. Tlie evening l)eforo they arrived on a hill, tlu^ chiefs 
announced that in the morning they must make their customary [)eace 
medicine (a religious ceremony previous to a treaty) for the purpose 
of cleansing their hearts and securing their sincerity of thinking and 
acting. Ten of the principal warriors, including the priest of the 
Atmosphere, (a name of one of their clans) were selected and sent 
beneath a ledge, to dream or learn whether any error had been com- 
mitted thus far, or (as they express it) to "watch the back track." 
In proceeding to describe their ceremonies, prayers, sacred painting, 
annointings, etc , Mr. Chapman says: " About two feet in advance, and 
in a line with our path, were three bunches of grass, which had been 
cut and piled about three feet apart, as an emblem of him whom they 
worsi. ;)ped. 

"Here the priest stood with his attendants, and [)rayed at great 
length. Having finished his prayer, he again ordered the march on 
foot. The Indians from the right and left entereel the path with great 
regularity, and, on wheeling forward, every individual was compelled 
to step ui)on each bunch of the grass. The company proceeded about 
forty rods, then halted and formed as before. The priest now ordered 
his senior attendant to form a circle of grass about four feet in diameter, 
and to fix a handsome pile in the centre. By this he made another 
long prayer. Then stepping on the circle, and followed in this by his 
attendants, they passed on." 

Mr. ChajHuan further says: "It is a universal practice of these 
Indians to salute the dawn every moining with their devotion." This 



custom, it may be remarked, seems to be universal among all the 
American tribes. In regard to the ceremonies which Mr. Chapman 
describes, he adds: "Perhaps the curious may imagine that some 
faint allusion to the lost ten tribes of Israel may be discovered in the 
select number of dreamers (they being ten), to the Trinity in Unity 
in the bunches (and the circle ) of grass, to the Jewish annointings and 
purifications in their repeated paintings, to the sacred rite of the 
sanctuary in their secret consultations, and to the prophetic office in 
the office of their dreamers." 

A religious custom is related by Maj. Long, Avhich some think 
goes to piove that the Omaha Indians are of Israel. He relates that 
from the ago of between five or ten years their little sons are obliged 
to ascend a hill fasting once or twice a week, during the months of 
March and April, to pray aloud to Wahconda. When this seascm of 
the year arrives, the mother informs the little son that the "ice is 
breaking up in the river, the ducks and geese are migrating, and it is 
time for you to prepare to go in clay."' The little worshipper then 
rubs himself over with whitish clay, and at sunrise sets off for the top 
of a hill, instructed by the mother what to say to the Master of Life, 
From his elevated position he cried aloud to Wahconda, humming a 
melancholy tune, and calling on him to have pity on him and make 
him a great hunter, warrior, etc. 

This, it is urged by some, has more the appearance of descending 
from Hebrew tradition than from any other nation in the earth; 
teaching their children to fast in clay as "in dust and ashes," and to 
cry to Jah for pity and [>rotection. 

In part second of Mr. Schoolcraft's genei-al work on the Indian 
tribes of the United States, p. 135, is an article written by Mr. Wm. 
W. Warren, on the oral traditions respecting the histcny of the Ojib- 
way nation. Mr. Warren, as Mr. Schoolcraft remarks, was a descendant, 
on his mother's side, of one of the most respectable Indian families 
at the ancient capital of this natitm. 

In this communication, Mr. Warren is inclined to the opinion, 
from the information derived from the manners and customs of the 
Ojibways, that the red race of America are descendants of the lost 
tribes of Israel, and he asserts that this is the belief of some eminent 
men and writers, and mentions this belief to say that he has noted 
much in the course of his inquiries thai woiild induce him to fall into 
the same belief, besides the general reasons that are adduced to prove 
the fact. Referring to the Ojibways, he says: 

"I have noticed that in all their principal and oldest traditions 
and lodge tales, twelve brothers are spoken of that are the sons of 



Getube, n. name nearly similar to J.'fob. The oldest of these brothers 
is called Mudjekeewis, and the youngest Wa-jeeg-e-wa-kon-ay, the 
name for his coat of fishers' skins, with which ho resisted the machina- 
tions of evil spirits. He was the beloved of his father and the Great 
Spirit; the Avisest and most powerful of his twelve brothers." 

Tlie tradition in which also originated Ke-na-big-wusk, or snake- 
root, which forms one of the four main branches of the Me-da-win, is 
similar in character to the brazen sevpent of Moses that saved the 
lives of the afflicted Israelites. In the Indian tradition, the serpent is 
made to show to man a root which saved the lives of the people of a 
great town, which was being depopulated by pestilence. Not oidy in 
these instances is the similitude of the Ojibway oral traditions and 
the written historv of the Hebrews evident and most striking, but in 
part first of Mr. Schoolcraft's work afoi-esaid, page 259, is some in- 
formation by Mr. Thomas Fitzpatrick, a government agent of the 
higher Platte and Arkansas. In this, reference is made to the fact of 
a resemblance in the manners, customs and habits of the Indians with 
that of the Jews or Israelites, in which he says: "In regard to the 
manners, customs, habits, etc., of the wild tribes of tlie western terri- 
tory, a true and more correct type than any I have ever seen may be 
found in the ancient history of the Jews or Israelites after tlieir 
liberation from Egyptian bondage. The medicine lodge of the Indian 
may be compared to the place of worship or tabernacle of the Jews, 
and the sacrifices, offerings, purifications and annointings may be all 
foimd amongst and practiced by those people." 

It is to be noted, however, that Mr. Fitzpatricii is not inclined to 
adopt these evidences as proof that the Indians are descended from 
the Jews, but considers them as mere coincidences, liable to occur 
among the natives of any portion of the globe. 

In an interview which the writer hail several years ago with Rev. 
John Johnston, a native educated Ottawa Indian, and a minister of the 
gospel of the Episcopal Church among the Ojibways at White Earth 
Agency, Minn., he expressed his belief quite firmly that the aborigines 
were descendants from the Jews, and cited instances of their manners, 
customs and habits in su[)port of this opinion. 

There is a marked similarity between the customs of the Indians 
and the Jews in their mourning for the dead. Like the Jews, the 
Indians had a time or season for mourning for the dead. A custom 
among the Jews of loud lamentation over the dead was also a i)eculiar 
custom of the American tribes. In Gen. xxxii, 34, it is said that 
•■ Jacob rent his clothes, anil put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned 
for his son many days." This is suggestive of a like custom among 




tlie Anioricnn Indians. Amoiif^ the Iiidinns the friends oi the deceased 
visited tlie graves of their dt!|)arted rehttives and there resumed their 
custom of weeping and slirieking. This was also a prominent custom 
nmonj; the Jews, as noticed in John xi, ;U: "She goeth out to the 
grave to weep there." The custom of engaging women to mourn over 
the bodies of tlie dead, which [)revailed among the American tribes, 
was also a custom among the Jews, as mentioned in Jer. ix, 17: "Thus 
saith tlie Lord of Hosts, consider ye, and call for the mourning women 
that they may come." 

Among the Indians it was a custom for the bridegroom to make 
presents to the father or parents of the b'"ide as a consideration in the 
transaction. This custom also prevailed among the Jews; Jacob 
gave a term of service as a consideration for Rachel. Gen. xxix, 20. 

Among the Jews, parents negotiated marriage between sons and 
daughters. Hagar chose a wife for Ishmaiil. Gen. xxi, 21. Judah 
selected a wife for Er. Gen. xxxviii. (>. The like custom prevailed 
amon<r the American Indians. 

The marriage ceremony among the American tribes was much the 
same as with the Jews. In Gen. xxiv, (IT, it is said "Ii.aac brouglit 
her into his mother Sarah's tent, and took Rebekah, and she became 
his wife." Rev. James Freeman, in his book entitled "Manners and 
Customs." says there is no evidence of any special religious forms in 
these primitive marriages. The niarriage ceremony consisted of the 
removal of the britle from the father's house to that of the l>ridegroom, 
or that of his father. The marriage ceremony among the American 
tribes Avas of like simplicity, and ver\- much the same. 

The Indians, like the Jews, had a custom of burnt otl'erings. as 
that of the burning of tobacco, as an ottering to the (.ireat Spirit. 
They had also a custom like that of the meat offering of the Jews. 
See Lev. vi, 14. They also, like the Jews, hat" a sacrifice of animals. 
Num. xix, 2. Instead of the red heifer without a spot, as with the 
Jews, it was a white tlog without a spot or blemisli. 

Like the Jews, they had their feasts for various occasions. 
Amongst others was a feast of first fruits, such as the strawberry feast 
of the Iroquois. The harvest feast was universal witli all tribes who 
raised the Indian corn or zea maize. This corresponded to the like cus- 
tom among the Jews. Ex. xxiii, 1(1. 

Dancing on various occasions was a custom practiced among the 
American Indians as with the Jews, althoiigh not precisely in the same 
form. Dancing was performed at first among the Jews on sacred oc- 
casions only. Among the Hebrews it was joined Avith sacred songs 
and was usually particii)ated in by the women only. When the men 



danced it was in comj)any separate from the women. When Jeptlia 
returned from his cont^iuest over the Ammonites, his daughter came 
out to meet him with timbrels and with dances. When the men of 
Benjamin surprised the (biughters of Shiloh, the latter were dancing 
at a feast of the Lord. Judges, xxi, 10-21. A corresponding custom 
of dances among the Hebrews, as given in scripture, is found among 
all the American tribes, the occasion for many of which is [)rocise]y 
the same. 

The Israelites used the mortar for beating their manna. Num. 
xi, S. It was by this means that tiio Indians of America from time 
immemorial beat their corn and thus prepared it for use. 

The custom prevailing among the Jews of annointing the head, 
and in using oils on other parts of the body, also prevailed among the 
American tribes. 

Sign language, so common among the American tribes, is also 
marked as a mode of communication among the Jews. In Proverbs, vi, 
18, it is said "Hespeaketh with his feet; he teacheth with his fingers.'' 

The Indians, at the close of their speeches in council, used a word 
of like significati<in as the word Amen, common among the Jews as 
stated in 1 Chronicles, xvi, ;3(). "All the peo[)le said Amen, and 
praised the Lord." Amen literally means firm, from Anion, to prop, 
to sujjport. Its figurative meaning is faithful ; its use is designated as 
affirmatory response, and the custt)m is very ancient among the Jtnvs. 
See Num. v. 22. Deut. xxvii, lo-lt). The Iro([Uois, in closing their 
speeches, used the word Hiro, of the like import of the Jewish word 
Amen. The Pottawattamies, a tribe of the Algonquin group, used the 
word Hoa. 

The Indian medicine lodge or counc'l-house corresponds mucii to 
the ancient Jewish synagogues, which were originally places of in- 
struction rather than of worsliip, and wherein, it is said, the Jews read 
and expounded the law. We find Christ puVdicly speaking in the syn- 
agogues, and so also the Apostles in their missionary travels address- 
ing the pet)ple in tlie synagogues. 

The secret order of medicine men and prophets of the Indians hail 
a corresponding institution among the Jews called "sons of the 
prophets," forming a peculiar order, whose mission seems to have been 
to assist the prophets in their duties, and in time to succeed them. 
2 Kings, ii, .'5-12; vi, 1. 

A personage corresjionding to tiie Indian medicine man is found 
in the "wise men" or Magi of the Jews, spoken of in Mathew. ii, 1. 
We find in the Old Testament several references to the Magi. In Jer. 
xxxix, 3, 13, Nergal-sharezer is said to have been the Rah-nuaj, that is, 



the chief of the Magi. In Daniel's time the Magi were very promi- 
nent in Babylon. In Dan. ii, 2, "magicians," "astrologers," "sorcer- 
ers," and "Chaldeans" are mentioned, wliile in the twenty-seventh 
verse of the cliapter "soothsayers" are named. 

Some tribes of Indians had a custom of making images or a kind 
of idols, not as an object of worship, but to imitate or personate some 
particular spirit or god, to whom they paid some kind of adoration. A 
like custom seems to have prevailed among the Jews, mentioned in 
1 Samuel, vi, 5. 

A custom prevailed among western Indian tribes, who lived in vil- 
lages of dirt houses, of assembling on the tops of their dwellings on 
festive or public occasions; this was likewise a custom among the 
Jews. See Judges, xvi, 27. wherein it is said, "there were upon the 
roof about three thousand men and women, tliat beheld while Samson 
made sport." 

The Indians felt that menial service was degrading. Service of 
this kind among them was performed by the women. The same idea 
prevailed among the Jews, who considered it a degradation to be 
hewers of wood and drawers of water. Josh, ix, 21. 

The bow and arrow, the common and efficient weapon with the 
])rimitive Americfin Indian, was also in common use among the ancient 
Jew.s. See 2 Kings, xiii, 15. 

The nncient Israelites lived in tents in the style of the most of the 
American tribes. 

In notions of dress there was a striking similarity between the 
American Indians and the Jews, especially In regard to the outer gar- 
ment thrown over the shoulders or wrapped around the body. The 
Indian medicine man or prominent chief possessed a peculiar vanity in 
regard to their diess, which was frequently gaudy and fantastic, and so 
with the high priests among the Jews where display in dress was a 
peculiar feature in Jewish custom among those high in authoritj'. It 
was a custom among tlie Jews to sleep in their garments, Deut. xxiv, 
12-13, and so with the American Indians. 

The name Dorcas, Acts, ix, 3(5, it is said, means (iniclope or (jazclh: 
According to some writers tlie Jews had a custom of giving to their 
daughters poetic names, or names significant of beauty or beautiful 
objects. This was a marked custom with the American Indians. 

According to Mr. Freeman, it was an ancient custom among the 
Jews to give names to families from animals. This found a corre- 
s[)onding custom among the Indians, in adopting their totems to mark 
their families, as the bear, the deer, the elk, and the like. The 
custom is continued among the Israelites down to the present time, 



as found in the name of Wolf, Bear, Lion and other names from 

It was a custom among the Jews to give names to persons that 
have some special signification, as Ilenben, " See a 8on." This cus- 
tom likewise prevailed among other eastern nations. This was a 
universal custom among the American Indians, as Sheeshebauee 
(Ojibway), "little duck." 

The change of names of persons in after life on particular 
occasions was a custom of the Jews. 2 Chron. xxxvi, 4; Gen. xxxii, 
28 ; XXXV, 10. It was also a custom among the American Indians. 

By an ancient mode of declaring war, practiced amongst the Jews, 
a herald came to the confines of the enemy's territory, and, after ol)- 
serving certain solemnities, cried with a loud voice, " I wage war 
against you," at the same time giving reasons therefor. He then shot 
an arrow or threw a s[iear into tlie enemy's country, which was signifi- 
cant of warlike intentions. The custom among the Indians, in de- 
claring Avar, Avas to send a bundle of arrows to some representative 
chief of the enemy. 

The Indian practice of lying in ambush to surprise an enemy, it 
seems, Avas also a practice to some extent among tlie Jcavs. In Judges, 
V, 11, is the folloAving: "They that are deliA'ered from the noise of 
archers in the places of drawing Avater, there shall they rehearse the 
righteous acts of the Lord." This, it is said, refers to the practice of 
lying in ambush near Avells and springs for the jmrjiose of seizing 
flocks and herds Avhen brought thither for Avater. 

When a Avar party of Indians returned to their villages after the 
A'ictory. it Avas customary for the Avonien and children, Avith the old 
men remaining behind, to assemble and express their great joy by 
singing, shouting and other demonstrations. This Avas likeAvise a cus- 
tom among the Jcavs, as appears 1st Sam. xA'iii, 0: "It came to pass 
as they came, Avhen David Avas returned from the slaughter of the 
Philistine, that the Avomen came out of all the cities of Israel, singing 
and dancing, to meet King Saul Avith tabrets, Avith joy, and Avith 
instruments of music." See also Ex. xa', 20. Judges, xi, ;34. 

The AA'ar club and other Aveapons of the Indians Avere like those of 
the JeAvs. Jer. li, 20. AVith the JeAvs, the same as Avith the Indians, 
these Aveapons Avere buried Avith the dead. Ezek. xxxii, 27. 

The custom of Avearing buffalo horns by distinguished Avarriors, 
attached to their head dress, seems ta have existed also among the 
JeAA'S. In 1st Kings, xxii, 11, it is said "the false prophet Zedekiah 
made him horns of iron." antl in Ps. Ixxv, 5: " Lift not your horns on 
high; speak not Avith a stifT neck." 



Ri'v. Peter Jones, nn ednoatod Ojibway Indian, in tlio appendix to 
his hook, entitled " History of tlie Ojibway Indians,'" (luotos approv- 
in<,'ly the ftdlowin;^ from a recent publication which he considers ^'ood 
authority, and wherein is summed uj) in general terms the most striking 
analogies betAveen the American trilies and the ancient Israelites: 

"They (the Indians) are living in tribes, with heads of tribes; 
tiiej- all have a family likeness, though covering thousi.nds of leagues 
of land, and have a tradition prevailing universally that they connect 
that country at the northwest corner. They are a very religious peo- 
ple, and yet have entirely escaped the idolatry of the Old Woi-ld. They 
acknowledge one (lod, the Great Spirit, -who created all things seen 
and unseen. The name by which this beinj; is known to them is Ale, 
the old Helirew name of God; he is also called Yehowah. sometimes 
Yah, and also Abba; for this great being they possess a high rever- 
ence, calling him the head of their community, and themselves his 
favorite people. They believe that he was more favorable to them in 
old times tiian he is now; that their fathers were in covenant -with 
him, that he talked with them, and favored them. They are tlistinctly 
heard to sing, with their religious dances, Halleluja}i and praise to 
Y'ah; other remarkable 6(mnds go cmt of their mouth as shilu yo, shilu 
he ale yo he-wah, yohewah, but tliey profess not to know the meaning 
of these words, only that they learned to use them on sacred occasions. 
They acknowledge the government of a Providence overruling all 
things, and exjiress n willing submission to whatever takes place. 
They koe[) annual feasts, which resemble those of the Mosaic ritual: 
a feast of first fruits, which they do not permit themselves to taste 
until they have made an olferinjj of them to God ; also an eveuin<r 
festival, in which no bone of the animal that is eaten may be broken ; 
and if one family be not large enough to ct)nsume the whole of it, a 
neighboring family is called in to assist; the whole of it is consumed, 
and the relics of it are burned before the rising of the next day's sun. 
There is one part of the animal which they never eat, the hollow of 
the thigh. They eat bitter vegetables, and observe severe feasts, for 
the purpose of cleansing themselves from sin; they also have n feast 
of harvest, when their fruits are gathering in ; a daily sacrifice and a 
feast of love. Their forefathers practiced the rites of circumcision, 
but not knowing why so strange a practice was continued, ami not ap- 
proving of it, they gave it up. There is a sort of jubilee kept by 
some of them. They have cities of refuge, to which a guilty man, and 
even a murderer, may fly and be safe." 

Rev. Jabez B. Hyde, a minister of the gospel, of prominence in 
Western New York, and of considerable experience among the Seneca 



IiidiuiiH, writing in 1S25 concerning his infornmtion derived from the 
aforesiiiil pe()[)lo on the Bubjt>ct of their inimners and cuHtonis, Hays 
tliat of the meaning of words they nsed in their thiiices and divine 
songs, they were wliolly ignorant. They used the words Y-0-H(i-Wah 
and Hal-le-hi-yali as represented of other Indians. Speaking furtlier 
in regard to tiieir apjmrent atHnity with the Jews, he says: " In all 
their rites whicii I have learned from them, tliere is certainly a most 
striking similitude to the Mosaic rituals; tiieir feast of tirst fruits; 
feasts of ingathering; day of atonement; [)eace otferings; sacriticets. 
They build an altar of stones before a tent covered with blankets; 
within the tent they burn tobacco for incense, with tire taken from the 
altar of burnt otfering." Mr. Hyde further r3marks that these In- 
dians had formerly places like cities ot refuge existing among them, 
and tiiat an ohl chief had shown liini the boundaries of one of them. 

On this subject the testimony of Mr. George Catlin may be con- 
sidered as important, he having spent eight years amongst the wildest 
and most remarkable tribes then existing in North America, commencing 
in the year lSi{2, as an artist and student of Indian history and manners 
and customs. He describes at length and in detail the manners and 
customs of these tribes, in concluding which, he says: 

"Amongst the list of their customs, howevc r, we meet a number 
which had their origin, it would seem, in the Jewish ceremonial code, 
and which are so very peculiar in tiieir forms, that it would seem (juito 
improbable, and almost impossible, that two different people should 
ever have hit upon them alike, witlumt some knowledge of each other. 
These I consider go farther than anything else as evidence, and carry 
in mind conclusive proof that these people are tinctured with Jewish 



ClasHittnntioii of OmupH aiul Tril)»>s— ftroiips wcrt' the Subject of Division into 
Trilu'H— Hadii liocation -ClasKitiinl AceoriliuK <o IjimjfUHK'i'— (tronpH DcHiunalcd 
hy thin Modo NiiiiiIht of those (IroupH Exchuhutf the Esiiuirninix Stock — 
Names of (h-oiiiiK AlKoniiuiiiH, Iroiniois, Ap|iulachian. Dakota and Shoshonoc— 
Alj^oininins IMost NiiiucroiiH (iroupH Conjposed of Triln's of Same LauKiiane — 
Location of Eacli (Iroup— Dctiuitious and Names of (Iroijps. 

liig his 

^^"y IfiHlL.ST all evidences lend- 
ii)g to the origin of the 

i/ji-if ■^'"''*'i^''"i Indian and all 
vA^o "J satisfactory proof concern- 
connection with other races 
of the earth are lost in ol)sciirity, 
there is a vast amount of information 
relating to this people, we can ac- 
<juiro from evidences at hand through 
the slightest attention to the subject. 
That which is most important 
in setting out upon an inquiry into 
this interesting subject, and which 
seems to bo the least understood, 
is the classification of the various 
nations, groups and tribes who 
origin.'dly inhabited the North Amer- 
ican continent, or more especiall}- 
that portion comprised within the 
United States. This, to the general 
observer, is a subject exceedingly 
confused, and to most people remains 
a sort of sealed book which few have 
attempted to open, and of which a 
less number still seem inclined to the undertaking. First of all, it 
must be understood that the Indian in his general characteristics does 
not differ essentially from the race of mankind in general. 









MNdllSTIC (iltori'S. 


As 11 poople, tho nl)ori<j;iiies of tliis (•(Hiiitry \v<>ro tlio Hubjfot of 
division into nations, trilx^s imd liii^uisti»i <,'rou|)8, t\w Hiinu> iis peoplo 
inimhitiiii' wliiit is known iis tlin Old World, luid tlifso in "'ont'iid liiid 
ft locution of distinct country wiiich they inlmhitod, that lu'ciinie en- 
l(ir;;od, contracttid or abandonod for souio other locality, acconlinj^ to 
inclination or the fato of wars. 

Ethnologists who havo <,'ivt'n this subject attention have classified, 
(ir attempted loclassify, th»* Indian trilxisof North America into ^'roups, 
accordin;ti[ to tho lan^ua<^es and dialects spoken by each, takintf this as 
ft basis of ethnolo<.;ical designation. Hut this attempt of classification 
for this {)urposo has boon far from satisfactory. It has been found 
that these lani'ua<'es and dialects have become so radicallv cluuii'ed 
under varied circumstances, us to become very niisleadiii;; in reachinj; 
correct conclusions. There have been found instances where one 
whole tribe of an ethnological group would pass over to a tribe of 
n (tlier grou[) and adopt their language and completely abandon their 
owji. Therefore the most that can be said in this I'espect is. that 
whilst hmguage is some ethnological indication in the dassitication of 
these groups, it is far from being conclusive; so that no very accuratf 
or satisfactory classification can be made of the North American tribes 
into linguistic groups. 

Tlie most rational classification marks this peo[)le l)y about five 
groups of this kind, from which is excluded the people of the E.vcpiimau 
stock of the frozen regions, who, it is generally considered, are more 
ii tirantely connected with the people of nortliern Europe, whilst 
nil others may be traced to the Asiatic race. These five linguistic 
groups are tJie Algonquins. Iroquois. Appalachians, Dakotas and 

The most numerous of these grou[)s was that coin[)osed of the 
people who became known as the Algon([uins, whose country extended 
from the Ili)anoke river on the south to Hudson's Bay on the north, 
and westward from the Atlantic coast to the Mississi[)pi river, with the 
exception of a limited portion of country on the north and south r)f 
Lake Ontario, Avhicli was inhabited by a people avIio became known ns 
the Iroquois, known also as the Five Nations, and after the addition of 
the Tuscaroras, as the Six Nations. 

On the south of the Algoncj^uir.s, and oast of the Mississippi river, 
was a people which have been called the Appalachians. On the west 
of the Algonquins were the Dakotas, or the great Sioux nation, so 
called by the French. To the westward of them were a stock of people 
covering n wide extent of country, classed, according to Mr. Schoolcraft, 
as the Shoshonee group. 



These are the five linguistic or generic groups who were found, 
at the invasion of the white man, inhabiting wliat is now comprised 
within the territory of the United States. Some have extended the 
classification of these groups to seven in number, some contend for a 
still larger number, whilst others insist that the classification may 
properly be comprised in three generic, linguistic groups, the Algon- 
quins, the Iroquois and the Dakotas. In this last threefold classifi- 
cation, the Appalachians would be assigned to the Iroquois, and the 
Shosliimees to the Dakotas. 

Each group was comprised of various tribes, all speaking a 
common language of the group to which they belonged, varying more 
or less in dialect. The Algonquins, although not as powerful in war 
as the Iroquois, for want of skill and natural sagacity in the concentra- 
tion of their forces, yet in numbers and intelligence were considered 
the ruling people of the continent. Their language, to a greater or less 
extent, was adopted as the court language of the surrounding nations, 
and there is some evidence extant that theirs was at some time the 
universal language of the continent; and it is from this, among other 
evidences, that ethnologists contend for a common origin of the 
aborigines of America. 

The Algonquins were the people encountered by the adventurer, 
Capt. John Smith, at tne first settlement of Virginia, and who hailed 
the first vessel sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585. It was the 
same people who received the Pilgrims on the coast of New England, 
and who were found by the French, in 1(508, scattered along the St. 
Lawrence from the site of Quebec westward, and who were found at 
successive periods at Lake Nepissing on the head waters of the Ottawa 
river, and dwelling around the basins of Lakes Superior, Huron, 
Michigan and a part of Erie, and it was the same people who welcomed 
Marquette to the valley of the Des Moines and accepted his religious 
teachings in the country of the Illinois. 

Algonquin, a word in the language of that group, is a contraction 
of the term Algomeequin, signifying "people of the opposite shore," 
or "peo[)le who live across the water." 

This was a name at first given by tribes on the north to a single 
tribe living on the south of the St. Lawrence river, who spoke the 
same language as themselves. At the coming of the French, the 
Algonquins, then so called, appear to have been a numerous tribe, and 
their language was among the first of the native languages to which 
the French gave attention. From this circumstance the term Algonquin 
was given by them to all the tribes wherever found, speaking the same 



Marq^uette acquired a knowledge of tliis language before leaving 
Montreal on his western exi)loring expedition, and thereby communi- 
cated with all the tril)e8 on his route to the valley of the Des Moines. 

The tribes properly classed in the Algonquin group will hereafter 
appear in Chapter VI, entitled, "Indian Tribes." 

In 1()0(), when Hendrick Hudson ascended the river which now 
bears his name, the Iroquois, inhabiting the country on the west, were 
becoming, in war, a powerful people. They were then a confederation 
comprised of five tribes, located upon the soutli of Lake Ontario, to 
which was afterwards added another tribe, called the Tuscaroras. The 
original five tribes were the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, 
and the Senecas. The Hurons on the north of Lake Ontario were a 
tribe speaking a dialect of the same language, and classed in the same 
linguistic group, Vmt were not a part of the Iroquois confederation, 
and it is a singular fact not accounted for, the Hurons and the confed- 
erated tribes of the Iro(;[Uois were not on terms of friendship, but 
were generally at war with each other. 

Tlie French gave to the Five Nations and Hurons the name 
"Hiro-quais," from hiro, a word used in closing their speeches, like 
the dixi ot the Latin; and koui, a ci'y of warning or alarm, peculiar 
to this people wher, guarding their councils from intrusion, or other 
like occasions. 

The Aj)palachians were the people encountered by De Soto in 
his march to the Mississippi river. They were the Choctaws, Cliicka- 
saws, Muscogees and Seminoles, including some minor tribes now 
extinct, and lo which, by s(jme, the Cherokees are likewise assigned. 
But the indications of language would assign the Cherokees to the 
Iro(^uois group. The Delawares called this people Mengwe, from 
which comes the word Mingo. In later times, however, the word 
Mingo became apiilied more particularly to the Cayagas. The cele- 
brated Indian chief, Logan, who was of the Cayuga tribe, was famil- 
iarly known as the Mingo chief. The Mohegans, dwelling on the 
east of the Hudson river, calied the Iroquois nation, Maqua, (Bear). 
Tho tribes of this group were in general further advanced in agricul- 
tural pursuits, and depended less upon hunting and fishing for 
subsistence than other nations of the continent. 

The Dakotas or Sioux, whose country extencied over the great 
American plains west of the Mississippi river, were a nomadic people, 
made so from tiio nature of the country which they inhabited, depending 
almost exclusively upon the fihase for subsistence. 

The word Sioux is a uane given to the Dakota tribes by the 
French. It is derived from tho terminal sound in the word Nauda- 






wissou, an Algonquin word signifying "enemy," n name given by the 
Ojil)ways and other tribes of the Algonquin group on the east, to the 
people of the Dakota stock. The French adopted this word to 
designate the Dakotas by giving only the terminal sound Sioii.r, so 
that the Avord Sioux or S(m by itself signifies nothing. The word 
Dakota Avas that by which this people designated themselves, and 
signifies "leagued" or "united people." 

Tiie Dakotas sometimes speak of themselves as the Oceti sakowin, 
meaning scrcn council Jircs. This nation being composed of seven 
princi[)al bands as follows: 

1. Tlie Mdewakantonwans — Village of the Spirit Lake. 

The Wahpekutes — Leaf Shooters. 

The Wahpetonwans — Village in the Leaves. 

The Sisitonwans — Village of the Marsh. 

The Ihanktonwanna — One of the End Villng(i Bands. 

The liianktonwans — Village at the End. 

The Titonwans — Village of the Prairie. 
The Dakota group, as indicated by language, embraced the 
following detached tribes: The (^uappas, Kansas, lowas, Osages, 
Pawnees, Otoes. Missourias, Onnvhaws, Aurickarees, Minnitaics, 
Mandans. Winnebagoes, and many others formerly occupying the 
■wide space of country between the foot of the Rocky Mountains and 
the Mississippi. 

The Shoshonees, the fifth group, dwelt in the country of the Rocky 
Mountains, extending to the Pacific cojist. As a means of subsistence 
they depended upon hunting, fishing and root digging. They were of 
a lower order of character than the Dakotas, both of which were in 
some respects inferior to either of the three great groups on the east 
of the Mississippi. 

There is a separate tribe of Indians known as the Shoshonees, 
which will be noticed in that chapter of this work relating to Indian 
tribes, from whom this linguistic grouj) derived its name in like manner 
as the Algon<juin grou[> have derived their name from that tribe 
originally known as the Algoncjuins. The meaning of the word 
Slioslioiicc, it is said, is "inland," having reference to peo|)Ie 
who lived inland or away from the sea coast. The tribes properly 
classed in this group will be noted in the list of tribes hereafter given 
in Chapter VI. 


rol'.T WINNKIiAOO 1S31. 

(Country of the Wiuiicbagoes). 


Names of Tribes, how Acquired — Sife'iiifieat ion of Names of Various Tribes — 
Location of Tiibes—Cbnngiiiff Location Extinct Tribes -Mi>,'ration— Indian 
Tribes are Q-eat Families -Confederacies tor Purposes of Governmeut—Union 
for Purposes of Defense— Names of Various Tribes lubabitiu),' the Original 
Country of the United States. 

'NDIAN tribes were simply 
great families, luiicli like the 
tribes of the ancient Jews, 
'"'^^ and this again is nrgetl as 
showinij that the nbori<;ines of 
America sprung from that peo- 
ple. There were, also, subdivis- 
ions of tribes, calleil bunds or 
gens, characterized by some par- 
ticular totem or symbolic designation, represented by some animal. 
Whilst each band had a totem by which it was distinguished, so 
each tribe had a name by which it was known ; but it is i singular fact 
that there are few, if any, tribes who are known to us by their original 
names, that is, the names by which they designated themselves, or 
adopted as their correct names. In general, the jiames by which they 
have become known to us, and by which th(>y have been compelled to 
enter into negotiations with the Ignited States government, were names 
given them by other tribes, or by the whites, and often in derision, 
growing out of some attentlant circumstances. 

The tribe first known to the French as the Algonqiiins, was called 
by the Mohawks, Adirondacks, meaning "bark eaters," from the cir- 
cumstance, it ia said, of their eating the bark of trees, supposed to be 
the bark of the slippery elm. 

The Mohegans, an Algontpiin word, pronounced also ]\b>hicans 
and Mohiugans, meaning ''wolves,"' was a name given them, it is sup- 
posed, by some other tribe of the Algompiin stock, as descriptive of 
their savage nature. 



Ojibway or Chippeway, as commonly spoken, was a name given 
this people by some neighboriujj tribe, meaning "puckered shoes." or 
"people who wear puckered shoes or moccasins gathered about the 

Ottawa is a name given by some other tribe, signifying " traders." 

Menominee, also a tribe of the Algonquin group, and a name 
given by some neighboring tribe, signifies "pec^ile who eat wild rice." 

Winnebago or Winnebeego, the name of a tribe of the Dakota 
stock, is a word in the Algonquin language, given by some neighbor- 
ing tribe, signifying "people of the dirty waters." 

An Indian tribe was, in the nature of its existence, what we would 
call under our customs a kind of corporation, having a sort of political 
existence, with certain implied functions. A band or gens was a sub- 
division or separate division of a tribe. There was anotlier rank of 
Indian families of this kind, sometimes called sub-tribes, which were 
those living in a more independent manner than a mere band of a 
trilje, and who took upon themselves or ac(juired a name and a place 
independent from the name of the tribe, as in the case of the Kicka- 
poos, who were originally a band of the Shawnees, but who after a 
time became recognized as a distinct tribe. 

All these customs have tended to considerable confusion in desig- 
nating the Indian tribes of the continent, which has added to the dif- 
ficulty of deriving a correct knowledge of the Indians in their early 
history after the arrival of Europeans, and has withheld from us much 
important information as to the real facts of Indian tribes upon the 
continent at the time of the discovery. Much of our history of this 
people in thio regard is, at most, but mere conjecture. The country 
where this difficulty and want of correct information has mostly arisen 
is along the Atlantic coast, among the tribes of the Algonquin stock, 
from North Carolina to Labrador, also on the Pacific coast, from the 
Gulf of California to Alaska. In other portions of the continent cir- 
cumstances have been more favorable towards deriving correct infor- 
mation concerning the aboriginal tribes. 

There were no well defined boundaries marking the limits of the 
country inhabited by 4iese tribes, nor the groujjs or leagues to which 
they may have belonged. Their possessions were more or less in tlis- 
pute, and their territory was continually being invaded by each other 
to a greater or less extent, which, as with civilized nations, became an 
ol)ject of contention, and, ao with us, led to hostilities, aggression and 

Kev. Jedidiah Morse says that in 1708 there lived in North Caro- 
lina, near the settlements, the following Indian tribes, of which he 



gives the number of warriors in each, and from which he estimates the 
whole number of the same as follows: 

Tuscarora warriors, in fifteen towns, 1,200; Waccou, in two towns, 
120; Maramiskeet, 80; Bear Iliver, (iO; Hatteras, 10; Neus, in two 
towns, 15; Pamlico, 15; Meherring, 50; Chowan, 15; Pasquotank, 10; 
Poteskeet (Currituck), 30; Nottaway, 30; Connamox, two towns, 25; 
Jaupin, 2 ; total warriors, 1,()08. Admit that there are five persons for 
each warrior, the whole number of souls would be 8,0-40. 

Mr. Jefferson, in his '• Notes on Virginia," gives the following in- 
formation concerning tlie Indian tribes of that state when they first 
became known to the whites: '" When the first effectual settlement of 
our colony was made, which was in 1<)07, the country from the sea coast 
to the mountains, and from the Potomac to the most southern waters 
of James river was occupied by upwards of forty different tribes of 
Indians. Of those, the Powhatans, the Mannahoacs and Monacans 
were the most powerful. Those between the sea coast and falls of the 
river were in amity with one another, and attached to the Powhatans 
as their link of union. Those between the falls of the rivers and the 
mountains were divided into two confederacies; the tribes iidiabiting 
the head waters of Potomac and Kappahannock being attached to the 
Mannahoacs; and those on the upper parts of James river to the 
Monacans. But the Monacans and their friends were in amity with 
the Mannahoacs and their friends, and waged joint and perpetual war 
against the Powhatans. We are told that the Powhatans, Mannahoacs 
and Monacans spoke languages so radically different, that interpreters 
were necessary when they transacted business. Hence, we conjecture, 
that this was not the case between all the tribes, and probably that 
each spoke the language of the nation to which it was attached, which 
we know to have been the case in many particular instances. Very 
possibly there may have been anciently three different stocks, each of 
which, multiplying in a long course of time, had separated into so 
many little societies. This practice results from the circumstance of 
their having never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive 
power, any shadow of government. Thoir only controls are their 
manners and that moral sense of right and wrong which, like the 
senses of tasting and feeling in every man, make a part of his nature. 

" An offense against these is punished by contempt, by exclusion 
from society, or, where the case is serious, as that of murder, by the 
individual whom it concerns. Imperfect as this species of coercion 
may seem, crimes are very rare among them, insomuch that were it 
made a question, whether no law, as among the savage Americans, or 
too much law as among tiie civilized Europeans, submits man to the 



greatest evil, one who has seen both conditions of existence would 
2)ronouuce it to be the last; and that the sheep are happier of them- 
selves than uiuler the care of the wolves. It will be said that ^reat 
societies cannot exist without government. The savages, therefore, 
break tliem into small ones. 

•• The territories of the Powhatan confederacy south of the* Poto- 
mac C(nuprehended about eight thousand square miles, thirty tribes 
and two thousand four liundretl warriors. Captain Smith tells us that 
within sixty miles of Jamestown were five thousand people, of whom 
one thousand five hundred were warriors. From this we find the pro- 
portion of their warriors to their whole inhabitants was as three to ten. 
Tiie Powhatan confederacy, then, would consist of about eight thou- 
sand inhabitants, Avhich was one for every square mile, being about the 
twentieth part of our present population in the same territory, and the 
hundredtli of that of tlie British islands. 

" Besides these were the Nottoways, living on Nottoway river, the 
Meherrins and Tuteloes on Meherrin river, who were ctuinected with 
the Indians of Carolina, probably with the Chowanoes." 

In connection with the foregoing, Mr. Jefferson adds the accom- 
panying table, giving a statement of the tribes of that state, more in 
detail according to their confederacies and geographical situation, 
witli tiieir numbers when the whites first became acquainted with 
them, where the same could be ascertained. (See page 125), 

How accurate this information may be we have now no means of 
determining, or how far the names of tribes which Mr. Jefferson gives 
are correct, or how far they have become changetl by misunderstanding 
or mispronunciation l)y the whites, is something which we have no 
means of learning at this time, or whether all these that he mentions 
as tribes ranked as such, or whether they were not mere bands of tribes. 
Suffice it to say, that most of the names which he gives as the names 
of tribes have long since disappeared in our enumeration of tlie Indian 
tribes of tlie continent; evidences of the existence of some of them, 
however, remain in their names which have been applied to localities, 
coming down to the present day; as the Rappahanocs, Pamunkies, 
Chickalioiiiinies, Powhatans, Appamattocs, Chesapeakes, Accoraacks, 
and the like. 

As for the tribes who inhabited the country of Maryland, we have 
little that is definite concerning them. Mention, however, is nuule at 
an early date of the tribe of Susquehannocks or Sasocpiahannocks as 
living in that [)art of the country, Mr. John Ogilbt, an English writer 
on American iiistory, writing about the year 1071, says of the natives 
ut Maryland: " There are atj many distinct nations among them as 




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tliore are Iiulian towns (which are like oountry villages in England, 
but not so good houses), dispersed throughout the {)rovince. Each 
town hath its king (by them termed Werwance), and every forty or 
fifty miles distance differs much from its neighbors in speecli and dis- 
position. The Susquehannocks, though but few in number, they much 
exceed the rest in valor and fidelity to the English." 

The country of Pennsylvania and New Jersey was inhabited, it 
would seem, at least in the vicinity of the Atlantic coast, by the Lenni 
Lenapes, or people afterwards called Delawares. 

According to Thatcher: "The clearest, if not the conipletest, 
classification of New England Indians, at the date of the settlement of 
Plymouth, includes five principal confederacies, each occupying their 
own territory, and governed by their own chiefs. The Pequots in- 
habited the eastern part of Connecticut. East of them were the Nar- 
ragnnsetts, within whose limits Ehode Island, and various smaller 
islands in tiie vicinity, were comprised. The Pawtucket tribes were 
situated chiefly in the southern section of New Hampshire; the Mas- 
sachusetts tribes around the bay of their own name; and between these 
ujjon the north and the Narragansetts upon the south, the Pokanokets 
claimed a tract of what is now Bristol county (Ehode Island), bounded 
laterally by Taunton and Pawtucket rivers for some distance, together 
with large parts of Plymouth and Barnstable. 

" This confederacy exercised some dominion over the Indians of 
Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, and over several of the nearest 
Massachusetts and Nipmuck tribes, the later name designating an 
interior territory, now mostly within the boundaries of Worcester 
county. Of the Pakanokets, there were nine separate cantons or tribes, 
each governed by its own petty sagamore or squaw, but all subject to 
one grand-sachem, who was also the particular chief of the Wampanoag 
canton, living about Montaup. 

"This celebrated eminence (frequently called, by corruption of 
the Indian name, Mount Hope), is a mile or two east of the village of 
Bristol. It is very steep on all sides, and terminates in n large rock, 
having the appearance, to a distant spectator, of an immense dome." 

The foregoing classification L,f the New England Indians is 
doubtless far from being perfect, as it makes no mention of the tribes 
iidmbiting Maine, and fails also to include a number of the less 
im{)ortant clans, which were scattered here and there over the other 
New England States. 

According to other authorities, the natives of New England, at the 
time of the settlement of the country, were divided into some twenty 
tribes, extending from Maine to New York, ranging under their chiefs 



or sagamores, counting in fighting men from twenty to some hundreds 
eacli. The principal of thepo were the Taratines about the Kennebec, 
tlie Wampanoags in Massachusetts, the Narragansetts, the Mohegans, 
and Pequots on Long Island Sound. 

Mr. Drake, in his book of Indian Biography, says: "Some 
knowledge of the Indians eastward of the Massachusetts was very early 
obtained by Capt. John Smith, which, however, was very general ; as 
that they were divided into several tribes, each of which had its own 
sachem or, as these more northern Indians pronounced that word, 
Sdchouo, which the English understood as s(ui(imorc; and yet all the 
sachemos acknowledged subjection to one still greater, which they 
called hasliaha. Of the dominion of the basluibd, writers differ much 
in respect to their extent. Some suppose that this authority did not 
extend this side the Piscataqua, but it is evident that it did, from 
Captain Smith's account." 

Captain Smith, in his aforesaid account, says: "The principal 
habitations I saw at northward, were Penobscot, who are in wars with 
the Taratines, their next northerly neighbors. Southerly, up the 
rivers and along the coast, we found Mecadacut, Segocket, Pemniaquid, 
Nusconcus, Sagadahock, Satquin, Anmaugheawgen and Kenabeca. To 
those belong the countries and people of Segotago, Pauhunlamuck, 
Pocopassum, Taughtanakagnet, Wabigganus, Nassaque, Masheros- 
queck, Wawrigwick, Moshoquen, Waccogo. Pasharanack, etc. To those 
are allied in confederacy the countries of Ancocisco, Accorainticus, 
Passataquak, Augawoam and Naemkeck, all these, for anything I 
could perceive, differ little in language or anything; though most of 
them be sagamos and lords of themselves, yet they hold the bashabes 
of Penobscot the chief and greatest amongst them." 

The word hashabd, before mentioned as the title of a princi[)al 
chief, does not seem to be an Indian word. It is doubtless a word 
borrowed by Smith from the title of a high officer among the Turks, 
called bdsltaw, from the Persian baslia or pasha, governor of a 
province, contraction and corruption of badshah or padshah, sovereign, 
king, great lord, from j^ad, one y,-hu preserves, powerful : and sJiali, 
king. A title of honor in the Turkish dominions; appropriately the 
title of the prime vizier, but given to viceroys or governors of provinces, 
and to generals and other men of distinction. Now usually written 

The names before given by Captain Smith to Indian tribes in the 
locality of which he speaks, have mostly disappeared, indeed, if they 
ever in fact existed. But all these various accounts, uncertain and 
vague as they necessarily are, from the meager means of information 



nt that time, go to confirm the suggestion that all iiit'ormatioii as to New 
England tribes rests ui)on an uncertain and not very satisfactory basis. 

The following is given as the names of tribes of Indians inhabit- 
ing Avhat is now the state of Maine, with the probable original 
nund)ers, from the Rev. Jedidiah Morse in his report to the Secretary 
of War in 1822: 

''St. Jolin''s Indians. These are the remnants of a tribe of Es- 
quimau Indians of mixed blood. They live mingled with about two 
hundred French families, in a village of about thirty wigwams, or 
lodges, at Meductic Point, on the junction of Mattavvascah river with 
the St. John's, N. Lat. 47 deg., 15 min., about twenty-five miles west 
of the dividing line between Maine and New Brunswick. Of these 
Indians we know very little. They have been under the care of the 
Catholics, and have seldom been visited by our missionaries. 

'■ P(ti^s(inni(] noddies. These Indians, in number three hundred 
and seventy-nine souls, including some ;jcattored families, (250 to 270 
dwell together), have about fifty wigwams; h.ive one hundred acres of 
excellent land, bordering on the Schodic river, open to the markets of 
Eastport, Lubec, and St. Andrews, from four to seven miles from these 
places, in a corner of the township of Perry. 

"■ Penobscot s. In ISll the niimber of their families, by enumera- 
tion, was fifty-seven, and of souls two hundred and forty-one. 

"After considerable pains and inquiry the best information I can 
obtain as to the aborigines in this state (Maine) is concisely this: 

Probable original numl)ers about the year 161G: 

1. The Newichwannncks, on the Piscataqua; 

2. The Ossipee tribes, on the river of the same name, emptying 
into a7iu filming the Saco; total number, 1,000. 

3. The Pigwaokets, whose principal town, a resting place, was 
the present Fryburgh. above the Ossipee; total, 400. 

i. The Amariscoggins, at the head of Casco bay. These In- 
dians, as far east as the Kennebec, were generally called by the gen- 
eric name of " Abenaquies ;" total, 500. 

5. The Norridgewock tribe, whose ancient town or headquarters 
was the present town oi Norridgewock, thirty miles above Hallowell, 
<in the Kennebec. Of all the tribes above mentioned, a few only, say 
twenty souls, of the latter remain; originally, 000. 

0. The Peraa<;[uids. This was a powerful tribe, probably at the 
head of the Tarranteens till the great and mortal sickness among the 
natives along the whole coast from the Penobscot to the Narragansett, 
A. D. 1017. The seat of the Pemaquids was at Bristol, in the county 
of Lincoln, fifteen miles east of Bath; total, GOO. 



7. Tlie Penobscots iiuinljer 1, )}()(). 

H. The PHHsanuujuniUlies mimlxn- t'tOO. 

Total imiuber in tril)es aforesaid, ItUtJ, 5,000. 

"Tlio probable number of natives in tiio territory, constitutinpr the 
present state of Maine two centuries ago, was 5,000 or ('),000 souls. 
The white population in 1T()0 was estimated at li{,(M)() souls. It 
probably was not half that number in 1712, at the treaty of Utrecht. 
The Indians were more tlian a match for the settlers at that time, even 
after th(3 numbers of the natives, during the preceding century, had 
been greatly reduced." 

The following, from reliable authority, is a list of Indian tribes 
originally found in southwestern Texas: 

Comanches, Caddoes, lonies, Ah-nau-dah-kas, Wacos, Towaconies, 
Witchetaws, I3(jlixes, Kechies, and Qua[)as. 

The tribes of the Pacific ct)ast, comparatively speaking, were in- 
numerable, that is, counting in those small bandsor subdivisions which 
generally .ank as tribes. Mr. Schoolcraft, some forty years ago, gave 
the following list of tribes as existing at that time on the Pacific coast: 



Nass ludiaus. 


Skeeua Indians. 


Kit ha tceu. 

Kit a lion. 
I Ke toon oli ahelk. 
1^ Kin a wa lax. 

Kis pii cba laidy. 
Kit liin. 
Keo dies. 
Ki'oii atli toix. 
Kit will coifs. 
Kitch a clfiltL. 
Kel at sail. 
Ken clieu Kiej,'. 
Ket iin don. 
Ket wilk ci pa. 

^ Kee chum n kar lo. 
) Ket se lai so. 



"] Niiss river, from 
I entrance upwards 
] in the order they 
J iire put down. 

Chatham's sound 
from Portland 
canal to Port Es- 
siiijiton (into which 
Skeena river dis- 
c ha ryes), both 
ni a i n 1 a n d a n d 
neit^hborinK isl- 

I Lower part 
\ Skeena river, 


I Keek heat hi- .Canal de Principe. 
Kil oa tah. -Entrance of Gardner's Canal. 
Sabassas Indians. <J Kit ta maat.. North arm of Gardner's Canal. 
I Kit lope..Sonth arm of Gardner's Canal. 
t^ Nees Ions.. Canal tl'la Reido. 

'' Onie le toch. 
Weitle toch. { Milbank Sound. 

Kok wai y toch. 
Ees tey toch. 
Kui much qui toch. 
Bella boo la. 




Gua shil la. 
Nalal se moih. 
_ Wee ko moch. 

Cascade Canal. 
Deans Canal. 
Ent. Solomon river 
of Sir A. M'Kenzie. 
Rivers Canal. 
Smith's Inlet. 
Calvert's Island. 



Ha eelb zuk 


»^ ||i W ^l|^« jmlUl ■ •.^;. ..■ .JH.Wg^tft ^ r, ^l l: >.i J ^ ^;j_^ i ^J^ , fc 





Qnceu Cimrlotte 
Sound, iiiul 


Nil weo top. 

(^llll coltll. 

()ilt'c liii l)iin colt. 

Miir lua lilii calla. 

Clow el HUH. 

Mur til par. 
N'iiii kinii. 
Wi> wai'k ka. 
Wo wark kuin. 
(Mai hi o is 
Cum lino kis. 
Tiaok i|iio lil> In. 
("lo Huso. 
Soi it inn. 
(^iiiok silt i nut. 
.\ (|na iiiisli. 
Clo li Kit te. 
Nar Udok tan. 
Qua i iin. 
Kxe iii until. 
Tt> nuokt tail. 
Oi Clo la. 
No onl ta. 
Quio lia Ne cub ta. 
Co inonx. 

Sua no 
cle nu. 
Quat siuu. 
Ku.sko inn. 


About (,)uoon 
!■ Charlotto's 


Chilcat, soveral 


Cross Sound Ind. 


Tnko, Snmdan and 
Sitku Indianp. 





Huna cow. 

Stikeen Indians. 

Pt. Stuart Indians. 
Tongass Indians. 

\ Tako. Hamdan and 
? Hitka. 




f Siok naa butty. 
I Ta oo too tan. 
I Kaas ka qua toe. 
J Kook a too. 
I Naa nee a a ghee. 

Till <iua toe. 
I Kiok sa too. 
[ Kaadg ott oo. 

Abo alt. 

Keo tab lion neet. 

Cape Fox Indians. Lugb so lo. 

Ky Gargey. 

Yon ah iioe. 

Cliet nes. 
ui a ban less, 
ow a guan. 

Show a gan. 

Chat cbee nie. 

Stikeen river. 

Port Stuart. 

S. Ent. Clarence 

Cape Fox. 

S. side of Prince 
of Wales 


All Ot i,.iORO 

tribes are 
said to s[)eak 
the s a ni t> 
liujguago. or 
only a pro- 
vincial dif- 

Johnston's Straits. 

•' Ent. 
" " soatb. 

Capo Scott. 
Scott's Island. 
South of Capo Scott. 
Outside Vaucouvtrs Is. 

Lynn's Canal. 

Cross Sound. 

N. of Ent. Tako river. 

Tako and Sitka rivers 
and S. of it on main land. 

Hood's Bav. 

Klen ee kate. 

Hai dai. 





rHliiiidH [ndiiius. 


Lii Ian nil. 
Ni«h Ian. 
No coon. 
.\ HO K'laiij,'. 
Skitt lie niiU^. 
Ciitn film wiiH. 
Hkco (lauH, 
Qiioe (ill. 

KIhIi a win. 
Kow Welti), 



OiU'cii Cliarlott«''H 

iKlandH, ln^iiininK 

I at North iHlanil, 

'" north Olid, ami 

pasHinK lonud by 

tlio eastward. 

Hai dai. 

To the foregoing, Mr. Sclioolcraft the following list of 
tribes of Oregon and Washington Territories: 






Tototiu-f of Port Orfoid District, viz: 
Rogue River Indians, 
Des Chutes, 
Saaptins, or Nez Peroes. 
Sboshones, viz: 

Lewis River Snakes. 


Root Diggers, 


Near Mouth of Columbia. 

Clackamas River. 
Willemette Valley. 

Umpqua River, W. Valley. 

Pacific Shore. 

Rogue River Valley. 
Klamath Lake and' vicinity. 

Falls River. 

Mission ludiaus. 

Utilla River. 

John Day's River. 

Walla-walla Riv«r 

Salmon and Clearwater Rivers. 

Lewis River, etc. 





Uppor Cliinooks, five hands, not inclml- 

iiilL,' tlio CiiHCiulo baud. 
Lower Chinooks — 
' 'hinook l)aiid. 
Four other.s, (estimate^. 

(4)\vlitz and Upper Chihalis. 
Quiii-aitle, etc. 
All others. 
Siitialli-iiii-inisli, (i hands. 



Slo huli-wa-iuisli. 

Sliiin i-ah-ruDo. 


Columbia River, above the Cowlitz. 

Colnnibia River, below the Cowlitz. 

iSiioalwator Bay. 

(iray's Harbor, and Lower Chihalis River. 

Northern Forks of Chiiialis River. 

On fowlitz River and the Chihalis. above 

Base of Mts. on ( owlitz, etc. [the .Satsop. 

Coast from Gray s Harbor northward. 

Cape Flattery and vicinity. 

Straits of p'lica. 

Port Townsend. 

Pijrt Discovery. 

New l)iiUf,'eue.s.s. 

False DiiujLfeneKs. etc., westward. 

I^ort 'l.'ownsend. 

Hood's < anal. 

Hood's Canal, uj)per end. 

Case's Inlet, etc. 

(Parr's Inlet, etc. 

Hatnnierslv's Inlet, etc. 

Totten's Iiilet, etc. 

Kid's Inlet, etc. 

hildd's Inlet, etc. 

South Bay. 

Nisipialiy River and vicinity 

Steil-a-cooni Creek and vicinity. 

Mouth of I'uyallop River, etc. 

Heads of Puyallop River, etc. 

Peninsula between Hood's Canal and Ad- 

Vashon's Island. [luiralty Inlet. 

Lake F,)rk, Dwamish River. 

Dwaniish Lake, etc. 

Hea.l of White River. 

Head of Oreen River. 

Main White River. 

South end Whitby's I'd., Hiu-a-homisli R. 

Up|)er branches, north siile 

South Fork Sin-a-homish River. 
Stohuihwamish River, etc. 
Kikiiillis River and Whitby'.s Island. 
Skayit Riv(>r .and Penn's Cove. 

Branches of Hkai,'it River. 

North End Wliitby's Ishmd, canoe pas- 
Bajife, and Siu-a-mish River. 

Samish River and Bellinjjham Bay. 
South Fork Lnnnni River. 
Lummi River and Peninsnla. 
Between Luinuii I'oiut and Frazier's Riv. 






Cootena.VH ami Fiatljoys. 

IVuil (I'Oreillps of Upper Lake. 

I'oml (VOreilles of Lower Lake. 

('(Pur il'.Alenes. 


N(>z Purees. 




Dalles Bands. 




PisqiiouKe and Okinakanes. 

Sehwo-Yelpi or Colville. 


Undoubtedly, a larpe majority of the 
Nez Perces are in Washinj^rton Territory, 
but the major part of tlie Caynses, Wal- 
la-\vallns and the Dalles Indians are in 




Between Olympia and Na-wau-knni 




Kt{uaUi a-inish. 








Genenil list of Iiulini) tribes in North Aiiiericu from the most 
authentic sources that can be obtained, in addition to those liereto- 
fore specially mentioned: 

Abekas, probably Muskoj^ees, under French at Tombeckbee. 1750. 

Abenaki, Wapanachki, Eastern Indians. A generic term first 
given by Europeans to the Indians of New England, Eastern Canada 
and Nova Scotia, understood to include the following tribes: Micmacs, 
S()uri(|Uois, Anieriscoggins, Etchimins and Penobscots. The Abenakis 
proper lived on tlio Kennebec river; their princ "-iid place was Nan- 
rantsouak (Noi*ridgewock). Numbere 1 in lt)y ' i tout 200, in ITSO 
about 150. AlgoiKjuin stock. See Dolawares. 

Absoroka, or Crow Indians, upper Missouri rivei". See Crows. 

Accokesaw. west side of the Colorado, in 1)S05. (Drake). 

Accomacs, Aconiacks, on eastei-n shore of Virginia, Alg. stock. 

Adirondacks, on St. Lawrence, in I7S(> about 100. Alg. stock. 

Affagoula, small chi;i in 1783 on lower Mississippi. ( Drake). 

Agawam ( Wanipanoags). i>t Samlwich, Mass ; others at Ipswich 
in 1020. Algon([uin stock. (Drake). 

Aglemutes, Agolegmutcs. In li ussi:in America, at the iuouth of 



the rivers Nascliagak and Naknek. They belong to the Esquimaux 
(Tchouktchi Americans of Baibi). (Trubner). 

Ahwahaway ( Miuetaro ) , southwest Missouri 1820, abovo the 
Mandans; 200 in 1805. (Drake). 

Ajoues, see lowas. Dakota stock. 

Alansar (Fall), head branches south fr. \ SasVashawan. (Drake. ) 

Aleutans, in islands between Alaska and Kamscliatka. 

Aliatan, three tribes in 1805 on heads Platte. (Drrike). 

Aliclie, near Nacogdoches in 1805, spoke Caddo. (Drake). 

Algonquins. Once a powerful tribe of the northern shores of the 
lakes and the St. Lawrence. This became a generic term applied gen- 
erally to all the tribes of the continent as a linquistic group of the 
same stock. The word conies to us from the missionaries and historical 
writers of New France, and meant originally " people of the other 
side," in contradistinction to the Iroquois tribes; name invented l)y 
the French from Indian roots for the wide-spreading stock of Indian 
tribes, M^liose migration extended over so long a line of the continent, 
referred to by early French writers as Montagues. 

AUakaweali, heads Big Horn river; 2,300 in 1805. (Drake). 

Alleghans, known also as AUegewi and Talligewi, originally Alii 
or Alley, lived in the Oluo valley, along its contiueut streams. Now 
extinct, or l(.)st by amalgamation with other tribes. Algonquin stock. 

Allibama (Creek), removed to Red river ITH-l. (Drake). 

Amalistes, formerly on the St. Lawrence; alxmt 500 in 17150. 

Anasaguntakook, sources Androscoggin till 1750. Algonquin 
stock. (Drake). 

Andastes, once on south shore Lake Erie. (Drake). 

A[)aches. They roamed over the triangular s[)ace included be- 
tween the pueblos of New Mexico, the river Colorado and the Gila; 
they extend also into the state of Chihuhua, and even farther south. 
They are related to the great Atha[)ascan family. The Navajos and 
Tinalenos b(>long to this stock. They origiirited, it is said, about two 
or three hundred years ago, from the outcasts of other trilies, from the 
Navajos, the Mocjues and Umas. In addition to this, they Iiave an 
admixture of the blood of Mexican renegades. Tliere are several 
branches of the Apaches. Tiie Mescallaros, who derive their name 
from mescal, a ]ilant from which an intoxicant is made by the Mexi- 
cans; the otiier tribes are the Coyeteros (foxes), which is the largest; 
the Tontos (fools) and the Gilas, who are named from their proximity 
to the Gila river. 

Api)alachicolas, on the river of that name in Florida; in 1835 
about 310. Removeil to lied river in 17r)4. 



Appnlousa, aboriginal in country of their name. (Drake). 

Acquanuschioni, name tlie Iroquois called themselves. (Drake). 

Arivapais, Indians of Arizona, resided at Grant resarvation. 

Armouchicjuois, New Brunswick. Alg. stock. . (Drake). 

Avapahoes. Arrapahas, 
Arrapahays. The wo-d is 
said to mean "tattooed peo- 
ple." The northern Arapa- 
hoes call themselves by a 
word which they claim means 
"good," or "strong heart." 
The soiithern bands claim the 
word simply means "man" 
or "men." or "the people." 
Tradition locates this tribe, 
several hundred years ago, in 
"Western Minnesota. Their 
language is said to be en- 
tirely ditt'erent from any 
oth<!r, having a rich voca- 
bulary. Tiiey are a part of 
the Atsina or Fall Indians of 
the Blackfoot stock; they 
occupied the country about 
the sources of the Platte and 
Arkansas rivers. Their num- 
ber was estimated by Mr. 
Morse in l>i'2<' at 1(),(K)(); 
twenty-five years lat n* it was 
estijuated at 14-, Odd. 

Arrenamuse, on St. Antonio river, in Texas; 120 in ISLS. (Drake). 
\rricaree, Arricaras, Eiccaras. The indications are that these 
Indians u*'o an offshoot from the Foxes, from whom tliey have l)een 
.se[)arated lon^^or ago than ti'adition reaches. Their old villages were 
on the Missouri river, about half way between tlie Great Bend and the 
Mandan village, from which tliey removed some di-l-ince west towards 
Cannon Ball river. Their number is given by Mr. Morse in 1820 at 

Assinaboines, Assinipoils, Assinibules, Stone Indians, A word, it 
is said, signifying "stone roasters." froni the mode of cooking their 
meat on heated tlat stones, (U' boiling it in water, heated by means of 
hot Btoues thrown in. Other authorities say it signifies " Stone 


I ;: 



Sioux," perlmps Rocky Mountain Sioux. Tlieir country was nortn 
of the British line, between lied river and Lake Superior. There are 
t^\•o divisions of the tribe, one of which is of the Sioux stock, and the 
other Al;^onquiii. They are said to be a separate tribe of the Sioux. 
Formerly they Avere called Issati. See Stone Indians. 

Atenas, with Faculli in 1S3(), west of Rocky Mts. (Drake ) 

Athapasca, Athabasca, Tinne,Dtinne. A generic term, in which is 
comprised several tribes, the Chepewyans (having no relation to the 
term Ojibway or Chipeway), Tahkals, Kutchin, Susse, Dogrib, Tlat- 
skanas, and Umpquas. The Navajas and Ticorillas seem to belong to 
the same stock, to which the Kenaize are nearly related. They are 
frequently spoken of as the great Athajiascan family, and occupied 
the most norther i portion of North America, before reaching the 
country of the Esv_ .■■"• ' . Their number is said to be about 13,000. 

Atnah, or Kir.i t ' .ns Cliin Indians (Shouslnvap, Flatheads), 
on the Caledonia river, \, .„ of the Rocky Mountains. 

Attakapas, Otakapa. Ii.ulians of Lcniisiana. 

Attapulgas (Syminoles;, Oloklikana river; 220 in 1.S20. (Drake.) 

Attikamegues, in north Canada; destroyed by disease in ItJTO. 

Aucocisco (Abenaki), Saco river, in 1(130. Alg. stock. (Drake). 

Aughquagas, east branch Susquehanna river; 150 in 17(')8. 

Ayutans, south of Missouri, near Rocky Mts.; 8,000 in 1820, 

Bannacks, T'ley occupied a part of the territory of Utah. 
Shoshonee stock, and usually speak that language. They claim that 
this word came from Pan-ah-ki, a name given them by Slioshonees. 
The manufacture of the bow and arrow was the only thing of art 
found anaong them. They seem to have de[)ended mostly upon roots 
and other natural products of the earth for subsistence. 

Batem-da-kai-ee Indians, of the northwestern part of California. 

Bayagoula, west bank of Mississipiji, im[)ortant in 16{)'J. (Drake). 

Beaver Indians, m the Hudson Bay territory. 

Bethuck. ancient tribe of Indixns, Alg. stock. Northeast coast. 

Bedies, mentioned in the histi y of the Caddoes, formerly on 
Trinity river, in Louisiana, about sixty miles south of Nacogdoches; 
numbered 100 souls in 180"). They speak the mother Caddo language. 

Belantse-Eteas. A name for the Minnetaries of the Upper Mis- 
souri. Tliey are also called (rros Ventres by the French. They 
belong ap[)arently to the Ujjsaroka (Crow) family; roughly estimated 
in the forepart of the pi'esent century at 2,500. 

Big Devil Indians, Yanktons of the Plains, on the head waters of 
the Red River of the North, estimated in the forepart of the present 
centurv at 2.500. 



Blnckfeet, Satsiknn, Pieds noirs. Blood or Paegan Indians. Some 
words in their dialect indicate that they are of the Algonquin stock. 
On the sources of the Missouri river they are divided into: 1. Satiskan, 
or Blackfeet pro})er. 2. Kahna, or Blood Indians, "Indians du 
Sang.'' ;}. Pickans, Paegans, Picaneux. 4. Small Robes. Esti- 
mated in 1S84 at 30,000. 

Blanche Indians. A term bestowed in the earliest period of the 
history of New France on a tribe living on one of the south branches 
of the Missouri. Hence, the apocryphal story of White Indians. 
Estimated in 1"»)0 at 1,500. 

Blood Indians, bands of the Blackfeet Indians, living about the 
falls of Saskatchewine river, Hudson's Bay. (See Blackfeet). 

Blue Mud. west and near Rocky Mountains, in 1820. (Drake). 

BolixicH, Biloxis, a tribe who, in 10()0, and during the first settle- 
ment of that province, lived on the bay of Bolixi, on the Gulf of 
Mexico; believed to have Ijeen of the Choctaw stock. In 180-1, a few 
were still living on Red river, Avhither ti)ey had migrated. 

Bow Wood Indians (Arkansaw), from Arc, French, and Kaiixan; 
a tribe. A part of the Kansas appear to have been so designated in 
the early days of western history. They lived on the Arkansas river, 
and are believed to have given its present name to that stream. 

Boukfuka, in Choctaw history, a tribe or band of Indians formerly 
living on the waters of the Pearl river, Louisiana. 

Brothertons, or Broth ertowns. A tribe or band formed by the 
consolidation of the remnants of the Mohegans, Nanticokes, Pequots, 
and other New England tribes, in the latter part of the last century, 
Algonquin stock. The Oneidas granted theni a township of land south 
of Utica, to which they migrated, where they settled and assumed the 
habits of civilization, from whence they removed about 1830 to Wis- 
consin and settled on the east side of Winnebago lake, where tiiey still 
remain. They abandoned the use of their several dialects, and 
assumed the English language alone. For over fifty years past they 
have spoken and known no other language but the English. They were 
admitted to ciiizeiishi[) in 18;}('), and live in the same manner as other 
civilized people, numbering about 350 persons. 

Brule, a band of the Sioux Indians, at Rose Bud agency and at 
Lower Brule; the latter on the Missouri river about fourteen miles 
from Fort Hall, Dakota Territory. 

Caddoes, Cadodaquious ; in 1770 a powerful nation on the Red 
River of the South. Captain Marcey, in his ro[)ort of liis exploration 
of this river in 1S52, says the Caddoes are considered as the motiier 
nation of the country, and have a general superintendence over all the 



tribes in tlieir vicinity, except the Choctaws, between whom and the 
Caddoes tliere is great jealousy. Captain Clark, in his Sign Language, 
referring to the Caddoes, says they are the same as the Nez Perces ; 
number about H.jO. 

Cadodache. ( Nacogdochet), on Angelina river; GO in 1S20. 

Caliokia, Cohakies, one of the Illinois tribes, on the east side of 
the Mississippi. Mostly destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes in the time 
of Pontiac. AlgoiKjuin stock. 

Cahuillos, Ca-wi-os. California Indians, residing near the Pacific. 

Caiwas, near the head of the Arkansas. 

Calapooians, Callapuyans, Indians of Oregon. 

Caliisthoole, on tlie Pacific, in Oregon; 200 in 11S20. (Drake). 

Callimix, on the Pacific, in Oregon; 1,200 in 1.S20. (Drake). 

Canarsee, on Long Island, in 1010. (Drake). 

Canibas, (Abenaki), numerous in 1007, on Kennebec river. 

Carankoua. on peninsula on Bay of St. Barnard; 1,500 in 180e5, 

CarantonitUiiis, a tribe on the Susqi;ehaniia, allies of the Hurons. 

Caree. between Nuances and Bio del Norte; 2,(500 in 1817. 

Carriers, ^T, 'eot fains ), in Caledonia, British America. (Drake). 

Ca^tah■nla, sources of Padouca fork; 5,000 in 1S05. (Drake). 

Cataki. on Chien river; alxnit i5.000 in iSOi. (Drake). 

Catald)a-Nutaldca. Catawba river; had 150 warriors in 1704. 

Catiilacumups, Colundiia river; 450 1111820. (Drake). 

Cathlakahikit. rai)ids of the Columbia; 000 in 1S20. (Drake). 

Cathlakamaps, on Columbia river; 700 in 1820. (^ Drake). 

Catlilamat, on the Pacific, south of Columbia river; (500 in 1820. 

Cathlaiiamenamen, mouth of Wallaumet river; 400 in 1820. 

Catlilanacpiiah (Wappatoo), Wappatoo Island; 400 in 1820. 

Catlilapootle. on Columbia river; 1,100 in 1820. (Drake). 

Cathlapooya, on the Wallaumet river; SOU in 1820. (Drake). 

Cathlascons, on the Columbia river; related to Chinooks. 

Cathlath, on the Wallaumet river; 500 in 1820. (Drake). 

Cathlathla. on Columbia river; 900 in 1820. (Drake). 

Cattanahaw, between Saskaolur-an and Missouri rivers in 1805. 

Caughnewagas, a band of the Mohawks, on St. Lawrence river. 

Cayas, found by De Soto east of Mississip[)i, same as Kansas. 

Cayugas, Gogoyans, Queugues, Gwe-u-gweh, "at the mucky land," 
or G .;-u-gweh-o-no, *' peo])le at the mucky laud," tribe of Iroquois, 
one of original five nations. 

Chactoo, on Red river, indigenous; in 1805 but 100. (Drake). 

Chaouanons, see Shawnees. 

Chehaws, small tribe on Flint rivei', destroyed in 1817. (Drake). 



Chemolinevis, n band of Pah-utahs. Shoshonee family. 

Cherokee, Chilake, it the beginning ox tliis century still lived 
south of the Ohio river, in sixty-four towns or villages, divided into 
Ottare (Mountain Clierokees), and Ayrate fCherokees of the Valley). 
They are now Avest of Arkansas, in the ^udian territory, have adopted 
civilization and are called one of the civii?zed tribes. A large band of 
the Clierokees still remain in North Carolina. Appear to be of the 
Iroquois stock. 

Chepeyan, claim from Lat. sixty to sixty-five degrees, Lon. IDO 
to 110 degrees: 7.500 in 1N12. (Drake). 

Cheskitalowa ( Seminoles ), west side Chattahoochee; 580 in 1820. 

Chetimacha, Indians of Louisiana. 

Cheyeunes, Cliiens or Chawas, once lived on a tributary of the 
Red River of the North, from whence they crossed the Missouri to 
the head waters of the Nebraska. They speak an entirely different 
dialect from the nations surrounding them; estimated in 1820 at 3.250. 

Chickamaugas. a band who broke from the Clierokees in Ten- 
nessee, ill the fore[)art of the present century, under the chief Drago- 

Chickasaws, Chickassas. Cliikf !sas, formerly in Alabama, on the 
Mobile river, now in the Indian Territory, ami are called one of the 
civilized tribes of that territory. 

Chicoreans, appear to have been the ancient Uchees, who are now 
merged as an inconsiderable element in the great Xluscogee family, 
but who still preserve [)roud notions of their ancieit courage, fame 
and glory. 

Chilieeleesh. north ot Columbia river; 1,400 in 1820. (Drake). 

Chickahominies, on the Metapony river, in Virginia in 1(')()1. 

Chillatos, on the Pacific, north of Columbia river; 150 in 1820. 

Chillukittetiuaus, at Narrows of the Columbia; 1,-100 in 18137. 

Chiltz, on Columbia river; next north of the Killaxthicies. 

Chimehuevas, Indians of Arizona, on the Colorado river. 

Chinnapum, on Lewis river, north of the Columbia; 1,800 in 1827. 

Chinook, Chinuk, Indians of Oregon, on the right bank of the 
Columbia river; 400 in 28 lodges, in 1837. 

Chippeway, properly Ojibway, a numerous tribe of the Algonquin 
group, extending from the Red River of the North, along the southern 
shore of Lake Superior to Quebec, the most powerful of all Algoncpiin 
tribes, were many bands, passing under various names. 

Chippewyans. Chippeyans, inhabiting country north of Lake 
Superior. Mr. Gallatin and others rank them among the Athapascan 
family of languages. Many confound this name, ami the people bear- 



ing it, with Cliippeway, which is erronemis, ns they are an entirely dif. 
forent stock; moreover, the wonl Chi[){)ewHy is a corruption from 
Ojibway, wiiich is the correct name of the hitter tribe. 

Cliitimicha. on the west bank Missi8sij)[)i river, in 1722. (Drake). 

Choctaw, Cluihtali, Chacta, a numerous tribe, formerly living in 
the country between Alabama and tiio Mis8is8i{)j)i rivers, estimated, in 
lsr2, at r),000; now living in the Indian Territt)ry, having adopted 
tiie habits of civilization, and are called one of the five civilized tribes 
of that territory. Jedidiah Morse, in 1820, classed among this nation 
the following: Apalaches, Alibamas, Abecas, Cawittaws, Coushacks, 
Coosas. Chacsihoomas. Natchez. Oakraulgees, Oconees, Okohoys, Paka- 
nas, Taensas, Tallepoosas, Weektumkas, and estimates the population 
of the whole, in 1780, at 17,280. Mr. Mcintosh says they were also 
called Flatheads, from a custom of flattening the head of the males in 

Chopunnishes, on Kooshooskee, on Lewis and Columbia rivers; 
2,300 in 180(). 

Choweshak, Northwestern California, head of Eel river. 

Chowans, in N. Carolina; tiO joined the Tuscaroras in 1720. 

Clahelellah, on Columbia river; 700 in 1820. (Drake). 

Clakstars, beyond Eocky Mountains ; 1.200 in twenty-eight lodges. 

Clamoctomicii, on the Pacific, N. of the Chiltz; 200 in 1820. 

Clanimatas, W. side of Wappatoo Island; 200 in 1820. (Drake). 

Clannarminimuus, S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 280 in 1820_ 

Clarkames, on a river of that name, flowing into the Wallaumut; 
1,800 in 1,S20. (Drake). 

Clatsops, below mouth of Columbia river; 200 in 14 lodges. 

Cneis, on river flowing into Sabine Lake, 1090; the Coenis of 
Hennepin, probably. 

Cocomaricopas, Indians of Sonora, near river Gila. 

Cochimi, Indians of Upper California, near the Mission St. 
Xaverio. Related to the Laymons. (Trubner). 

Colapissas, (m E. bank of Mississippi in 1720, opposite head t)f 
Lake Ponchartrain. (Drake). 

Comanches, Comanche, Indians of Texas, belonging to the 
great Shoshonee family. They ranged from the sources of the 
Brazos and Colorado rivers of Texas, over the great prairies of 
that country, to the waters of the Arkansas, and the mountains 
of Eio Grande. They are also called Hietans, Jetans and Paducas. 
Mr. Fitzpatrick, an agent of this tribe in 1874, says they are 
divided into three different and distinct bands, all speaking the 
Shoshonee language, of which were the Yampatickara, Cools-on-tick- 



HVn, Penoi-in-tickHid; all of which lire Shoshonee words, and heiiig 
trniislated into Eii<^lish, mean Root-enters, Bntfalo-euters. Su<^ar or 
Honey-enters. Mr. Burnett, of Texas, writing concerning those 
same Indians at n Inter day, says they are divided into three 
principal bands, to-wit: the Comanche, the Ynmparack and the 

Conchattas, came to Appalousas in 1794, from east the Missouri; 
in liSOl on the Sabine. (Drake ). 

Congarees, on the Congaree river in South Carolina. 

Conoies, Conoys, Conois, Canais, Canawuys, Canav ese, Kaidiowoys, 
near the south branch of the Susquehanna; about forty in 1780. 
The proj^er name is said to be Canai. 

Cookkoo-oose, on coast of Pacific, south of the Columbia; l.oOO 
in 1800. (Drake). 

Coopspeller, on branch of Colund)ia; l,tU)() in 180(3. (Drake). 

Coosadas (Creeks ), once resided near river Tallapoosie. (Drake"). 

Copeh. Indians of Northwestern California. (Trubner). 

Copper Indians, about Coi)i)ernune river. (Am. Pioneer). 

C'ora. Indians of New Mexico, near the Missions of Najnrit. 
Their language resembles very much the Mexican. (Trubnerj. 

Corees, a tribe of North Carolina. (Am. Pioneer). 

Coronkawa, on St. Jacintlio river; i5oO in 1820. (Drake). 

Costanos. California Indians on the Bay of San Francisco, and 
formerly under the Mission Dolores. There were five tribes: Ah wasli- 
tes, Ol-hones (called by the S|)aniards Costanos, or Indians of the 
coast), Al-tah-mos, Pio- mo-nans and Tu-lo-mos. A few other small 
tribes around the bay speak the same language. (Trubner). 

Cowlitsick, on the Columbia; 2,400 in 1820. (Drake). 

Creeks. See Muscogee. 

Crees, north of the Missouri, and west of the Mississippi. See 
Knistenaux. Algonc^uin stock. 

Crows, Up-sa-ro-ka. Corneilles. Indians of the Upper Mississippi, 
extending into Oregon. They are divided into three different bamls, 
speaking different dialects, viz. : 1. Kikatsa, or Crow proper, on the 
banks of the Yellowstone. 2. Ahimhaways, or Ahwahaways (Bhick- 
slioes, (3r " Souliers noirs," ) between the Mandans and Minetarees, 
and 3. AllakaAveah, or Paunch Indians ( " Indieus ventrus," on the 
Snake river). 

Cushina. A California tribe on the mountains of the South Yuba. 
Their language is common to most of the tribes inhabiting the upper 
portion of the Sacramento valley. 

Cutsahnin, on Columbia river; 1,200 in 1820. (Drake). 






Ddlikdtali, Dakota, Sioux, Nadowossies. A nuuH'rous nation 
})etween tlio Missouri and Mississippi. Heckewolder tliinks tiiey aro 
Iroquois, but Cass claims them as a se[)arutB nation. This woid, it is 
said, means "leagued" or "allied." They sometimes speak of them- 
selves as the Oceti sokowin, "seven council fires," referring to i, 
seven principal bands wliich comjjose this nation, viz. : 1. The Mde- 
wakantonwans, village of the spirit lake. 2. Tlu> \Vah[)ekutes, leaf 
shooters. v5. The Wahpetonwans, village in the leaves; probably 
obtained their name from the fact timt formerly they lived <mly in the 
Woods. 4. The Sisitonwans, village of the marsh. ">. The Ihankton- 
wanna, one of the end village bands. The Ihanktonwanna are divided 
into the Hunkpatidans, the Panaske, cut-heads; the Wazikute, pine- 
shooters; and the Kiyucka, dividers or breakers of law. (!. The 
Ihanktonwans, village at the end. 7. The Titonwans, village of the 
prairie. The Titonwans are divided into seven bands or clans, viz.: 
The Sicangu, Burnt-Thighs, the Oohenunpa, Two-boilings, and the 
Oglahi and Hunkpapa. 

Delaware, Lenape, Leuni-Lena[)e. Algonquin stock. The fol- 
lowing are mentioned as the three original tribes: 1. The Unami, or 
Wanami (turtle tribe), 2. The Unalachtgo, (turkey tribe). 3. 
Minsi, Ministi, or Muuseyi, (wolf tribe). They formerly lived on the 
Delaware river, and were the tribe who made the famous treaty Avith 
William Penn in 1()82. The Iroquois called this people Sag-a-na-ga. 

Dinondadies, tribe of the Iroquois, same as the Tsononthouans of 
the French Senecas, 

Doegs, small tribe on south side Potomac, in 1()75. (Drake). 

Dogs, the Chiens of the French. (See Cliien), (Drake). 

Dogribs. Indians of the northern part of North America, be- 
tween Martin's Lake and the Coppermine river. They called themselves 
Thing-e-ha-dtinne, and belong to the Dtinne or Athapaslcan stock. 
The "Mausais Monde" and Slave Indians are tribes belonifinij to them. 

Dotame, about the head of Chien river; 120 in ISO-"). (Drake). 

Echemins, (Canoe-Men), on a river of that name flowing into St, 
Lawrence on east side. 

Edistoes, in South Carolina in lOTO. (Drak- ' 

Emusas, (Seniinoles), V\ side of the Chattahoochee: 20 in 1820, 

Eneshures, at Great Narrows of the Columbia; 1,200 in 18i55. 

Eries, on the east side of the lake of that name, exterminated by 
the Irocjuois, Usually re' .rred to as the ancient Eries or Cats, which 
this word is supposed to mean, 

Esaws, on river Pedee, S. C, in 1701 ; probably Catawbas. ( Drake ). 

Eskelen, Eslenes. California Indians, east of Monterey, The 







I'ikkloiniK'heH nro Haul to In- n trihi- of tlio Eskolon, anil to speak tin- 
richest idiom of all the (!iilifoniiiiii liidiuiis 

Eskimo, Ewiuimiiux. North of (JO (h>^. northoni lutitiiijc. Thi' 
three priiiciixil (liiilfcts of tli(> Eskimo arc those of: 1. The Karnlis, 
Greenhimlers. 2. The Eskimo proper, on the shores of Lahrndor. 
ii. The Western Eskimos. 

Eiichees, a branch of the Creek or Muscogee Indians. 

Etohussewakkes. ( Seni. i. on ('hattahoochee; lOOin lS2l». I Drake). 

Eacullies, on Stuart's Lake, ^^'. R(H-ky Mts. ; 100 in IS'JO. I Drake). 

Ealls, so called from their residence at the falls of the Koush- 
kooshkeo. ( See Alansars). (Drake). 

Five Nations, Mohawks, Henecas, Cayugas. Onomlagns, and 
Onei(his. ( Drake). 

Fhitheads, Solisli. ( Atnah, Shouschwapi. Indians of the Rocky 
Mountains; divided into many trilxjs, of whicli the Salish, Ponderays, 
and Spokein or Spokane Indians are the most im[)ortant. 

Folles Avoines, the French so called the Monomonios. 

Fon du Lac. Roam from Snake river to the Sandy lakes. ( Drake). 

Fowl-Towns, (Sem. ). E. of Fort Scott; HOO in 1S20. (Drake). 

Foxes, Ottagamies, Otagami> , Mispuakies ( Red Eartli |, formerly 
lived on tlie Fox. river in Wisconsin, afterwards united with the Sacs. 
Algonquin stock, and speak the Sac dialect ; 1500 in ISTO. The Fox 
tribe is called by the Cliip-pe-was, Ot-tah-gah-mie; by the Sacs. Mus- 
buah-kie; by the Sioux, Mich-en-dick-er ; by the Winnebagoes, 0-sher- 
a-cu, and by the French, Ilenard. 

Fox Island, Russian America; continuation of the Aleutans. 

Fuca Straits, between AVashiugtou Ter. and south part of Van- 
couver's Island. 

Ganawese, on the heads of Potomac river; probably Kanhaways. 

Gay Head Indians, on Martha's Vineyard; probably AVampauo- 
ags; 200 in 1800. Algonquin stock. (Drake). 

Grand River, north side Lake Ontario, remnant of Iroquois. 

Gros Ventres, upper Missouri valley, west of the Dakotas. 

Haeeltzuk, Hailtsa. Naas Indians of the northwest coast, from 
504 degrees to 534 degrees, northern latitude. Dialects of the Ian- 
guage are spoken by the Billechoola, and the inhabitants of Macken- 
zie's Friendly Village. 

Haidah. Indians of Queen Charlotte's Island. A branch of this 
tribe, the Kyganies ( Kigarnies), live in the southern part of the 
Archipel of the Prince of Wales, nortliwost coast. 

Hare-Foot, next south of Esquimaux, always in war with them. 

Hallibees, a tribe of the Creeks, destroyed in 1813. 







Hannakallas, on the ColuiuMa, next to liuckkarso; CidO in IS'iO. 

Hassananiesits, tribe of Nipnmks, eiabi-aoed Christianity in l()()(). 

Herring Pond Indians. Wanipanoags. Mass. ; about 40. ( Drake i. 

Hietans, see Comanches. 

Hiiii (CadodacheK on Angelina river; 200 in 1S20. >'Drako). 

Hitchittees, a braneli of tlm Creeks, on Ciiattahoocliee and Flint. 

Hoc'liolaya. An extinct tribe of Canada, Sjieaking the dialect of 
the Mohawks. Montreal is situated on the place Avhero this tribe 
i"orniei;:ly resided. (Trulmer). 

Hohilpos (Tushepahas), on Clark's river; 300 in 1S20. (Drake). 

H(H>pah. Indian tribe of the lower part of Trinity river, in 
Northwestern Calif ornia. (Trubnerl. 

Hunias (Onnias), '"Eed Nation," in Louisiana in 1S05. 

Hurons, Wyandots, Gayandot, a numerous and formidable tribe 
of the Iroquois, formerly ou the great lake of that name, consisting 
of four bands, the Attignawantan, tlie Attignee-uonguac-hac, tius 
Arendal-'ronons and the Scanonaerat. In Vol. 1 of Le Clerq's first 
establishment of the faith in New France, by Shea, p. (it), note, is a 
mention of the Ochat-e-guins, a name giv^Mi for the Hurons. Si'e 

lakon. Lower Killamuks. Indians of Oregon, north of the 
Umpcjua river. 

Illinois, Illiin, plural lUiniwug. Algoncjuin stock. There were 
several tribes in Avhat became known as the Illinois country, mostly on 
the east side of the ]Mississi[)pi river, extending over on the west side 
in tlie viciiuty of the Des Moines river, winch became known as tli(> 
Illinois tribes. They were tlie Cahokins, Kaskaskias a?id Peorias; 
there were two otiier branches of thesis Indians, the Tamai'oas ami 
Michigamies, which some insist were se[)arate tribes, but better 
authority assigns them as branclu's merely from the other three tribes, 
the Tamaroas being considered a part of the Cahoki".:j and the Michi- 
tramies as belonging to the Peorias. 

Inies, or Tachies (Texas), on a branch of the Sabine; eighty men 
in 180(5; speak Caihlo. (Drake). 

Inkuluchluate, Kangjulit, in Russian America. 

lowas, Ajoues, Dakota sto-'k, aililiated with the Otoes. Missourias. 
Winnelmgoes, Kansas, Osages, (^uapaws, Omahas and Poncas. Tln^y 
{(U-merly lived in the country comprising the state of tl^l^ nann>; now 
scattered among other tribes of the west; nund)er LlOO in lSi<5. 

Isatis, Isati, Isanti, scMnetimes the name of the Sioux before IT-j-j. 

Ithkyemamits, north .si<hi Columbia; 000 in lS-0. i Diake). 

Jeliin, one of the tribes of Comanche^, Urazos. Del Norte. 


^ — 



Jicarilla. bi'nnch of the f^retit Apftohe. nation in tlie southwest. 
Kfulapans, a tribe in Nortii Carolina in 170". ( Drake). 
Kaimnkles, 400 in iN'iO, W. liocky Mountains, abode iinknow.i. 
Kaloosas, a tribe found early in Florida, extinet. (Drake). 
Kanenavish, one of the Padoucas Platte; 400 in 1805. (Drake). 


Kaidmwas, Gannwese or Canhaways, on Kanhawa, formerly. 

Kaiiinnvisi'hoH, KaninaviHii, wanderers in the Yellowstone cmmtry. 

Kansiis. Kon/.a, Kanze, Canees, a tribe of the Dakota stock, on the 
northern banks of the Kansas river. Mr. Catllu says this tribe has 
undoubtedly sprunj^ from the Osages, as their persoual appearance, 
language and tradition dearly prove, llev. Isaac McCoy gives the 




word Kansas as Kditzaii. The Kansas tribe are frequently called Kaws 
or Kauz, which would indicate an abbreviation of the word as given l)y 
Ml ?tcCoy. 

Kaskaskius. mini: ^oO in 17'.*7. iL'rake). 

Kaskayas. Kaskias or Bad Hearts, arounil the lumd waters of Platte 
rivt.r, beyond the Kites. Col. Long speaks of seeing them upon a 
tributary of the Red River of the South. 

Kapahas. formerly lived on the Mississippi about the St Francis, 
encountered by De Soto under tliat name; said to l)e identical with 

Katteka (Padoucns), not located. See Padoucas. (Drake). 

Kawitschen, north of Fraser's river, on the northwest coast, and 
oil the opposite shores of Vancouver's Island. Their language bears 
affinity to that of the Haeeltzuk. 

Keekatsa (Crows), botli sides Yellowstone: H.-jOO in 1805. 

Keyche, E. branch Trinity river in ISdC); 'iC.O in 1S20. (Drake), 

Kiawas, on Padouca river; l.(MH) in iSOli. (Drake). 

Kichais, Keechies, Keyes, Indians of the Great Prairies, related 
to the Pawnees, on the Canadian river. (Trubner). 

Kigenes. coast of Pacific, under Skittegates in 1821. 

Kikapoos, Kikkajm, Ukahipu, a branch of the Shnwauoe or 
Shawnee tribe, now west of the ]Mississi])[)i. Algonquin stock. 

Killamuks, branch of Clatsops, coast of Pacific; about 1,()0(). 

Killawats, in a largo town southeast of the Luktons. 

Killaxthocles, mcutli of Columbia river, N. side; 10(1 in 1820. 

Kimoenims, band of Cliopunnish, on Lewis river; 800, in S'ii clans. 

Kinai. Kenai, Kenaize, Ttynai, Indians of Russian America, at 
Cook's inlet and the Lakes of Iliamna and Kisshick. Their language 
belongs to the great Athapascan (orTinne) family. They call them- 
selves "Tnaina" men. Sagoskin distinguislies four dialects of the 
Kinai language, among which are the Inkilik, lukalit and Ingelmut. 

Kiowas, Kiawas, Kioways, roving Indians of Texas. 

Kiskakons, of ^Micliilimakinak in lOSO; u Huron tribe, i Drake). 

Kites. See Staitans. 

Knistenaux. Kristenaux, abbreviated liy the French Clin's. 
(Creel; called also Killisteno. nortiiernmost tribe of tln^ Algon(]uin 
stock, between the Rocky Mountains and Hudson's Bay. Kindred 
dialects are spoken Ity the Nehethawa. Monsomk. Xenawehk, Abl)itibl)e. 
and were spoken by tiie Attikameg. who have entirely disappeare<l. 
Their name is derived from tliti Algonquin adverb. Kenisa, or verb, 
Nisau, '-to kill." 3.000 in ls:M. 

Koltschanes. Galzanes, Russian .\mt>rica, north of (he river Atna. 




Kolusches, in Russian America, at Sitka Bay and Norfolk Sound. 

Konages, Konagens, inhabitants of the Island of Kadjak, in Rus- 
sian America. They belong to the Es(juimaux stock, and speak a 
language similar to that of the Tschugazzi. 

Kookkoo-oose, on coast of Pacific; about 1,500. (Drake). 

Koutenay, now located on the Flat Head reservation in Montana. 
They migrated from north of the British line, and made peace with 
the Flatheads about eighty years since. 

Kula-Napo, one of Clear Lake bands in northwestern California. 

Kuskurawaoks, east shore of Chesapeake in 10O7. (Tuscaroras). 

Knshkokwimes, Tclnvagmjutes, Kuskutschewak, or Kushkukch- 
wakmutes. tribe of Russian America, between the rivers Nushagak, 
Ilgajak, Chulitna and Kuskokwii..i, on the sea shore. 

Kutnae, Kutani, Kitunaha, or Kutneha, Coutanies, Flatbows, In- 
dian tribes near the sources of Mary river, west of Rocky Mountains. 

Kutchin, Loucheux Indians of northwestern America, on the 
banks of the Yukon or Kutchi-Kutchi. They belong to the Athapascan 

Lahaona. on the Columbia, above Clark's river; 2,000 in 1820. 

Lapanne. See Apache. (^ Drake). 

Lartielo, at falls of Lastau river; 000 in 1820. (Drake). 

Laymons. of California, near Lo 'etto, related to Cotchimi. 

Leech River Indians, near Sandy Lake; about 300 in 1820. 

Lenape, or Lenni Lena[)e. former name of the Delawares, which 
eee. The Lenni Lenape or Delawares were called by some other In- 
dians Wapanachki. which the European corrupted into Apenaki. 
Oi)enagi. Abenaquis and Abenjikis, which means people at the rising 
of the sun, or, more briefly, Eastlamlers. They were acknowledged 
by al)out forty tribes as being their grandfathers. All these nations 
derived from the .same stock recognized each other as AVapanachki, 
which among tliem was a generic term. 

Lii)anis. Rio Grande to interior of Texas; light hair; SOO in INK). 

Loucheux. See Kutchin. 

Lukawis. on the coast of the Pacific; S(l() in 1,S20. 

liukkarso, coast of Pacific, south of the Colundjia; 1,200 in 1820. 

Luktons, on coast of Pacific; twenty in 1N20. 

Lutuami, Clamets. also Tlamatl, Indians of southwestern Oregon. 

^lacliapungas, in North Carolina in ITCO; practiced civ. imcision. 

Maha-Omaha, on t\u\ junction of the Platte and Omaha I'ivers 
and the Misscmri. They belong to the Sioux-Osage family. The 
Ponclias I Poncars. Puncaws), speak a kindred dialect. Now on the 
Elkhorn, near ("ouncil Bluffs. 



Mauahoiiks, formerly u great nation of Yirgiiiin, now extinct. 

Mimdans, Wnlitani Indians of Unper Missouri, nearly extinct. 

Manhattan, settlements mixed with Mohengans. Algonquin stock. 

Ma<[uas, said to be an extinct tribe of the Iroiuoii^. (Drake). 
The better authority is that this is the name by which the Moheagaus 
called the Inupiois. 

Marachites. See Armoucliitjuois. 

Marsapeagues, once on Long Island, now extinct. ( Drake). 

Marsh nees, mixed remnant of Wampanoags. in Massachusetts. 
In IX'iVl numbered HI'). 

Mascoutins. The early French travelers and missionaries men- 
tion a tril)e of Indians calletl the Mascoutins, as located at various 
points in Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois and Indiana, but concerning 
which they seem to have little or no information. They are generally 
spoken of as being at a distance, and seldom, if ever, visited. A people 
which seem, in their mention of them, to be always on the move, and 
seldom, if ever, overtaken. Tlio better opinion is that there never was, 
in fact, any such distinct tribe of li.dians. Muscoda, Mascoda, Mus- 
cooda, Muscatine, Mascoutah, are words in various dialects of the Al- 
goncpiin group, meaning pruirie. or meadow country. So that when 
Indians, of whatever tribe, migrated from the prairie or meadow 
country, further north, they were spoken of as Mascoutias, or people 
from the prairies, which conveyed to the mind of travelers, for want of 
complete infm-mation, the idea that this was their tribal name, the 
same as that tribe now known as Shawnees or Shawanoes, meaning 
"southerners."' or "people from the south," which was finally adojjted 
as their real name. But not so with the Mascoutins. It would seem 
that no particular tribe was ever found upon which this name had 
become fixed as their recognized tribal name. 

Massachusetts Indians, (Xatick). Algonquin stock — were form- 
erly verv numtn'ous, but now much reduced. The Montajjuartls and 
Skoffi, west of Hudson's Bay, are said to be related to them. 

Massawomies, according to tradition, was a Avarlike band somii- 
where on the borders of what is now New Mexico. 

Mathlanobs, on an island at mouth of the AValnut river; 500 in 
1820. ( Drake). 

Mayes, St. Gabriel's creek, Louisiana; t'>00 in 1805. (Drake). 

Menomonees, Algonquin stock, north of Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
Drake says once on Illinois river. 

Messassagnes. (See Mississauga). 

Miami, formerly in Ohio and Indiana. 

Michigamies, an Indian term a[)plied by tiie French to several 







tribes and bands of Indians (if the Al^^onqnin lineage, who clnstered 
around the borders of Lake Michigan, signifying great water. 

Mikasaulvies, (Seniinoles), very warlike; about 1, ()()<) in IS'Jl. 

MikmacB, Micinacs — French name for the inhabitants of Acadia, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Maine. Algoncjuin stock. The fol- 
lowing are considered dialects of the Mikniak: 1. Nova Scotia. 2. 
Tcrro neuvG island. ;}. Tiie Miramichi of New Brunswick. They are 
closely related to the Etchemins and Souriquois. Drake says the 
Suriijiiois of the French. 

Miksuksealton, (Tushepaha"), Clark's river; 300 in 1820. 

\'ilicite, Indians of New Brunswick, of the Huron stock. 

Minetares, on Knife river. Their language has three dialects, 
viz.: 1. The Minetare proper, called also "Grosventre,'' Bigbellies, 
Ehatsar. 2. The Alasar, or Fall Indians. 3. The Kattanahaws; a 
type of the Crow Indians. 

Mindawarcartoji. in ISOo, on both sides Mississippi, from St. 
Peter's u[)wards. (Drake). 

Mingoes. The Cayugas residing upon the Sciotn were so called. 

Minsi, Munsee, tribe of the Delaware or Leuni Lenape. 

Mississauga. or Messasagnes, "people of the wide mouth stream,"' 
a branch of the Ojibways, on the east of Lake Huron; 2.000 in 1704. 

Missouries, once on that river just below Grand river, in 1820. 

Mol)ilian, iidiabited Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and 
Loi;isiana. This nation includes various tribes. 

Mohavi, Moyave. Indian tribe occupying the country on both 
sides of the river Mohave, in southeastern California. 

Mohawk, a tribe of the Iroquois, now in Canada. The C'ochne- 
wagoes, or Coclinawaga, a smaller tribe, belonged to them. 

Mohawks. They call themselves Gah-ne-a-ga, "possessors of the 
flint." or Ga-ne-o-ga-o-no, "people possessors of the tlint." They 
were usually called by the French. Agniers. By some early writers 
the name of this tribe is given as Ka-jin-ga-ha-ga, Cbm-nie-ge-ha-ga, 
Ga-nin-ge-ha-ga. This last termination was sometimes changed to 
roiion, and the tribe was called Gan- nie-ge-ro-non. The Algon([uins 
understood that the name by which this tribe called themselves meant 
hear, so they translanttnl it into their dialects, Macjwaas. Ma([Uoa, 
Mahakwa, from which the Dutch and Englisii wrote it Moli(nrh\ which 
is said io be the origin of this word, and a name by which this tribe 
became universally called. 

Moheakunnuks. formerly between the Hudion and Delware rivers. 
Same as Moheagans. 

Moheagaus were also called Mahicani. by the Dutch, Mahikanders, 



1)v till' Frencli. Moriguns mid ]Mnhiii<:fnnH, by tlifi Kii<^lisli, Mohircnns. 
MulnuM'aiis, Molit'fii^aiis. ^luhlit't'kanew; also Sl)atik(H)k.s ( Hivtn- In- 
dians). Al<j.)n(|uin stock, on tlio HudsDn rivt'r, from Esopiis to 
Albany. Th(!y woro divided into MiU'li(|nan]i (J3oar tribo), Mech- 
cliHooli (Wolf tribo) and Toon-paooh (Turtlo). 

Monacans, located above the falls of the leadin<r Vir<fiiiia river, 
were called Tuscaroras in the early period of yir<,nnia. Mr. Jetferson 
reveals the fact that the Erit^s, called by him Erigas, who had 
formerly occupied the Ohio valley, and Avere then by inference in 
Vii'ginia and North Carolina, east of the Rocky Mountains, wei'e also 
of kindred language, and had belonged to the stock of the Five Na- 
tions, or. as tlui Five Nations were called by the Virginia Indians, Mas- 

Mongoulatches, on west side of the Mississij)pi. See Bayagoulns. 

Montagnass or Mountaineer. This people occupied the country 
on the head wattu'sof the river Sajfueiiav, on the north shore of the St. 
Lawrence, below (Quebec, reaching to the Laln-ador coast. Alg. stock. 

Montauks, formerlv on Lon<' Island: heail of thirteen tribes of 
that island. Algoncjuin stock. ( Drake |. 

Moratoks, in Lancaster and Richmond counties, Virginia; eighty 
in KiOT; fm-ty in hW.K (Drake). 

Multnomahs. ( Waj)[)atoo ), Multnomah river: N(M) in 1S20. 

Muskogee (Creek). The numerous tribe of the Creek con- 
federation, in the northern i)arts of Florida. Now west of the Mis- 
sissippi, in the Indian Territory. 

Naass, Indians of English, Northwestern America, on and above 
Millbaidi Sound. They com[)iise the following tribes, viz. : the Hailtsa, 
Haeeltzuk, IJilleclioola and Chinnuesyan. 

Nabadaches ( Caddo ), on branch of Sabine: 4(t() in ISO."). (Drake ). 

Nandakoes, on tln> Sabine (Caddo); 120 in iNOo. (Drake). 

Nanticokes, Nantico, tribe of the Algonquin stock, formerly on the 

Nai'cotali. name by which tiie Sioux knt)\v themselves. (Drake). 

Narraganset, New England Indians, Wampanoags. The re(][Uods, 
Kavasumsenk and (^uintikuk belong to this stock. 

Naslmays iNipmuks), in M:i-isacliusetts. .V.lgon([uin stock. 

Natches. Lower Mississi[)i)i, nearly extinct; first known in 1701. 

Natchitoches, once at tiiat place, now u^ion Red river; 100 in l604. 

Natiks (Nipmuks), in Massachusetts. See Massachusetts. 

Navajos. Navahoes. a powerful tribe of the Apache family, related 
to the great Athapascan stock, residing on the tributaries of the river 
tSan .luan. west of the Rio (rrande and east of the C'olorado. in New 





Moxico. l)ft\v('t'ii till' thirty-fifth mid thirty-soventii paiallel of northern 
hititiKli'. Thu Spaiiiiinls cull tiiciii Aixichrs dc Sahttjim. (TruhiiBr). 

NtH'h(ici>ivt' I Wfippatiio I, south si(h! ('oluinliifi; 1(10 in LS'iO. 

Neckeotoo, on the Pacitii'; T!M> in IS'JO. i Dralvt'i. 

Nomahpiimii'r (^\Vai)[)atoo ), AValhmniot river; 'JdO in iS'iO. 

Newfoundland. Island on the coast of Labrador, Its inhaljitnnts 
beloiij,' to tiit^ Eastern Alj^onquins. The Milioite and Mikuiaks are a 
j)art of theni. The liethuck are extinct. (Truhneri. 

Nez-Perces. Sah-Aptin. They possessed the country on the Lewis 
or Snake river, from the Petoose to Wapticaciaes, about 100 miles; 
they resemble in many points the Missouri Indians. They are con- 
sidered su[)erior in intellect to the other Ore<fon tribes. 

Ninntiks. a tribe of the Narraj^'ansetts. Alifoiujuin stock. 

Nicariagas, about Michiliniakinak; joined the Ircujuois in lT2i{. 

Nii)issin<.j. Alj^oiKiuin stock. Lake of the Two Mouutaius, near 
Montreal. About 400 in 17C)4. 

Nipmuchks. interior of Massachusetts, extinct. Al<,^ stock. 

Norridirewoks ( Abenakiesi, on Penobscot river. Alj;. stock. 

Nottoways (Chei'ohakahj, Iroquois tribe of Virginia, nearly 

Nusdaluni. the northwest coast Hood's Channel. (Trubner^. 

Nutka (Xootka), Wakash Indians of Vancouver's Island. (Their 
proper name is YhchiiH). (Trubner). 

Nyacks (Mohicans I, or Manhattans, New York. 

Ockmulgess (Muscogee), east of Flint river; 200 in 1834. 

Ocameches, in Virgiuin, in 1007. (Drake). 

Ochee. See Vchees; perhaps Ochesos; 200 in Florida in 182t). 

Oconas (Creeks). (Drake). 

Ogalla, or Ogallalla. l)and of the Sioux. There are several stories 
told of the manner in which this powerful branch of the Sioux family 
received its name. The nu)st reliable is that two chiefs disagreed on 
some subject imder discussion, wiien one told the other that if he ])er- 
sisted he would throw some dirt or ashes in his face. Holding to and 
still expressing his views, the dirt or ashes were thrown, and his fol- 
lowers were ever after called " those who had dirt or ashes thrown in 
their faces," frequently simply, " bad faces." The word means throw- 
ing at or into. 

Ojibways (Chippewas), about the great lakes and north of them; 
30,000 in 1830. Algonquin stock. See Chipjjeway. (Drake). 

Okatiokinans (^Seminoles). near I'ort Gaines; uSO in 1820. 

Oneida, 0-na-yote-ka, "granite," or 0-no-yote-ka-o-no, "granite 
people," one of the Irocjuois natitm; chief seat near Oneida Lake. 



Oiioiiilaj^ii, ()-iiiiii-(luli-^a. '•(»ii tlio liill ;" or ()-iiiiii-(l(ili-<,'ii-()-ii(). 
" [>0()[)lo oil till' liillb;'" )i nation ot the lro(juois. I'onnerly in Ntnv 
York; 3(I0 in 1S40. 

Ootlaslioots. tribo of thn Tuskojms, on Chuk's livcr, west of tin' 
Rocky ^lountains. 

()sa<^(\ Dukotfi stock, calleil also "NVawaii, Hu/.za\v, Osawscs. 
Waslms oi' Oils; about ArkaiisaH and Osnije rivi-rs. Tlicv nro dividtil 
into the Cliamers (Arkansas, Clermont), Great and LittU* Osii^'os. 
Tills term !:> of French oriijfin. and j)roi)al)ly derived from the 


Al<^onquln, Assi<^unai>^s or Bone Indians. The tribe called themselves 
Wabasha, and attribute their origin to an allegorical tale of a snail on 
a beaver. 

Otagamies, near Lake of the AVoods, Algonquin stock; 800 in ITSO. 

Oto, called also Otoes, Othouez. Oktolaktos, Wahtohtana, Wahtok- 
tak, on the left banks of the Platte river; ccmfederated with the 

Ottawas, Algoiu^uin stock, in Michigan and Ohio. 

Ouiatauous, formerlv on the Wabash. 



OniMHs. E. liiiiik of Missis8i)'j)i rivov iit IT'J'i, in two villii;,'<'H. 
Owdssissus ( SciiiiiKilcs I, on St. Murk's rivt'r; KM) in IS'JO. 
Ozds, iihoiit lied river; iil)()ilt 'i.OtIO in IToO. 
Ozlniics, E. slion^ of Miirylaml iiiid Nir^'inia in lOOT. i Driikci. 

icanfis, on (.^iit'l(|UiH!lioso nvci', J^ii 



nion in 


I) nil. 

Ki' I. 

I'luloucart, Houtli of tiio MisHouri anil west of tlie Mississippi. 




it'cas wcro so caluM 

1; nnrcrtain. ( Drako 

illlSll, () 

n tlif racific. N. of ('olunii)ia; 'JUO in 1S2(). ( Drakf i. 

I'alaclnss, a tril)n found early in Flori<la ; extinct. (Drake). 
I'alailini, Palaiks. On'iron, on nortliein i'ronticr. CalifoniiN. 


K'o, a 

l)()ut Painliro Sound; extiiu-t; l)ut iiftecn in \H)S. 

l'ain[)tieoui;li, trilx* of Nortli (.'arolina. now extinct. 

Pancas. StH> Poncas. 

Panis, Panneis (Tonicas ). 40 villai,res in IT-'O. S. hrancli Missouri; 
70 villai,'es on lied river, 1755. ( hrake). 

Panneli. See Allakaweali ; '2,;50(> in ls()5, on Leads Bi^ Horn river. 

Pascataways, a triho on Maryland side of Potomac river. ( Drake i. 

Pasca^roulas, on Pied r. ; from Floi'idii ; li") men in l^iO."). ( Draiu- ). 

Passamanuoddies, Tarratines, on Schoodie river, about 37U. 

Pnwistucieneinuk, small tribe in Missouri; 500 in 1S20. ( Drake). 

Pawnee, Panis, Pani, on the banks of the river Platte and Kansas; 
also on U(>d river. Mr. John P. l)unl)ar, in the Mai,'azino of Ameri- 
can History for April, ISSO, says tiiat tlie Pawnees, in history and 
languaifo, seem to constitute a distinct group. The members of the 
family ari> the Pawnees. Arihcaras, the Tawacoiues, and the Pawnee 
Pic'ts or Witchitas. The last five may be desi<fnated as the Southern 
or Red river l)ranche.s. 

I'awtuckets, a confederacy of Indian tribes in the early lii.?torv 
of New Euifland, under their jjrand sachem Passacouawav. Aliron- 
(juin stock. 

Pea^^ans. See Plackfeet. 

Pelloat[)allah ( C'hopunnislO, on Kooshkooshkee; 1.(100 in 1S20. 

Penacook, Pennacooks or Pawtuckets, New Hi.m[)shire. 

Pen d'Oieille, AVashington Territory. Band of Flath. Is. 

Penobscot, Abenaki, in Maine, on Penobscot river stock. 

Pennakeeks ( Ni|)muks ), along Merrimac river. Al; linstock. 

Peorias, on Current river; !)7 in iN'iO. Alg. stock. ' Make'^ 

Peijuakets (Abenakies), Saco river; destroyed by English in 1 "25. 

Pequots, of Connecticut. Algonijuin stock. The Nipmuks were 
tributary to them. Algonquin stock. Nearly destroyed by the New 
England coloni.sts. 

Phillimees ( Seminoles), near Suaiue river, Florida, in 1M7. 



rimilicsliiiws, oil Wiilmsli river. Al-^'oiKiiiin stock : in 17^0 hut •.»."(). 

riimkutdiik, ill Vir;,Miiia wlion first sfttlt'd. (Dniko). 

Pium. Iiitliaii imtinii of Now Mexico, vvliero tlio country inhal). 
iteil liy them is called Piiuoiia, mid divided into Alta and Baja. 

riiialeiios. alw) called Piiion, Lanos. Pinoles, Pinal Leiio, Apaclie 
tribe, raiiijfiii",' over an extensive circuit l)et\ve('n tlu* Sierre Pinal and 
tlie Sierra JJlaiica, near tlie Tpper San rraiicisco river, north of the 
Gila, in New Mexico. 

PinoHhow (Sioux), on the St. Peter's; loO in 1820. ( Drake), 

Piro, Indians of Now Mexico, near El Paso. 

Pish(iuit[)alis, Musclosholl ra[)ids; about "J,*)!)!) in Isl."). (Drake). 



Polcanokets, formerly dwelt about Mount Hope, in llliodo Island, 
in Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and on Cape Cod. Al<,^)n(|uin stock. 

Ponci's, Pancas, on the west of the Missouri river, formerly 
about the mouth of Quiecoano ( [ironounced Ke-koi-no, running river), 
a southwestern Ijranch of the Missouri. The Poncas claim that the 
Omahas, Osages, Kaws, and two or three other tribes, a hnig time ago, 
lived with them and spoke the same vocal language. Sitting Bull, t)ne 
of the head men, said his grandfather told him that in olden times, 
when the above mentioned tribe were with them, they lived near the 
Atlantic ocean, and in their westward migration became separated. 



They started on this luovement from uoar Wasliitigton, District of 
C'ohimbid; tl;o Kfiws tincl Osagos coming across tiio Kansas, and the 
Poncas and Omahas going further north, to northeastern Nebraska. 
They claim that the Poncas were ,it one time where the present city of 
St. Louis now stands. Tiiese peveral tril)cs have about the same cus- 
toms, manners and habits, and differ but slightly from the Pawnees. 

Potoash, Pacific coast, north of the Columbia; 200 in I'S'iO. 

Potijyante, a tribe in the region of California, and is understood 
to be one of the tribes under the name of Bonak or Root Di<rtrors. 

Pottawattamie, Pouteotamies. Algoncjuin stock; once on the west, 
south and east of Lake Michign^', rxtending to Detroit river and Lake 
Erie; were alli'.'s of the Ojibways and Ottawas. 

Powhatans, once a powerful nation, which occupied the whole 
tract of country now called Virginia, between tiie sea-shore and the 
falls of the rivers; the nation consisted of thirty tiibes, and tlic chief 
sachcni was called Powhatan. AlgoiKpiin stock. 

Puans ( Winnebagoes), so-called by tiie French. Dakota stock. 

Pueblo Indians (Zuni, Keres), " Village Indians," of New 
Mexico. The tribes living at Santo Domingo nnd the neighl)oring 
Pueblos are called Kcvrs, or by the Spaniards, Qiicrcs. All the 
Pueblo Indians are called Mexicans, who make tlu^ striped blaidiet. 

(^uaba<)gs (Nipmuks ), place of that name. Alg. stock. (Drake). 

(^ua[)ina, said to be identical with the Pawnees. 

Quappns, Indians on the banks of the Arkansas river. We 
recognize in these the renmins of an ancient people, the Kapahas of 
De SotoV; day. Thoy then lived on the Upper Mississippi, near the 
site oi! the present town of Madrid. 

Quathlalii)ohtle8, on the Colundna. 

(^uatoghies, formerly ori the south of Lake Michigan. 

Quieotsos, north of Columbia river; 250 in ls20. 

(^uiiineduirts. nortli of Cohimbia r. ; about 2,00(» in 1S20. ( Drake). 

(,)uiniiUs, nortli of Colunil)ia river; 2.")0 ^n 1S20. 

C^uinnepissa, called Layagoulas by the Chevalier Tonti. (^ Drake). 

t^uodilies. See Pnssannupioddies. 

llaj)id!i, on prairies, towards sources of Missouri. 

lied (Irounds ( Seniinoles ), on Chattahoochee river; 100 in iS20. 

Led Knife, from tlieir copper knives; near Slave Lake. ( Drake). 

lled-Stick (Semiiioles ). the Baton liouijc of the French. (Drake). 

lied- Wing (Sioux), Lake Pepin, under chief of that name; 100 
in 1820. (Drake). 

lliccarties. See Arickaree. 

llivor ( Moheagans), on lower Hudson. Algonquin stock. (Drake). 

INDIAN TItI13i:s. 


Eomidluntls (Hurons";, oast side Lake Superior; 2,r)()() in ITlVl. 

llumaeii i llnmsit'iies ), iiei<rlil)()i'luH)(l of Monterey, California. 

iiyawas, r.'ulouca fork of the Missouri ; 'MIO in 1S2(). (Drake). 

Sacliilagnj^lis, perhaps the true name of the Powliatans. ( Drake i. 

Sacramento Indians, the Indians livin>^ on the Ui)per Sacramento 
river, in California, wn"0 visited by James 1). Dana, attaclied to the 
United States exph)rin<^ expedition; Dana could not, iiowever, learn 
the name of the tribe. The Pujuni, Si;kumme and Tsaniak live on 
the western banks 

St. John's Indiana, Etchemuis. A tribe of th(> Etchemins, speak- 
ing the sanii^ language as the Passania([uoddies. Algnnnuin stock. 

Saki, Saukees, Sacs, Sakewi, Sawkis or Saques, merged with the 
OnthagamioK, TTtagami and Foxes. This branch of the Algon«piin 
family, known as the Sacs and Foxes, formerly occu{)ieil the central 
and eastern portions of WisconsMi. They are of Algon([uin stock. 
Tliey were forced to the soutiiwes'^ by their enemies; tliey occn|iied 
tlie Piock liiver valley until lNO-4, wlien tliey cedi'd that co\intry, it is 
claimed, to the United States by treaty, but with the proviso that they 
could use it for hunting grtmnds until it was needed by white settlers. 
It was to regain possession of this valley that t!ie Plackluiwk war of 
LSHli was undertaken, tlie validity of tiiis treaty being disputed l)y 

Sankikani, Algonquin stock, once on eastern banks of tlie Hudson. 

Santa Barbara. Indians of California; Mission of S. IJarliara. 

Santees, N. Carolina in 1701. on river of that name. ( Drake.) 

Saponies (Wanamies), Saj)ona river in 17<H); joined Tuscanmis 
1720. (Drake). 

Sasts, Silastics. Indians of southwest Oregon. 

Satanas, a name given the Shawuees by the Irocpiois. (Drake). 

Saultena.ix, SanttMies. a liand of the (Jjil)way tribe, living on the 
Sault Ste. Marie, outlet of Lake Superior, meaning "peoph' of tiie 
Sault." Algoiupiin stock. 

Savannahs, on river of that name; perhaps Yamasees. (Drake). 

Scattakooks, New York; went from New England lt)72. Alg. 8t.)ck. 

Seminoles, or Isty-semole, "wild men," or "wanderers.'" Tribe 
of the Creek confederacy in Florida. Spt>ak the Muskoghee dialect. 
The nation, known by the name of Seminoles, is comp(!sed of scn-en 
tribes, which bear tlie names of Latchione, Okleouaha, Chokecluiitta. 
Pyadekaha, Fatehonyahn, Topkelako, and one otiitu'. There are, 
besides, some remains of ancient tiibes, known iiy the names of Out- 
cliis, Chias. Caiift ake, but they consist of only a few stiaggling fami- 
lies. There was, also, ou the frontier of Georgia, another tribe, culled 





Lfihouita, wliicli raised one humlrod or one hundred nnd fifty warriors, 
under Mackintosh. 

Senekas, Nun-da-wnh, "great hill," or Nun-dn-wah-o-no, "great 
hill people." Tribe of the Iro(piois, formerly in Western New York. 

Sepones, in V'a.. in 1775; a remnant. See Saponie.s. (Drake). 

Serraunes, Serrana, in Carolina, nearly destroyed by the Westoes. 

Sovernvskia, Severnovzer, or "Northerners." North of liodega 
bay. They call themselves Chicacluniidjct. 

Sewees, small tribe in N. C, mentioned by Lawson in 1710. 

Sliaiia.ahs, Shallalali, on Columbia river; 2.S()(). 

Sliallattoos, on Columbia river; 100 in 1S20. (Drake). 

Shanwappone, head of Cataract nnd Taptul rivers; 4(10 in 1820. 
(Drake)., Shawanoe, formerly of Pennsylvania. Ohio, and 
K(M)tuoky, afterwards in Indiana and Illinois; now west of Missouri. 
'J'liey Avere divided into the tribes Pi([ua, Mequachake, Kiskapocoke, 
and Chillicothe. Algoncjuin stock. They came from West Florida 
Mid the adjacent country. Tiu^y f(jrmerly resided on Suwaney river, 
in Florida, near the sea. Their chief, Black Hoof, who was born tluu-e, 
rememberb ivithing in the salt water when a boy. "Suwaney" river 
was doubtless named after tiie Shawaneese, "Suwaney" being a cor- 
ruptiou of Shawaneese. The people of this nation have a tradition 
that their ancestors crossed the sea. They are the only tribe who refer 
to a foreign origin. 

SlitNistukle. on the Pacific, south of the Columbia; '.tOO in 1820. 

Shinicooks, Montauk. Indians of Long Island, neighbors of the 
Unsehagogs ajid Montauks, who spoke kinilred dialects. Algoncjuin 

Shi>sho'.et's, Siioshonese. Also Snake Indians, Scrjx'iis. Indians 
of the liockv Mt)untains, on the sources of the Mis.souri and Columbia 
rivers. They are divided into the Shoshonees proper and the Gens de 
Pitie. or Radigeurs. { Uoot-diggers, by the Spaiiiards called Maradicos ). 
It is uiu'i'rtain wliy the term Snakes were given to this tribe by the 
whites. l)ut [)rol»ably, it is saiil, because of their tact of leading pursuit, 
l)y crawling otT in the long grass, or diving in the water. Tliis was 
formerly a very numerous tribe. When speaking of their numbers 
they would say that it is the sanie as the stars in the sky. 

Slmto. ( Wappatoo), on Colund)ia riv(!r; 4t)0 in 1S20. (Drake). 
Sicannis. Sikauni. related to the Tacullies, New Caledonia. 
Sicaunies, spurs of the Rocky Mountains; 1,000 in ls20. 




maiden's bock, on rpPER MisrsissirPl- 


Sioux, ( seo DnlikotnliK on St. Peter's. Mississippi and Missonri. 
Capt. Clark, in his Sign Language, title '"Sioux." says, that ai'conling 
to some the common stock o£ tlie 
Sioux nation embraced the foUow- 
ing tribes: AVinnebago, Osage. 
Kaw and Quapfias, Iowa, Otoe, 
Missouri, Omaha, Ponca, Man- 
dans. Hidatse, and Crow, and that 
in the Sioux language there are 
four dialects, Santee, Yankton, 
Assiniboiiie and Teton. 

Sissatones, near L. and St. Peter's, in 1820. (Drake). 

Sitimache, See Chitimicha. 

Sitka. Sitka proper is but a name for King George Ill's Archi- 
pi'l, inhabited by Kolusches. In general, the name Sifkd is a])plied to 
the language of some ten tribes, who live between the fiftieth and fifty- 
fifth degrees of north l.ititude. 

Skaddals, en Catarrct river; '20(1 in IS'JO. ( Drake V 

Sketapushoish, Sheshatapoosh. Also Mountaineers I Montag- 
nards), or Skoffies (Escopies). Indian tribes west of Labrador 
speaking a language closely related to the Kiiistenaux. (Trubner). 

Skeetsomish, on a river of tiieir name; 2,(KI() in lS20. ( Drake ). 

Skilloots, on Columbia; 2,500 in 1820. (Drake). 

Skunnemoke, or Tuckapas, on Vermilion river, I^a. I Drake i. 

Smokeshops, on the Columbia; SOO in ls20. in 24 clans. (Drake ). 

Sokokies, anciently upon Saco river, now extinct. 

Sokulks, on the Columbia, .ihove Lewis river; 2,400 in 120 lodges. 

S(mri(juois, Acadians. Algonquin stock; at the Bay of Fundy, 
Nova Scotia. They are sometimes called Micmacs. (Trubner). 

Souties, the name by which some know tlio Ottaways; whicii h-ce. 

Sovennoms, on east folk Lewis river; 400 in l\'-\ villages in 1^20. 

Scpiallyamish, Indians at Puget Sound, related to tho Haeeltzuk 
and the Indians of Nootka Sound. 

Staitans, or Kite Indians, Tiiese, ."iOO in number, roved between 
the head waters of the Platte river and tiie llocky Mountains. (Morse ). 

Stockbridge. originally from New England, now in Wisconsin, 
near Winnebago Ijake; a small remnant. Algon(juin stock. 

Stone Indians, otherwise called Assineboines, Assinipoils, (see 
Assineboine ) . A numerous tribe, who iidmbited tiie mid-country from 
between tlui Missouri and Assineboine rivers, from within fifty miles 
of Red river, westward to the sources of On' Ap|)ellt> river, about the 
source of the Elbono, or north branch of tiie Assineboine river, and 




from thence to the lied Dihts' river, Sfiskutchowiui, To Swniii^i 
(Irouiid Stoiu^ liidifiiis. liviiijj; close to tlie llocky Mountains, near tlie 
source of the lied J)('crs' river. Saskatcliewan. Tlie Iro(|nois, Mo- 
hawks, and HuroMs ar.) mentioned of the same class of iangua>;es. 
The |ilace of the Ston(t Tndian is more equivocal; altliouj^h fxenei'ally 
separated hyinost authors from the Mohawks (or Iro(|uois ) tongues, it 
has, hy some, been connected with that ^'rouji. 

S[iokane, S[)okain, on sources of Lewis river. ( Drake). 

S([aannaroo, on Cataract river; I'JO in IS'iO. (Drake). 

Sus(pieiiannok. on uest shore of that river, in ^laryland. in It'iOT. 
Algon([mu sh)ck. ( Drake i. 

Sussee, Sursee. on the Saskatclunvan ; tribe of the CMiip[)ewayans. 

Taensa, a tribe spoken of by J^e C'lercj, who says tbey dwelt around 
a little lake, formed in the laud by the river Mississippi, who had 
ei>fht villa','es, a|ipareiitly in what is now tlie Sta o of Tennessee. 
From this mav come the word Tennessee, l)v addiiij; the word luissrc, 
"Town." meauiii",' Taeiisatown. 

Tacullies, Carrieis, Naijaih-r. Indians of Nortwestern Amei'ica. 
on the sources of F/ .izer"s I'iver. The Sicaiiiues are related to them. 
Mackenzie calls tiiem Xagailer and ("arrit>r Iiulians. 

Tah-le-wuh, California tribe, on the Klamath river. 

Tahsaj^roudie. about l)i>troit in 172:5. (I.'rake). 

Taliucana, on river Jb'azos; i? tribes; 1,2<M) iu IS'Jd. ( Drake i. 

Talatni. on Kassima river, tributary of Sacramento, in Califorr.ia. 

Tallahass(M> ( Seiuinoles ), betw(>en Oloklikana and Mikasauhie. 
(Drake 1. 

Tallewlieana ( Heminoles ), on east side of Flint river. ( Drake i. 

Tamaroras, a tribe of the Illinois. Al^^oiKpiin stock. (Drake,. 

Tamatles ( Seminoles ), above the Ocheeses; 2'J() in iMJO. ( Drake ). 

Tarratines, east of Pascatacjua river. AI<^on([uin stock. (Drake). 

Tattowlieliallys ( Seminol(»s ). DJOiii 1S20; since scattered. ( Drake i. 

Taukaways, siuirces of Trinity, Urazosand (Nilorado rs. ( Drake). 

TawakiMioe, "Tliree Canes.'" west sith* JJrazos r,, ISOb (Drake;. 

Tawaws (Hurons), on the Manmeo in ITSO, Lake Erie. 
( Drake). This must be a mistake; evidently should be Ottawas, who 
were not ilurous, but Alj^oiaiuin. 

Tcho-ko-y(>m, Lnlian band in northwestern California. 

'Irlmocresse ( Semiu<iles |, Chattahoochee; KM) in ls20. (Drake). 

Tenisaw, once on that river; went to lied river in IT*''"). (Drake). 

Tetons, piratical band of Sioux, between ^Ii[;si«sip[)i andMissouri rs. 

Ticorillas. Apache Indians of western New Mexico. Their Ian- 
gunge shows atlinity with tiiti great Atlia|tascan stock. 






Tiluex, Tcguns, Kiwoiui. Pueblo Indians, belong to the Keres 
family, rbsiiliug at the Pueblo of Santo Domingo, in New Mexico. 

Timuaca, Timui(iuana, Timuicana. Florida Indians, in the neigh- 
borhood of South Augustine. 

Tioncmtaties, or Dinomladies, a tribe of Hurons. (Drake). 

Tlatskanai, Kwalliioc^ua. Indians of the Athapascan stock and 
the Tactmllie-UmjKjua fanuly of northwest America, speaking different 
dialects of one language. 

Tockwoghs, on tlio Chesapeake in IHOT. (Drake). 

Tonica.s, on the Mississippi; 20 warriors in 1Tn4. (Drake). 

Toiikahans, tribe of Texas, said to b(> cannil)als. (Drake ). 

Toiikawa, erratic, about Bay St. Bernardo: TOO in IS'JO. (Drake). 

Toteros, on mountains in North Carolina in ITOO. (Drake). 

Totuskeys. See Moratoks. 

Towacanno, or Towoash. on the Brazos. See Tahuacana. (Drake ). 

Tsclmgatschi. They oc('U2>y the northwestern part of llussian 
Asia, and tlu* opposte .shores of jiorthwest America. A part of them 
are settled in Asia, and call themselves Namollo. They are undoubt- 
edly Es([uimaux. The, Wild, or Eei deer, Tchuktchi, call them.selves 
Tchouktschee, T<'lu'kto, and have been invaders, possibly, of the 
Korjake nation. Only the settled Tchuktchi belong to the American 

Tsononthimans, tribe of the Iroquois, so called by the early 
French. Hennepin thus nanit>d tlH> Sen(>cas. By Cox tiiey are called 

Tukabatche. on Talla[)oosa river in 177"}. (Drake). 

Tunghase. Indians of the southeastern part of Prince of Wales 
Archipelago. Their language is closely related to that of Sitka. 

Tunica (Mobilian i, on Red river; thirty in 1S2(). (Drake). 

Tunxis (Moheagans ), once in Farniington, Conn. ( J)rake). 

Tuscarora. Dus-ga-o-weh-o-no, "shirt-wearing people," Indians 
formerly of North Carolina. They joined afterwards (A. D. llli) 
the Five Nations, or Iroquois, and are now in the State of New York. 

Tnshepahs, on Clark's river in sumnuu' and Missouri in winter ; 4)50. 

Tuteloes, ancient nation between the Chesapeake and Delaware. 

Tutsiiewa, on a branch of the Columbia. (Drake). 

Twightwees, the Inxpiois name for the Miamis. 

Uchee (Creek Indians), east of rivers Coosa and Chattahoochee. 

Ufallah. (Seminoles), on Ciiattahoochee; (570 in 1820. (Drake). 

Uiralenzi. Indians of Russian Ameri.'a. west of Cape St. Elias, 
and near the Island of Kadjak. Tlieir language seems to be a dialect 
of the Koloschian. 



IJ^iiljacliimitzi, a trilio iihout Priiico Williain"s Sound. ( Drake). 

riscalis. on tlio coast of tlio Pacific ocean; about l."j() in IS'JO. 

Uinp(|ua. Indians of Oregon, of the Athapascan stock. 

Unalaclitgo, once belonging to the Lenni Lennpe ( Drake ). 

Unaniies. tlie head tribe of the Lenni Lenape. ( Drake i. 

Unca[>a[)a, a band of the Sioux. It appears tliat liiis l)aiid of tlie 
Teton-Sioux Mas named from tlio position tliey occupied in tlu^ cam[)S. 
The word, uccording to thii Indians, was derived from. or. nioie prop- 
erly speaking, is a corruption from Hun-ka-pia, which means imuI or 

I'nciiagogs. a tribe anciently on Long Island. i Drake). 

U[)saroka (Minetare), comnioidy called Crows. Se(> Ci'ows. 

Ute. I'tah. The Uto Indians have, as far back as hi-tory and 
tradition go, roamed over the mountains and small vall(M s of the 
country between [)arallels ;57th and -list, north latitude, and the lO-'jth 
and 1 I'Mh meridians. They are of tin; Shoshonet^ stock. 

Waakicum, Columbia river, 4<H) in l^'i\(\. (Drake). 

Wabinga. Wabigna ( Inujuois i, between the Delawan* and Hudson. 

AVacoes. Nuecos, Indians of the Great Prairies. ])elonging to the 
Pawnee stock. I'esiding bi'tweiMi the Washita and Red riv(>rs. in about 
US dejr. ;J0 mill.. \V. long. Thev are closelv relattnl to their ueiijh- 
l)ors, the AVitchitas. 

Wahowimms. on Columbia river: TOO in lMJt'». (Drake). 

AVahpatono (Sioux), in country M. W. St. Peter's. (Drake). 

AVahpacoota (Sioux?). S. AV. St. Peter's, in ISO.'). ( Drake). 

AVaiilatpu. Alolele, Indians of western Oregon, south of the Co- 
lumbia river. Thi^ Waiilatpu proper are called also Willetpoos, Canuse. 
Their languages bear sonu> attinity to the Sahaptin or Nez-Pt>rc(i lan- 

Waikur. Gnaicur. Alonqui Indians of Lower California. The 
Cora and Aripe speak ilialects of their own languag(\ 

Wamesits (Oipmuks), once on Alerrimac river. (Drake), 

AVampanoag, ptuhaps tlio third nation in importanct^ in Nru 
England, when seltled by the English. Algomjuin stock, (i)rake). 

AVanainies, in New Jersey, from the Karitan lo the sea. 

Wappatoos, L5 tribt^s. on the Cobnnbia; about r),0()0. 

AVa[)[)ings. at and about Esopiis in 17")S; also thr Hudson 
to the Minsi. Algonnuin stock. (Drake). 

Warananconguins. supposed to be sann' as AVappings. i Drake). 

Washaws. on JJarrataria Island in lOSO; in ISO." nt IJav St, p'osh; 
5 only. ( Drak(^ i. 

Watanoiis. or Weas. See OuiatanouK. 

















Wiitorcos, oiioe on river of that name; oxtinct. ( Drako). 

Watepaiieto, fork of Platte; iUK) in 1«2(). (Drake.) 

Wawenoks ( Abenakies), once in Maine. Alg. stock. (Drake). 

Waxsaw, onco in 8. Carolina, (Drake). 

Weas, or "NVaiis (Kikapoos). See Oniatanons. (Drake) 

Wee-yot, Indian hand on the mouth of Eel river, and near Hum- 
boldt Bay, in northwestern California. (Eel river is calleil Wee-yot, 
by the Indians residing on it), 

Weits-Pek, Indians of northwestern California. 

Wekisa (Seminoles), Chattahoochee; '2oO in iS'iO. (Drake), 

Welsh Indians, on Bouthern branch of the Missouri, ( Drake ). 

Westoes, once powerful tribe in S, C. ; nearly destroyed in KiTO. 

Wetepahato. with the Kiawas; 7() lodges in 1S()5. (Drake). 

Wheelpo, on Clark's river; 2,500 in 1S20. (Drake). 

Whirlpools ( Chickamaugas), so called from residence. (Drake), 

White. W. of the Mississippi; mentioned by travelers. (Drake). 

AVighcocoraos, one of the six tribes in Va, in 1(107, (Drake). 

AVillewalis, ( ChopunnisU), on Willewali river; 500 in 1820. 

Winnebagoes, Nipiiegon. Called by the Trench, Puans or Otoh- 
ngras; by the Omahas, Horoje; and by themselves, Hochungorah. 
Indians of the Sioux stock, formerly on Fox anil Ilock rivers, Wiscon- 
sin. (Trubner). 

Wish-Osk, Indians of N. W. Cal., on Humboldt Bay and Mad river. 

Witchitas, Indians of Northern Texas, near the Red river. 

Wokkons, Waccoa, formerly of North Carolina, now extinct. 
Their language was related to that of the Catuwbas. Tliey were 
neighbors of the Tuscaroras in North Carolina, 

Wolf Indians, tribe of Pawnees, commonly called Pawnee Loups. 

Wollawollahs, on the Columbia from above Muscleshell Rapids, 

Wyandots, Guyandots, called by the French, Hurons. Their 
name for themselves, it is said, was A-hon-an-dote. See Hurons. 

Wycomes, a tribe on the Susipiehannah, in ItUS; about 250, 

Wyniawaws, a small tribe in N, Carolina in 1701, (Drake). 

Yunnicraw, near Savannah in 1732; about 1+0 men. ( Drake i. 

Yamasee, S. border of S. C. ; nearly destroyed in 1715 by English. 

Yamkallie, Kallapuiali, Oregon Indians of ]>lains of the A\'ilLi- 
niette, speaking a language related to that of Cathlascons and 
Haeeltzuk. ( Trubner). 

Yamoisees, Yamassee, S, C, ; nearly destroyed by the whites. 

Yamperack, (Comanches), about sources Brazos; I.S17, 30,000. 

Yanktons, Yanktonans or Yanktoauans, Sioux tribe, between the 
Red river and the Missouri. 






Ynttasies, hrnncli of IIimI riv»'r; 100 in ISI'J; bimmiIc ('iidiln. 

Yazuos, <iiico irroiit tritu' <if Li)iiisiaiiJi, now lostainoii<^ ('liickiisftws. 

Vi'HlitontuniH's, fornH'ily iicfir tlai njoutli <it' tlio Walxisli. 

Yflt'tpos, on river wliii'li falls into Ltnvib' abovo Kooskooskoo; 250. 

Vonikkonos, on tlio Pai'ilic, const; tiliout TOO. 

Yo-st'-me-tv. A tribo of Indians in California, from \vlit)m is 
derived tlio naino of a rcmurkahlt? valli-y in that state, coniinonly 
written )'iisciiiH(: 

Youitts, on tho coust of tho Pacific ocean; ahmit 150. 

Yukai Indians, on Russian river in nortlnvestoru California. 

Y'unias Indians, of tho southwestern part of California, on the Rio 
Colorado, down to its ontraiico in tlindulfof California. They are 
divided into live tril)es, of which tho Cuchans aro tho most imiMirtant. 
Tlie others are tho Ma-lm-os, Hah-wal-(!oes, Y'am-pai-o ami Co-co-pahs. 
The Camoyes or Puemaja, aro u triho of tho Cuchaus. 






SikTiiitication of Word Totem— \ Syiubolio Di'Hi^fnatioii ()rij,'iii of Totora— Distiii- 
Kiiislh's the Uaiul— A Kiml of Coat of Armn— E.\|)laiiatiiiii— I'lmtTHal aiuou^ 
the IiiiliauH— Uuluwful to JNIurry iu tbe 8aiu« Totem Similar CuHtoru in tho 
OM Woiia. 


^R. WEliSTER ilpfines 

the word lolcni to l)e 

-J) M.--,» ' K "■ rudo i)U'ture, as of 

-rt^c^f-- ft bird, lu'iiHt, f)r the 

like; used bv the North Aiiieri- 

can Indians as a synd)()lit' name 

ordosi^niatioii of a family, etc.." 

but ho dot's not givn the origin 

or etymolo«;y of the word in 

tluH form. Peter Jones, the educated Ojibway Indian, gives the word 

as liioddiiii, l)nt the word in general use is totfiri. 

A totem among tlie Indians is a symbolic designatit)n in tiie 
inuige of sonit* animal, used to distinguish or mark n particular tribe 
or band, as a sululivision of n tribe. Peter Jones says of the Indians 
in relation to this subject, that ''their belief concerning their division 
into tribes is, that many years ago, tho Great Si)irit gave his Red 
children their toodaims or tribes in order that they might nev(>r forgot 
that tht\v were all relatt^l to eacii other, and that in time of distress 
or war they wore bound to help each other." 

According to general custom among the Indians, the totem was 
properly used only to distinguish some {)articnlar band, gens or com- 
mon family of a tribe. Tho princi{)al tribe or nation to which these 
bands belonged was distinguished by some design of a ditferent class; 
wliat we would call a coat of arms. Baron LaHontan, in his book of 
"Voyages to North America," in connection with tho subject of 
Indian totems, which he stvles Hcvdldni or Coiils of ^iniis, ffives 
eight crude illustrations of them which are here reproiluced, and 
which he thus describes: 




//;,• ,1, in, .'f i/if Oiilitj/:n>\ii in/fy 

TVie arms 9 ft/it Oiitifiijjuuej a/t'ai 

f/if.iiitu a/lArfeiirei'fi'rinit .-.7// / 

ie fll-rni j/" tAf Ciirrtnnj It 

I f\f amu .^f 1^ ^'^iif.ipufit f iintici 


'J^h^ fffmy cf §/, 





"Tlie five Otddonasc Nations liave a Sinoplf or (Irooii Kii'ltl. witli 
four Elks in Sal)lo (^iiitouM ami lMokiii<,' to the fo'ir i-oniers of tliii 
Esc'utcln'oii, there luMug a lifaj* of sand in tlif niidillo. 

"Tlie Illincsc Itear ii lifocli leaf with a ImtterHy ari^ent. 

"The Xtnioiu'sxis or Sioii.r have a S(iuirrel (liilcs, j^niawinj; a 

" Tlie ffitronn Ix'ar a heaver sable, set squat upon a heaver kennel 
ar^'ent, tlie niivlst of a jmol or lake. 

••'riie OnliKiniiiiix hear a meadow Sinople. crossed hy a windinj,' 
river pale, with two foxes (Jules at tlie two extremities of the Iliver, 
in Ciiief and I'oint. 

••'riie roiilconhDiiis caUM Puants hear a Doij in ari;ent. sleepin<» 
upon a Mai d" Or. Tliesu L'eople oh.serve the Uulos of iJlazoiiin^f less 
than the other Nations. 

"The Oiniiiniiix have a honr srvblo pulling down with his two paws 
a tree Sinople mossy, and laid among tho oseutchecm." 

"'riie ()iic(ihli»)iii-!<, eaird Sniitfiin^, have an Eaglo Sable, perching 
u[)on the top of ii Hock .Vrgent. and devouring an Owl diilcs." 

Dr. James, the editor of John Tanner's Narrative, in referring to 
the svHtom of totems among the Indians, doubts if tho North .Vmerican 
Indians, except those of the AlgoiKjuin family, have these peculiar 
geiieological marks; but nioie tliorougli investigation into this subject 
shows tliat he was incorrect in this. The general custom m tiic use 
of svnd)ols of this kind seems to have !)een a characteristic ainon;; all 
tho prijuitivo American nations from all tinu>. Sucii is the opinion 
expressed by M. . Sciii>olcraft, after th(U'ougij investigation into tho 
sul)jeet. In this he ref(>rs to the totemic traits in the monumental 
remains of America, tlie curious and the hitherto unexplained low and 
iniitativo mounds of Wisctmsin, v.Iiicli nssuine their proper place in 
historv. and which are but toti inic mounds erected to elans or chiefs. 
In regard to e\|)loration8 iu Central America, he says; 

'• in the sculptures and glyphs of Chichen Itza. as given iiy Mr. 
Stephens, a distinclivt* portion uf each compartment of figures is 
clearlv made up of the totemic insignia and lu>norri of the respective 
chiefs and rulers, under whose sway th«>se now dilapidated structures 
may be siip|)osrtd to have been built. They ch'arly exhibit evidences 
of this early pictorial and .symboli» art. We observi> tln^ same system 
on the walls of l*aleii(|ue." ("oiiti:iuing this subject. Mr. Sriioolciaft 
furth(>r adds: "This tie of ancient family and tribal allinities enters 
also largely into their system of inscriptions on scrolls of tlu^ western 
papyrus, or hark tissue, and is frei|iiently observed in |)assing through 
till Indian countrv on their blazed tri'cs. iiark letters, hieiatic tablets. 



and innz/iii!il)iks. or pai'itcd mcks. It nw<y Ix' cxpfctt'd to luivc liiul 
II wider d('veli)|)meiit on tlic iiioiiiiiin'iits of tlio stmtli. Maiico Cu|i!ic 
iiiid .Moll",' liotii iiisrrilu'd a H^'un* of tin* sun as tlif t-vidciici' of their 
ffiiiiilv di'sct'ut. Tilts son of I'licMs- placed a water-fowl fc)r his sij^na- 
ture. IJraiit sealed with the triiiiu! l»adi,'e of a liear. turtle and wolf." 

This ifeiicral system of totems aiiioii;j the Amerii-aii triiies is 
furthei" cited \\y many as evidence of race unity, and as |(oinlin;.; t>> a 
coiniiion orii^'in. The ijenei-al ■ r-toni was that no man was allowed to 
chaiijjje the totem under which li.' was horn, and this distinctive mark 
descended to all liis children as well as to nil prisoners he mi^'ht take 
and adopt It was synonymous with and e.xisted upon tlm like princi- 
ple of our institution of surnames. 

It was considered unlawful for parties of the same totem to inter- 
marry, like the prohihition of the ancient -lews as to interiuarria^'e 
amoii^' relatives. Tiie Indians considered it lii^'hly ciiminal lor u man 
to marry a woman whose totem was the same as his own. and youn-.; 
men have suffered the penalty of death, at the instance of their rela- 
tives, for a violation d" this I'ule. 

Their rule also was that those liavini; tl- > same totem were liound. 
uiuhn" whatever circumstances, when tliev met. even tlnui'jh thev should 
l)e of ditFerent and hostile baiuls. to treat eiu'li otlier iu)t only as friends, 
hut hrethreii and relatives of the same family. In this re^'iird, thti 
ohli<;iitioiis under this toteiuic riystem heai's a resemhlance to the pres- 
ent institution of I-' ree masonry, claimed to have heen ori;,niially hor- 
rowed from 1 e ancient .lews. 

Th.' hands or suhdivisious of th" Ojihway !;ation amon;; their 
tot "iih iiad the followmjf: The ea<^le. reindeer, otter, hear. hutValo. 
heaver, callisli and pike. .M i Mov^'iin. in his " Lea^fiuHif the I roipiois." 
says that in each nation of that people then* were ei;rlit trihi's. which 
wert> arran;,'etl in two divisions and named as follows: Wolf. Hear. 
Beaver. Turtle. Deer. Snipe. Keron, Hawk. 

There is a remarkahle coincidence in this to' 'iiiic custom of the 
native trihes of .\iiieric,; witli that amoiij; nations of the Old World, 
where, tliroii^'lioul the whole, the like custom prevailed, tinus out of 
mind, of hla/.oniiij; or inscrihini,' in appro|iriati> technical terms, coats 
of arms, Imdjjfes, or otiier heraldic and armorial insii,Miia. The eae;le 
was tins emhlem of Persia and Imperial IJoiiie; the ov of ll;,'ypt : tiie 
owl of .\tliens: and the drii^jon served iis the national Hyinholof China 
and .lajian. from the most ancient period. 

Itlr. I'lllis, ill his work entitled the " Ued Man and the White 
Man." notices the Htniii<;e and unexplained iitHiiity hetweeii these forest 
totem svmliols and some of the proud esi'utcluMm-lHmrin^'s of uioiiarchH 


Tin: a.mi;kii\n 

an I iiohlt^s. stntos and I'liipiivs, of tlif old rivili/iul world, uiid reiuiirks 
tliiit a Hiniplfi |iri'iii<lict' ov liahit of association of 'Mir owi! race iiiakcri 

c.s ridicule in tlu' >.i\(!!^ii w 


Hwo.s or 


I'rs us aino!!^ \vliit<> int'n; 

aiK; furtln'r ol)sorvi'> thai wliilst tlioso iMuhh'ins of the Indian were 
rudi'lv ski'tciicd and <,'rott'S(|ti('. tin' di'si<.'n ami purpose of tin'ui wcro 
exartlv the same as the similar devices ani(Ui<^ proud Christian nations. 
He <;ives for evaiuple Kii^'lnnd's unicorn and lion, the bear of Ilnssia. 

ind the double headed i'a<de of Ausirif;, and sav: 





I'oIIdw tjie comparisons down throu<;h the shields, the armorial bear- 
in^rs, the escutcheons and coats of arms of iiulihs and pi'ivate I'anulies. 
with all their al)surd devices and ti<,'urini;s. perhaps Indian piide and 
inireniiity i!ii<,'lit find nmn < (.untenance." 

In concludinj,' this subject, as suL^uested by Mr. ICllis. it seems 

remarkfible tlmt ethnoloi,'ists in traciu'' evidenc 

of relationship 

between the [leopie of Ijie Old World and tin- New. so little I'eco^r- 
nition has been ^riv(>ii to the alllidty Ix twoen these Indian totems and 
the heraldrv or coats of arms anion'r the nations of the < )ld World. 



Erronoons Opinion of tlii> Aincriciin fnilian as to his ( lovornnionl- Sanii' iiirnl of 
Oovi>rnni«'nl rrcviiilcii iiinoiit,' All the TrilH-s Not a (rovt>rnnii'iit of l''orci'--( )nt' 
of Ai'iiuiesconi't' (Icncrai L'Mitorniity— Union of Triix-s licatrud of tiic Im- 
(juois l*rini'i|ilt'8 on which a Cli'of (lOVomH AoconlinK' to Will of th<> Trilic 
( 'ouncils Oruiinizin)^ anil Condnctiiii; Chii-fs KanU Siu'cfSRion Ki|naiily 
Criininai (loilc Opinion of Dr. I'ranklin ("aid) Atwati'i-'n Dcwriplion of an 

In.i Conni'il Authority of Chii'fs 



111! coiniiiiiii iiloii 
a III DM"' civilizt'ii 

iiii; im (iiin III 
tliiil of :i h 

|H'tl|)l(' !|!IS hi'I'll. 

that tlio Aiiit'iifaii 
linliaii i^ an irrt'S]M>iisil)lt'. 
\vaii(l<M'iiij; vaj^alioiitl. linv- 

1 lit'<> lu'Vcllil 

witlmiit iiiural t'crliiij,' (ir 
rules tor tlif <;ovt'niiiiiMit 
of Ills civil (• iiiiliict. Mild 
w I lose colli lit ion of socictv, 
if siicli it ma\ lie callcil. 
is chaos ninl anarcliy ; wiiicli Imt illiistratos oiir own iijimraiK c .if tlic 
tvno character of the linliaii in tips rej^'anl. 

The institution of civil oov,.iiini('iit itrevaildl aiiioiii,' the Aineri- 

far as iiiliiiiteil to their wants and conditions in 

can trilies throiij^hoiit the two continents, as |iei-fect and coinpleti 

III and iiniiciiile, so 

life, as anion;,' the more enlightened nations. I!nt tln'ir mode of life 
heiii;^ simple, their wants \veri» few and their plan of ;xov(>riiment was 
adapted to this simplo and priiiiiliv(< condition. I'lieir ;^overnnieiit 

was not a <rovernmeiit 



was not maintained niioii luiiKM 

pies of this kind. Imt was ralliei one of aci|uiesci>nce mi the part of 
the ^foverned. It was. ill form, patriarchal, after the manner of the 
ancieiit.s. Tin v liml no sucli thin<.( as rulers or otVicers appointed to 
tMifiiri't^ laws and opproBH iiiilividuals; so t lull tlioir goynrnment was not 




Tin; A.Mi:i;u'AN indiw. 

olio of o|)|nvsHii>ii, bat oiit> in wliicli all felt ai> oijiml rosponsihilitv, 
and clict'il'iilly ««'(jni('sct'il in all nicasuri's pri'Si-rilu'il or (.•oni-uncil in 
for their giMicral good. 

A Now Englantl iiistorian. on lliis sul>ji'ct. says tlioir governniont 
was *' ratlit'r a |iatriarclial state; for the Saela'ni conrlmlcd no inijiort- 
ant tilings — wai's, laws or snl)sidi»'s- to wliicli the |ii'o|)l(' were 

ilei'itlediv adverse 

As nmnlers. roMicries, ailnlteri 

es and siu-n 


eoininon * aino 

iiir the En;;lisli," wen* nctt eoninion with them, the iliit 


ot the Sai'iieni were light. So that even Indian history shows how 
criiiu'H are nearly all oll'enses against property, and grow out ol" that 
luinger for wealth; every man wanting to get. or to keep, more than 
his siiare." 

Tliere was i> 'MMieral iiniformitv in tiie form of <Mvernmeiit 
K's and iKitioiis of North America, difl'ei'ing. 




however, in details more or less, aecording to location and ciici 


ic ises ( I 


staiices. Kach triiic was a kind of iiody politic, for pni| 

eminent and civil polity, autl, in general, the powers of j.^ovi rnnn-nt 

were exercised liy a trilte. 

Sometimes several tiihes were allied together for certain purposes, 
ns that of protection against invasion, each tribe still retaining its 
sovereignty for purposes of local civil government. Of this kind 
wi're thi> i)akotas, who, whilst the trilies of this stock were very 
numerous, had a union of t-even trihes. wiio wert» unitetl for purposes 
of defense. In the same manner the Ojiliways. I'ottawattamit's and 
Ottawas were united for tim like |>urpose, with an agreenu'iit that no 
part of tht^ territory they s(>verally o<-cupied should lie open to the 
occupation of other nations without the consent of all. 

The Inxpiois were n confederation of several tlihes. called the 

jtMiiruc* o 

f the Iroijuois." iiotoiily for tiie purp 

.f .l.'t 




Ido for the purpose of civil government, the powers of which were 
vested in the leay.u* or I'onfederation, each triln' at Hit* same tii 


having and tetainiiig a separate local government, or government of 

its own fi 



Eacli trilte had its chiefs or head 

among whom there was a ranking or superioi' e 


w lio was tin 



cipal ministerial functionary in their government. 'Iriltes were 
generallv divided into Itands. each Iwind having also its chief or head 


riie Indian mind is not sensible either of civil or militarv snl»- 
ordimition. Kach entertaiuH a high opinion of his own individual 
eonse(|uence, and is exceedingly tenaciouu of his liberty. All indica- 
tions that earry with them the appearance of a positive command from 
Huothor lire i jecftd with scorn and indignation. Theii' leaders are 



vi!v cautious about j^iviu^ out onlcrs in pcrfuiptory style. A siiiiplf 
liiiit from a diicf miiciTuiiiir tliiiii,'s that in liis opinion shuuM lie 
ilonc, or lucasurcs that shouhl lit' I'ari'iod out. aroust's t-niuhition anmiiLT 


10 inferior ranks, and his sni,'^'i'stion is iinuifdiatt'ly <,mv('1i attfiitioii; 
but tlm Indian iiKh'pi'iuh'nri" is .such tliat he acknowh'dj^^'s im superior 
ill civil <roveniiiieiit nr domestic all'airs. and leco^'iiizes no one as ha\- 
iii^' the ri;,'lit to exercise authority over him. fii short, he admits of 
no such distinction as nia<,'istratn and sul)ject. 

The principle upon wliicli a chief <xoverns or I'e^ulates the atl'airs 
of his tiiiie is ratlier i)y way of advice tiiaii in words of command. 
A man rises io the position of chief, or is promoti'd to hold that station, 
from tlie conlidi'iice reposed in him by the tribe. Tlu» ciiief i^overns 
more by pi'rsuasioii tiian by coeicion. His intlueiict* aiuon^' his trilto 
de[)en<ls u|ion jiis estal)lislied character foi' wisdom, iiravery and lios- 

wmild lie a successful h-ader and 


t is important, if 

i^overnor. that he should excel in everything' pertainiiij,' to the chaiac- 

ter and di;,Miilv < 

if the chieftain. Whenever his conduct cientes 

le chiefs of encii 

dissatisfaction amoiij^ tlie tribe his power ceases. T 
trilx" settle all disputes arising,' amon^' their peo|(le. watch over the 
territorv tlie\ occiipv. regulate tiie order of their marches, and appoint 
the time for their ^'eiieral ii'iidezvoits aid movements. Tliev havo 
no written code of laws, but the people of the tribes are fau^dit Ity 
their child's and wise men to observe ji certain line of conduct, biicii 
as to be irood hunters, brave in war, and kind and hotjpitable to 

In <^eneral. everxthiiiir i^ intended to be done in 

I accordance witti 


the will of the tribe as expres-ed or implii-d. 'I'he will of tlie tribe, 
concerning measures to I.e pursued. :., as<'ertained throu^di the action 
of a couiu'il, wliicli is constituted in diU'ereiit forms, according,' to cus- 



I maii\ . 


e council IS coiMltoset 

d of t he chief- 



men. if the subject of consideration i^^ one of iniporiaiice. in which 
all the tribe should be consulted, the conclusion arrived at b\ the 
council of the chiefs ami principal men is then submitted to the wlioh) 
tribe, assembled for piiipose. 

Ill addition to coiiii 

of t Ih' tribe, there are a! 

so i^eiierai coun- 

cils, w hell' it is desii'cd to t.iki' into consideration matters winch con- 

cerned seveial 


'I'hi' head chief of the tiibe. in w ':ose terrilor 

the council in cniivem'd. ;fenerally takes the lei.d. The first tl 
in onler is to kindle the council fire. This is called II 


le uiicoveiiii;; 

of til" Hlumi>eriii;^ embers of lh<' former council, and the<,' of 
tiie council tire is called the covtulnif of the fire. [•"lom the lire thus 
kindled they li>,'lit their pipt>s. The council then pioi d.-- to th > 



coroinoiiy of sinnkinj^ tli<' pipe of pe/ieo. 'I'liis tli('\ do in token of 
frioiulship imd •,'oo(l will to nil. 

At councils of this latter kind, tiic li'adin;^' cliicts of ilio, diircrtMit 
tribes rise in succt'ssioii <ind deliver their talk, during which tho strict- 
est attention is jmid Ity all present, who now nnd then uttor tlio usual 
words of respoiiso in caso of a[)|)rovnl. Thoro is also an a[)propriatt! 
expression in caso of disapproval. Tlieso responses for and against 
am taken as tho sense of th« trihe or council, U|)on propositions 
advanced ]>y chiefs in their speeches. In other words, this is the gen- 
eral Indian mode of voting in their assend)lies. 

According to Indian cnstoni in their councils, they have no such 
rule, as carrying a nieasun! by a majority vote, or majority of the 
assendtly; unless carried by unanir is assent, the measure is con 
sidcred iiot atlo[)ted. Tiiis, as we are informed Ity Mr. Schoolcraft in 
his ''Notes on tho Irotjuois," 's especially the rule among that [K'ople. 
Ill these siiii[)le councils of tho red man, no speaker is ever inter- 
rupted in the midst of his discourse, and tlien^ are no <piestions of 
<trder thrust upon any one. as is so often found to be mn-essary in the 
|)ul)lic assendilages of tli' white man. 

When a measure is found to lie unpopulai'. by expressions from 
th' present, it is generally drop|)ed; hence, there are selilom any 
warm discnssioiis in tht>se native Indian councils. It has been sug-- 
gestod that if tlie same freedom of speech had been indulged in at 
these couiu'ils as is often witnessed in tlit* legislative halls of the white 
man. th(> scalping knife and tomahawk woulil be seen glittering in 
true lynch style over the heads of these rude Indian law makers. 

'i'lie olliee of ciiief was, in general, hereditary, the rule of descent 
varying according to tlie custom of the, trilte. When the line of suc- 
ces.^ioM failed, th«i vacancy was tilled by nomination <if the surviving 
<'hit?fs in council, and the (piestion of selecting the person so named 
was left to the voice of tiie whole tribe, called togetln'i' in council lor 
that purpose. 

riu'ic wei'e. in general, war chiefs, asitle from civil chiefs. Such 
chiefs were not hereditary, but the selection was niatle by the council 
of the triiie. the person being chosen with reft>renee to his acknowl- 
edged bravery ami wisdom. In such councils, although the and>itioii 
if individuals might be involved, where sharp competitiiui might be 
e.;pected, the greatest harmony prevailed, and th •■•• was a cheerful 
acijuiesceiice in tiie result. The Jiulian had no, reached that point 
attaineii in the wliiti* man's civilization, of ballot-box stufling and 
ilieating at tiie primaries, unler the rule ilial the end justilies the 

flow vastly (lilTtTt'iit «•••!••> tlicso poacfful councils of tlio [(iiniitivo 
It'll man lidni tlioso latter coin[)ulsoiy occasions, convoiicd under tlif 
j^'uiis of soni(( frontier inilitai y jmst, for the |iur|>oso of further »>xten(|- 
in<^r tiie domain of the uiiitc^ man over the Indinii possessions, to 
appease tho avaricious spirit <if the civiliztul speciilatorl 

'riin principle of e(|iiality was carried into these coinu ii>. where 
all were e([ual. They had no presidin<^ ollicer or moderator. .Mr. 
t'alel) Atwater, who was u dost; oliserver of Jmlian customs, says that 
"like the Court of liar's Hill, at Athens, the Indian council ^'enerally 
sits at nii^dit, when the nation is asleep." 

.As the Indian possessed little projierty. he iiad little or no i<leaof 
its value; hence, laws relatin>^ to offenses in this rei^'ard wei'e not s(» 
necessary. But the crime 4if murder was prominently noticed in their 
criiiiiMid coih'. in the penalty of which they i'(.ll,(wrd the .d'wish code, 
"hlood fur Itlood:" esjiecially if the lelatives of the hip ilcrcd man 
retpiii-ed that the life of the murderer should he taken. J ii ^'eiieial. 
the accused was awarded n trial, in which tin* chiefs and principal men 
met in council, at which the parties concerinMl ucie picseiit. and if the 
tjuilt of the accusi'd was prosed, the head clilid' pi i )iii lUiicrd sentence 
of death. Tiie executioni'r was the nearest of kin to the peisou niur- 
ilered. Tiie mode of ex<'cutini; t he sentiMice \»as either l>y siiootini,'. 
tomahawkiu"^ or stalthiny; sometimes tin* «leath seidenct* was coni- 
muti'd io some kind of pecuniary consideration, to lie ijivcn to tiie next 
of kill or reiati\es of tlie deceased, as miijlit lie atljudi^ed, and «-on- 
sistiiii; of clothiiiij. skins, or other I''.'ian piopeity. 

Tiie finest e\ample of Indian ^'overniiM'nt was found amoiii; the 
lro(piois, liist known as the Five Nations, hut in later times known as 
tiie Six Nations. ori;,Mnally composed of the Mojiawks. Oneidas. Onon- 
da<xas, Cavu-.^ns. and Senecas. to whicli. in 1 i I ll. tiie Tnscaroras were 
added. 'J'lu'Se several tribes WiTe united f'lf |iurp()ses of civil i,'o\ern 
nn-nt under a compact called "riie J,ea;,'ue of the Iro(|Uois."' as liefore 

it is observed b\ Mr. Mor>,'an. in reirard to Hii> people, that tlie 
central e^o\(>rnment was or;;aiiiz<Ml and administered upon tlie same 
principles wliieh rej^ulated that of each nation in its separate eapacitv, 
the nations sustaining' nearly the saint* relation to the lea^jiu' tiiat the 
.Vnmrican States bear to the I'nion. Indeed, it is u sini^ndar coinci- 
dence, that the aiwient •^'overnnnuit of tho primitive Jro(|uois people 
.\as foiuitled ami rested uiioii tie sann< principle of tho Stale ami I'ed- 
eral ^fovernment t>f the Annuican I iiion of this day. Tlie national 
capitol was at Onmidaira. where the <,'reat coiincil comprised of dele 
^ates fi'oni tlit> sevei'al nations before meutionecl was held, ami where 


Tin; AMr.iiicA', Indian. 

tho iiatioiml couiicil lini wms (■(nitiiuially huniiii*,', (is lUMunhlciii iiuirkiii<; 
tilt' cDiitiiiiicil t'xisttMK'H of tlu'ir national ;.^>v('rniMi'iit. 

Dr. Franklin, who, during liiu litV of litt'iarv work, <;avt' consitltT- 
al)le atttMition to tlio stuily of Iiitlian charat'ttT and lii.storv, r.oncfniin^ 
Indian ^'ovcrnnifiit, says that "'all thoir ^'ovcniun'iit in l)y tlu* counsel 
or advici' of the sa<^t's; then) is no force; thero ai'e no prisoners; no 
olliccrs to coni[)el obiulieiico or inflict |niiiisiinients; hence, they ^Gen- 
erally study oratory, the hest speaker having,' the most intlneiice." lie 
furtlier adds, that having; freipienl occasitm to hold piihlic councils 
tlicy lia\e aiMjiiii-ed <^!'eat older and d;'cency in coiiductiii<; them. The 
old men sit in tin; foremost ranks, tlie warriors in tho imxt, timl the 
women and children, if then' are any present, in the rear. 

Calel) Atwater, who was one of (In' commissioners on the pait of 
the liiiteil Siati's <;o\ernment to negotiate a treaty with the Indians at 
Prairie dn Cliien. in i^'l'.K tints desciihes the council held Ky flie 
llidiniisat that |)lace with the a^'ents of t lie Inited States ^roveniiiu lit : 

■•Tiie commissioners sat on a raised hench, facing tlie Indian 
chiefs: on each side of them stood tiit* otlicers of the army in full 
dress, while the soldiers, in theii' hest attire, appi'ared in lirii^dit array 
on the sides of the cnimcil shade. The ladies l)elon;'in<' t' the ollicers' 
families, and the best families in the |)rairie, were seated directlv 
liehihd tiie commissioners; Itehind the principal Indian chiefs sat the 
coniniiiu jieople. first the men. then the women and chihlren to the 
mniil)!'!' of tlioiisaiid^. who listened in hieatldess and tleathlike silence 
to e\-ery word that was uttered. The spectacle was ;,Mand and niorallv 
sulilime in the hii,fhesl di'^^^iee to tin nation of tiie led iiien w |io were 

In his early l>o\ hood, in .^Ui,Mist. l^:!i>. the writer saw the last 
Imlian council held in t'hica:.i;o with the a<^feiits of the I'nited States 
^'ovei'umeiit. and in llii^^ the like older and airan^^'inent was ohserved 
as described l)y Mr. .Vl water on tiie occasion he mentions, and ho can 
bear witness to the decorum and perfect order which pievailed in the 
assemblv of .several thousand Indians throu<,'liout the whole |iroceedin<,'. 

Tr.iveleis and writers of later times, in speaking' of the Indians of 
the plains and aloni,' the I'acilic coast, refer to their v-iiiefs in some 
instances as possessing' and exercisin<x (piite arbitrary authority. This 
must have ^M'own into practice from their association with the whites, 
after a loiij; <'ontinued period of time, orsucli ciiHtom may iiave prevailed 
anioiij^ particular tribes to a limited extent, urowinj; out of locality oi' 
peculiar circuni^lances. Such exercise of authority was certainly not in 
accordance with ;,;eneral Indian character. 

The earlv adventurers and exploreif^ in this country, like that of 

(il)\ T.ltN.MKNT. 


C'lpt. John Smith and others, with limited knowh^dj^o iirf to themnniifis 
tiiid customs tit' tliti iiativn tlilu's. iiavf s|i()kt'M of tht^ head cliit'l's aiiioii;^ 
tlifin as kings, cmpfrors, aiul tlie like, terms a|([)lical)lo in <j(>vern- 
ments oi" enlightened nations; whieh has givt-ii us tho erron«'ous 
impression that tin' Indians had among tliem rulers oi' this kind, pos- 
st'ssing arbitrary powers. On the suiiject of these high functionaries, 
Ml'. Ellis, in his hook, the •• lli-d Man and the White Man,'' remarks, 
■•tiiese the whites called kings, chieftains, sachems, counselors, whih) 
tiie otheis were called sui)jects;" hut it is doul)tful, he well says, 
whether this had previously been tin- state of things among the pi'imi- 
tive trihes. Peter Jones, referring to tids suliject, speaking of the 
great Ojiliway nation, says, ••Although the Ojihway nation of Indians 
is scattered o\er a vast section of country, there is no person among 
them recognized as king." 

**'INti ri!K IXhIAN' CtMNTUV. 



Encli (trniiji li.'id n llifTiTcnl,'ii: 

I'.jicli 'I'rilH' Spoke till' Tjiiii^'iiairt' of tlio 

(•roup Varying in Diiilcct iiiiioii^' 'riu'insflvrs liuliaii Ijaii^'iiaKi'H not li 
.larjruii— Ricli in Vt'rim and Ornniinatica! Fttrnis Mnrkcd for iVIctliod and Hctrn- 
larifv - Uniformity in ConHtrnction over tlio Continent rjimtruau'e of ilip 
AlK'onipiiuH Tlio I'revailiiiK LanniiaKt'— Word JJiiildinj,' (JiHiiiniatical Con- 
Btniclion — ExanipIoB Dakolas— Inxiuois— Clioruki't' Chinook. 

^ 1 1 V) idtii lias pii'Vdil- 
t'll jiinnnir iii'diilc in 
[•^f fj;tMu'riil, Hint t'licli 


"t*""'* tril)t^ of riuliiiiis had 
a si'|)afnti^ laiii^iia^i'. and 
tliat tin' iinniln'i- (.1' lan- 
L,'Uii<.,'t'B of tlio contiiit'iit was 
n'<rnlatt'd l)V thn ninnhnr of 
distinct and st'|iafatn triln's. 
Tliis is not in accordani't' 
with the facts. I'lach lin- 
(piistic of <,'ciicric <^ron|) of 
tril)os Inid its common lan- 
<;na^c. JCach tiMl)o s|iol<(' a 
dialect of this common lan- 
f^ua;,'*', ditVcrin^' niorc or less, accoidinir to circumstances, from that of 
the other Iriin's of the coiiinioii stock: in like manner as dialeets of 
the common laii^nuii,'o are fonnd to exist amon<,' comnumities of the 
Old W'oi'ld. as. for instance, in the connti<'s or sliircB of Mnj,dand. 

Tiie <lialects of the several nations of the lro(|nois did not ditfor 
essoiitially from eai'li otiier: and the same may he said of the |)akotas 
to H certain ixteiil : Init with tiie trilies of the .Vl;,'on(|iiin. .V|i|)alacliinn 
and Slioshonee stock it was otherwise. Annnij^ these there would 
often occur such a wide ditference in dialect, that the aid of inter- 
preters WHS fre(|ueiitly ;'e(|uired for iiurjtoses of communication, 
botween tribes of the same stock. 

Another popidar error has existed much to the prejudice of the 



(ihori^iiios. that tln'ir laiiiriuim* wmh of a low order, ami far iiift'iior to 
our own; lit'iici". slioiild not lu' coiinttMianccd as tlm mt'diiini of coni- 
iniinifation in our t'lTorts to Itrinj^ the ri'ninant of this j)fo|)h> into our 
condition of civilization. As an «'xani|)lc in this rt'j,'ard, a jironiincnt 
olliccr of tiie Tnitcd States army, stationed in the Indian country, 
tool; occasion recently to ventiiat(» his views on the Indian i[uestion 
tlirouj^h (I conininnication to a leadinj,' ne\vs|ia|»er of tlie day. and in 
addin<,' sonns advice, as to the policy in his opinion tin* <,'overninent 
should |mrsne towards the Indians in its etTorts to reclaim them to 
civilization, he says: '"'ihe fiist steji should l»e to al)olish, as far as 
jioHsiblo, tho Indian jarj^on, and teach them ti) rend, write and speak 
the Mnj^dish lani,'un^'e." 

\Vho(>ver styles the Indian lanj,'ua;^e of the lin«,Miistic <,'roups 
mentioned a jai'^on, simply exposes his i^noranc*! on this suliject. and 
is in iio sense prepared to ^'ive iidvice as to the policv which shouiii 
l>e puisueil in rcLjard to this people, 

Mr. |)u Ponceau, an eminent philoloi^ist of his time, wiio ^-ave 
lunch attention to the native lan<rua''es of America, and took occasion 
to investi;jate them extensively, states and illustratr's thi'ee ^'i n^ral 
propositions concernin<,' these lnn<.Mia^fes; 

First — That the American lan<,nia<,'es. in i;eneral, are rich in 
words and ^I'nmmatical forms, and that in their complicated construc- 
tion the ^M'eate^t order, method and rei^ularity prevails. 

Second — That these complicated forms, which lie calls poly- 
synthetic, ajjpear to exist in all tliosi^ lan;,'ua<,'es from (ireeidand to 
Cape Horn. 

Third— That these I' irnis appear tt) dill'er essentially from those 
of the ancient and modern lan^niai^es of the old hemisphere. 

OpiiUiuis ti> the same etVect have been expressed iiy numei'ous 
other learned writerB, who liavti had occasion to iiivcsti^'ate this 

When we speak of the completeness of the American lanj^ua<fe. 
we do not, in <,'eneral, include the dialects of those iionualic. deijener- 
at» tribes of the arid re<,'ions, borilerin<,' upon the country of Mexico, 
wliich are necessarily impoverished in jiroportioii to their deL,naded 
condition. These are but n peopl(> who have de<renerated fi'nm a 
lii^'her condition of native life. 'i'hey are not at this day a fair 
specimen of the niitivo American Indian. 

The (piestion arises in this connection, whethei' it is strictly 
correct to style our lan;,'ua<,'e the Kurdish lan;,Mnii,fe. The most we 
can hay of it is, that it is a lanj^uajjn spoken by tiie I'-n^lish people 
and their descendants, tin' root of which coum'S fi'om one of the most 


V>^^> ^ nQ. 






...^ 4?^ 









"■ IIIM 

iil 4 







-« 6" — 
















^ .A ♦ 



WEBSTER, N.Y. 145G0 

(716) 872-4503 


,<° mPji 








poverty strickoii, ill CDiistnu'ted Inugujigos nmoiig (ill the civilized 
iiiitiiins of the earth, augniiniteil by ucertitions, pilfered indiscrimin- 
ately from the Ifiiigiiage.s of nearly evt^ry jn'oplo and nation -with 
which onr restless Saxon spirit has brought us in contact, }iot except- 
ing that of the poor Indian himself. Perhaps, however, it is not 
askiiiiT too much of the Indian, that he learn the laiiifuaire we are 
8i)eakin;r as a matter of c(nivenience to himself, in studviui; this vices 
we !ire teaching him, as a means of harmonizing in his mind the 
principle of th(>ir existence, under our boasted high order of 

If we would com[)el the Indian to abandon Ins own language, and 
learn tliat which Ave are spi aking, will we attlio same time abandon or 
give back to him those words we have borrowetl from his language, to 
designate various aiunmls, plants and vegetables so common with usV 
If so. what names will we give in lieu thereof for the present Indian 
names for moose, mink, raccoon, o[)ossum, skunk, musk-uks, and the 
prefix to mus(j-rat, which latter the Indian calls iiiiis<iii<ish/ What 
names will we give to those forest trees called hackmatack, tamarack, 
[law paw and mahogany: And what names will we a[)[)ly in cookery 
to those palatable dishes for the table called samp, succotasii and 
hominy? And what names will we 8ul)stitute for tobacco, tomato, 
Sfjiiash, pecan and persimmon? 

Tiiere might, however, be no objection to giving back to him a 
class of outlandish words we are ever prone to catch u}» from whatever 
source, like the Pequot word Skccziiks. or the Chinook word Hijdsic- 
ciitiiK, commonly spok(Mi Gyastecutus. 

And, in this connection, we may be called u[)on to disfigures the 
map of th country by cancelling u[)on it all those Indian ge()gra[)hical 
names he has left to us. to niaik the fact that it was once iidiabited bv 
him as his exclusive domain, the origin and meaning of which is be- 
coming a subject of inten^sting iiujuiry. 


The language of the Algt)n(juin group was the prevailing tongue, 
and by some is believed to have been at some time the current lan- 
guage of the continent; the same as all the ])eople of the aboriginal 
tribi-s resemble each otiier in their physical structure and general 
characteristics. From the best authority attainable, the Algonquin 
language, as spoken by the Ojibways, has nbimt ten thousand words. 

It has been called the court language of the continent, because 
it is said it was a general custom of tribes among whom this language 
was not spoken, to have some of their number acquire a knowledge of it 

INDIAN I,.VN(il .UilS. 


for couveuiinioo of fDinnniiiii'Htioii, a t-ustoia s^iokeii of hy Hoiun'piii, 
who says: "Tliey nsi'd to send oiin of tluMi- niHu to each of their allies, 
to Inani tiicir laii>fuai,'(> and remain wilii them as their resident, and 
take eare ol their eonct^rns.'' 

Of this hui'Mia>re, the dialect as spoken anionif the Oiihwavs was 
considered the standard. Tiie lanj^iiage of the Algonquins, indeed, 
like that of most other Indian languages, was deficient in its phonetics 
elemeiil; or |)(^rha[)s, mort? [)roperly speaking, the organs of speech of 
the Indian raceAvere defective, or so far deficient that they were unahle 
to utter many of the scmnds which occur iii what is adf)pted as the En- 
glish alphabet. Fo" instance, it is said that among all the Algonquin 
trihes but four of them, the Delawares or Lenni Lena[)e8, the Sacs and 
Foxes and Shawiiees. were able to pronounce the letter /. l)ut used the 
lettei' II instead. 

According to tlie leariunl missionary. Rev. Edward F. Wilson, 
who mastered this language as s[)oken by tlie Ojil)ways, tiui alphabet 
necessary in writing this language consists of only nineteen letters, 
the sounds not used being expressed in the letters c, f, h, 1, r, v and x. 
In this connection Mr. Wilson remarks, that there are a few points 
in the characti'r of this language which would seem to indicate a 
relationshi[) witii the Hebrew. Thus it is a language of verbs, 
roots and stems, to wliich [)articles are aflixed or prefixed, to modify 
the meaning of the word, whicii he illustrates by quite significant 

Somi^ authorities insist that tins nunil)er of letters in writin-r 
this language is [)roi)erly reduced tt) 17, as all that are retjuired to 
write correctly and plainly all the words in this language. There are 
four vowel sounds, a, e, i, o. It has [)roperly no u. The sound of x 
is founil in the Delaware diidect, as in the word Hhokamoxen. and the 
old Mohegan, of the Hudson valley, as in the word Coxackie. 

In the aforesaid estimate of prinniry sounds, the letters c, (p y, 
as representing vowel sounds, are entirely rejected. The soft of c is 
8, the hard sound, k. The sound of g is always that of k. Therefore, 
in determining the source or language from which Indian words, and 
(!si)ecial!v local names, are derived, a reference to the foreiroinir rules 
will aiil in showing from whence any particular word is derive<l. 
Thus, in the word Milwaukee, if it is conceded to be an Indian word 
in that form, the letter / would indicate that it did not come from any 
of the Algomiuiii dialects of tin* tribes, who were originally known to 
have inhabited the country in that vicinity; but as no tribe was ever 
known to inhabit that country in whose dialect was fcmnd the letter /, 
this sound in that form, woidd on general principles be rejected as a 



corruption, and the letter siibstitntetl in the plaoo of it should properly 
bo n. 

In this, ns in other languages, there are nine parts of s])ihh'1i, 
article, noun, adjective, pronoun, adverb, proposition, conjunction, 
interjection, and vorl). 

The following points will illustrate some of the peculiarities of 
this language: first, it divides all objects into two great classes, animate 
and inanimate, and this applies not only to the noun, but also to the 
article, adjective, pronoun and verb. 

Three fliird jxtsous are distinguished, and distinct endings 
employed to designate them. Thus, in the sentence, James sees John's 
mother; James is the first, John the socoiul. inotlier the third person. 

Tiro Jlrst jx'rsoiis jiliiral are distinguished; wc, excluding the 
party addressed, and ir<\ including the party. 

The pnr1ici]>lc tills an important part, supplying the want of the 
relative jn'onoun. and answering for both noun and adjective. 

The olijcclirc case of iltc 2><'i'>^<»i<il jn'oiioiiti is expressed l)y a 
change in the verb. 

The iicfidtire of the verb, in addition to krdi or kdlurccn, (not) 
prefixed, recpiires the introduction of a second participle .sv; besides, 
in some of the inflections, a change in the ending of the verl) is neces- 

A doubtful sense may be given to one's word by the use of the 
duhitot ire form of the verb. 

Tim only other peculiarity that will be mentioned here is the use 
of the participle hiiu, which. Avhether with nouns, adjectives, or verbs, 
has generally the signification of gime by, past, deceased, out of 
date, etc. 

Xoinis. Animate nouns not onlv include creatures that have life, 
but also other objects, as stone, clay, the sun, the stars, a drum, a pi[)e, 
or Avatch. So in the inani'nate class, besides strictly inanimate things, 
are found many of the principal trees, parts of the body, etc. Tliis 
distinction between aninmte and inanimate objects is very important, 
for by it are affected the pronoun, adjective and verl), as well as the 
number and case of the noun. An animate noun must be used with 
an animate verb, and an inanimate noun with an inanimate verb, 
thus: I see a man, iicwalil)iini<ili cncncj I see a box, iirivdltbinidaiin 

In this language the above distinction between animate and inani- 
mate objects takes the place of gender. The sexes are thus distin- 
guished, inddxi or cncnc. conjoined with the noun for male, and noo-.lia. 
or i'<iu(i iov female. Usually, however, in speaking of animals, the 



male (gender is understood; the desigiuition of the sexes, therefore, is. 
in general, necessary oidy in speaking of the female. 

The plural endings of animate nouns are //, n;/, ig, [ov ('(';i). (xxj. 
wug, yiifi, JKj. The plnra! endings of inanimate nouns are n, iin, in, (or 
cfii), ooii, intii. Tims, animate: Eiictir, a man, pi. oicncint!/. Ali- 
hciinojc, a child, pi. (thlwnoojccjimj. HJici'fihcch, a duck, pi. t^liccsliccliKj/. 
Inanimate: Jfiilikiilc. a bf)X, pi. niiilikiikooii. ClicoiKdiii, a canoe, 
pi. ehrcnininiint. H(iiii(li(jnk, something difficult, [)1. s<iniilt</iihi'ii. 

Nouns, properly, have no case in this language. Of, with a noun, 
is expressed by the use of the possessive pronoun, thus: "The man's 
hat," (Or '"the hat of the man"), oioic o-ircindiqxdiin, literally, "the 
man, his hat." o, or od, taking the same place in this language as 's in 
English. But here, again, the distinction must be noted between ani- 
mate and inanimate nouns. If the second noun bo animate, it must 
have II, ill, ini, noii, or ncjin affixed as well as o before it, thus, "the 
man's pig." oii'h cncnc o-kookdosliiiii. Of, again in some cases, is 
expressed by (IhIizIic, a participle signifying "the place where," thus: 
" A man of Canada," Caiia diilizlic cni'iic. 

To, from, ill, witli iiioniiiuifc nouns, maybe expressed by the affix 
-?(r/, thus: Miilikiik. a box, iiiiilikiikooiifi. in the box; the alteration of 
the end svllable beiiiij ruled bv the plural of the word. 

To, from, in, with fiiiimatr nouns ((U' pronouns) can only be 
expressed by the verb, thus: omonaun, "he gives it to him." od-oilc- 
sfinii. "he comes to him." Xiiincmcciiik oirli Jolni, "John gave it to 

The vocative case singular atfects only proper names and terms 
of relationship. Thus, a woman named Xaliiccgcczlicnookird, would 
be called Xiiliin-gci'zln'jiook. A'orw, "iiy father;" iiiiijjiris, " "uy s(m," 
and a few other such terms take an a in the vocative singular, thus: 
Xoosd! Xiiigirissd! In tiie [)lural. iraloog is the termintttion, which 
maybe more liberally employed, thus: Uiiisliciidlihairciloof/, "O Indian!" 
Ogcmdhircddog, "O chief!" Ahhcnoo-jccircdoog, "children!" Pt-zlickc- 
U'cdoog, "O cattle!" 

In this language the noun has. properly, no objective case, but a 
curious distinction is observed between the third persons that occur in 
a sentence. Thus, in the sentence, "I see a man," iiidii undergoes no 
change; but in "He sees a man," it does, and in the sentence, "He 
sees the man's wife," vifr beijig the third third person in the sentence, 
undergoes a still further change. Thus: "A man," ciicnc. "I see a 
man," iicirdhhiimdh ciinu'. "He sees n mixu,^'' o-n'dldiiinidiiii ciiciicirini. 
"He sees a man's wife," o-irdlibninaiiii niniciniii o-ircdcgdiiidligiiiiciir. 

Another sentence: "Joseph took the young child and his mother, 



etc.," Jotx'ph o(i(jc-(>(Udi[)('n(nin ciirirh (ilihriioojciiini kuliija ciicirh 
CjfcciK'. Here there are three third persons, (1) Joseph > [2) the chikl, 
(-ifHii)', (3) the chiliVs mother, {-ciic). 

For the second tliird person in n sentence the ending, wliether 
singular or plural, is )i, in, kii, ooii, vcjiii according to the {)lural 
ending of the word. 

Diniiiiiih'rc Endinii. A noun, whether animate or inanimate, is 
made diminutive by affixing -/;s (pronounced nearly as nee in prince) 
thiis: shccshcch, "a duck,"' sliccsliccbdiix, "a little duck or duckling;" 
viidikiik, " a 1k)x,'' i)iiiliki(kooiis, a little box. These endint's are either 
-lis, -ims, -ins, or ouiis, according to the plural, and their plural is 
always -»//, animate, and nil, inanimate. 

Dcrojidlirc Eiidnif/. A noun, whether animate or inanimate, may 
have a derogative, contemptible sense given to it by affixing sli, thus: 
iiliiicinoosli, ''a dog,'' itlnirmoosliis]!, "a bad dog;" VdJif/dlikinid, ''.an 
ax," irdJKjdhkinidoosli, "an old worn-out ax." 

These endings are either s/r, -ish, -oosli or -irish. according to the 
plural, and their plural is always iitj, animate, kii. inanimate. 

The different sorts of nouns are thus classified: 

Simple Xoiiiis are such as ciiciic. man: kookoosJi. pig: cJiccmdiin, 

Nouns ending in iriii usually express a state, condition or action, 
and are formed from neuter verbs, by adding iriii to those ending iu 
ah, a, e, o; and ooiriii to those ending in inn and in, thus: nrhdiiicin, 
"sleep," from nchcih, '"he sleeps:" ckcdooirin, '-a saying," from rkcilo, 
"he says;" ciidndnniodnirin, "thought," from cncndniii "he thinks;" 
fn^jirisJicnooicin, "arrival," from iiiligirishin, "he arrives." Among 
this class are nouns ending in -dirin, -ooirin, and -dcirin; these end- 
ings express respectively ijiring, receiving, and mutual action, thus: 
nieegcirdivin, means a gift given; meeiiegooirin, a gift received; iiieene- 
ileirin, a mutual gift. KekeiivnJiuidlKjdivin, instruction given ; kckenon- 
nidtfoicin, instruction received; kekenoiimddewin, mutual or general 
instruction. Of these nouns, those ending in -divin are formed from 
neuter verbs of the second paradigm by adding irin; those ending in 
-ooirin, from the first person singular of the passive voice of transi- 
tive verbs by adding (/•/;( and dropping the pronominal prefix. Those 
ending in -deirin from the reciprocal modification of the transitive 
verb, by changing </< iiiin into deirin, and dropping the pronominal 
prefix, thus: (1), slidlnrdiijend, "he is merciful." shdliirdiijejidirin, 
"mercy given." (2), ninshdhirdnenieiioo, "I am treated with mercy," 
sh(diirdiieinegooirin, "mercy received;" (ii), keshdhirdiiindeniin, "we 
treat each other kindly," shahimnindcwiii, "mutual kindness." 



NdiiiiH emliiij^ in -{lini are readily fonned from neuter verbs, of 
the second paradigm ending ill r/r^ Tlius: jicmrpoojcfiini. •* a plougli." 
from pi-iiii i)<)()jc<i((, "lie ploughs;" p(nixlik(-Jic(iini. '• n gun."' from 
jxnixlikczliriid, '"he Hhoots." 

rdrtlcijiidl Xoinis are properly the participles of the verb. They 
are either positive or negative, thus: (untlniicatuU "n (.'liristinn" 

(literally "he who prays" 


k('('<K "a Avorker."^ (literally "he 

who works"); ii'dlidooh-dlinttd, "a helper,"' (literally " he who helijs"" ). 

Nouns inseparable from the possessive pronoun are terms of 
relationshii) and parts of the liody. Thas: my. tiiy or his father, 
iioos, /iV>o.s', (»iini. My, thy or his son, lu'iKjiris, kfijirls, <>(iin'ssiiii. My, 
thy or his hand, iicninj, ki-niiij, oiiinj. My. thy or his foot, iic'.iil. 
kczid, ozid. My, thy or liis body, iici/oir, kcijoir. ircii<iir. Separate 
from the pronoun, these objects have only a generic name, as irccij- 
oivinttdh, "the body." 

XoKiix llidl j)<>sst'ss ('0))i))Osition ■pdrh'clcs. This is n peculiarity 
of the language. Thus: Earth as a separate noun is ulike, but in 
composition it is kiinniiin, e. g. "beneath tlie earth."' idnidininili- 
kiniiDn'ij: ''on the surface of the earth," o(icd('ki()it>iii(i. 

TvdHsfoviiKdloH of (I noun into o. rcrh. Every noun in this 
laniTuajre can be transformed into a vi>r]). Thus, the word cdrtlr. bv 
a slight change we can express, "he is earth." " he has earth,"' "he 
makes earth," "there is earth," etc. Tims: 

(1). He is earth.- — The noun is formed into a neuter verb by 
adding ire, thus: tiJdxC, earth, iihkccirc, he is earth. 

(2), He has earth, — Tiie noun is formed into a neuter verli by 
prefixing o- or od- and adding c, in<\ or o. Thus: dshknn. a horn, 
odashkunc, he is horned; u'cdif/dhkn'ml, an ax, oicdlif/dlikn'iido. he 
has an ax; pczhckc, a cow, ojiczlickenic. lie has a cow. 

(8). He makes earth. — The noun is formed into a neuter verl) 
by adding -kd, ckd or ookd, thus, nidxik, u kettle, ulikikookd, he 
makes kettles. 

Adjcctin'S. Whilst the adjective is given as a part of sjieech in 
this language, yet, properly s[)eaking, it was no ailjective in the form 
of other lanjruatres. The words that are used as such mav lie classed 
as follows: (1) Particles; (2) Nouns with adjectival ending; (8) 
Partici[>les (or adjective verbs). 

Particles used as adjectives are the following: kcchc, big; 
i»r»«, good; 'H//a//'r, bad; ooshkc, new; Av//f(. old; and some few others. 
With nouns these particles are used adjectively, and with v>irbs adverb- 
ially. Thus with a mmn. k('rch<'-cncnt\ "a great man;" with a verb, 
kcclir sdldjccwd, "he loves greatly." 



Nouns with adjectival eii(liii>,' an^ foniicd In' simply addiiii^ r, riii', 
or o, to the noun. Thus: inilihcjiini, clay; icitlihcuinir-oiKdiniin, a clay 
platter. Sliooiiciidli, silver; tili()()ii(\ii<ili-irciic-<)}>ir<ili(jini, a silver pipe; 
inctiij, a log; iiicHj/o-cIu'ciikiiiii, a log canoo. 

Participles used as adjectives is the common mode in this lan- 
guage of expressing ([uality. Thus: "It is high," /,s///>a/;, part, (that 
which is high), islijxmn; hence a high building, /.s//^;^/*// inilikuhctjini. 
So in the same way, (ii/fdindiKj, small, part, of }ilii/(ilis(tlt, it is small; 
kdnirdin/, long, fro'n kiiiwdh, it is 1 )ng. WnlujdhbishkdiKj, white, 
from icdiihishkdii, it is white. Wasuhwdiui, yellow, from osiihicdlt, it 
is yellow. 

There are no projjer degrees of comparison in this language. The 
comparative tlegree can only be exi)ressed by the use of the ailverbs, )tiili- 
inij. or aJuodhshcmd, "more." And the superlative degree is imper- 
fectly rendered l)y kdclic or iiliijdiipfchc, "very, very much," or by midt- 
ijdlniinliiC(\ ••c\w,Ay.''' Tims: "prettier," niilnniij qitiilnidiij; "falter." 
nnhicitj wdlinenooil. "He loves me more than you," nuhiviij ncsdlKjrik 
keen ditshwccn. The most powerful, owh mulujdJnnuhwe iiiKshkiihivc- 
z'ul. Ashkum denotes, more and more, increasingly. Thus: Ashkiim 
(ihkoosc, "he is getting worse," (more sick). Aslikum lOdhbishka, 
"it is getting whiter." 

Vcvhtd use of ddjcciircs. Participial adjectives can be used 
verbally, thus: mi(shkulnv(di, "it is strong;" o-mnsld\uhwdioon, "he 
makes it strong;" kinircdi, "it is long;" o-kinw(ddoon, "he makes it 

Tlw })ronoun. In this language there are five kinds of pronouns: 
personal, possessive, demonstrative, indefinite and interrogative. There relative pronoun, its place being supplied by the participle of the 
verb, thus: "God who is merciful," owh Kczhd-muhncdoo shaivdn- 
Jci/dd. "I who am writing," ni'cn indzlicbccgdijdtiii. " The box that is 
open," civil ninhknk p(d:dhkoon('(]d}idd(]. 

The personal pronouns standing alone pre nccn, I or me; keen, 
thou or thee; ircciu he, she, or him, her; nrnuhwind, we or us (not 
including the party addressed) ; /i6'«»t//(r'/»f/, we or us (inclmling the 
party addressed) ; kcnidiirdh, you; lociinhirdli, they or them. In con- 
joining with the verl) for the nominative case, there is prefixed ;/(', inn, 
or /(/(((/, I or we (excluding the party addressed) ; kf, or kid, thou, we 
(inch), you, with the proper terminal inflection of the verb. The third 
person, in the neuter verbs, has no prefix. Thus: "I walk," niiipc- 
inootid; "thou v,'a\kest,''' kcppiiioosd; "he (or she) walks," priuoosd : 
we (excl. ) walk, iicfwinoosdiniu; we (including party addressed) walk. 
kepciiioosdiiiiii; you walk, kcpemoosdm; they walk, pcmoosdwiuj. 


11 13 

The objective case of the personal pronoun is expressed \t\ a 
change in the verb. Thus: "I see him" (or "her"), ncwdlihnmaini. 
"He (or she) sees me,''' nrwahbumik. "You see it," kcwdldmtuUiHu. 

The possessive pronouns are my, nc, nin, niiid; thy, h;k{<l; his 
(or her) o, -od: our (excl. ), ne, nind, -naun; our (incl. ), kc, kid, -imitii .• 
your, k<\ kid, -Wdli; their, o, od, -tcnh. 

Thus: "My canoe," »tmo/tr'f'mrf»,»; "our (incl. ) canoe," kcchrr- 
mauncminn. The distinction, however, between animate and inaniuiatc 
objects must be strictly observed. Animate objects rocjuire an ti in-ut- 
iindion to the third person, both singular and plural, as well as o or od, 
prefixed. The plural also must (as in nouns) end with <f for animate 
objects, with n for inanimate ones. 

The demonstrative pronoun is thus expressed: 

This (animate) mahbali, {)1. mahmig ; 2d, 'M per. maiimin. 

wah-owh, pi. oogoo; 2d, ildper, enewh. 
(inanimate) maunduh, pi. 

oo-oo pi. oonoo. 

That (or the) (animate) owh. pi. egewh; 2d, 3d per. enewh. 
(inanimate) ewh, pi. enewh. 

Thus: "This man," malibah, or mdwivli rnciic. "He gave it to 
that man," odcmccnditn enciih encncwitn. "This box," oo-oo witlikiik. 
"Those boxes there," enewh evade mnhkukoon. 

The indefinite pronouns are one, they, people, etc., expressed in 
the ijifiection of the verb, thus: ekedoom, "they say," "it is said." 

Whoever, ahivacjican. Somel)ody or anybody, ahweyuh. Both, 
nuhyozh. Each, papazhicj. Each of us, papazhecjooyuna. 

The interrogative pronouns are: Who? ohirotHin? AVhat? irnr/oo- 
ncin (diiieen? 

Adverbs. This part of speech may be classed as follows: adverbs 
proper, adverb particles, adverbs of affirmation and consent, adverbs 
of denial, adverbs of doubt, adverbs of interrogation, adverbs used 
imperatively, adverbs of quantity, adverbs of comparison, adverbial 

Adverbs proper may be used with a vei-b, but separately, as: 
U'anepuzh, easily; keemooj, secretly; pahbe(ja, suddenly; nuhagnuj, 
gently; suhguknj, orderly, etc. Also, such words as: oj/eduhkiimmifj. 
"on the surface of the earth;" ogedebeeg, "on the surface of the 
water;" neegaxm, "in front;" ishqnayaung, "behind;" ogidfuhyeee, 
"above;" nhnaimmnhyeee, "below;" pinjeenhyeee, "within;" mag- 
icauhyeee, "among;" pechcenng, "just, now oidy." 

Adverb particles are such as are prefixed to the verb, as: keirr- 
iuh-, around; pahpah-, about; peme-, through or by; pe-, approach- 





iiig; we-, inteiuling; nlnw-, proceeding; uhwe-, going to do; oovjc-y 
proceeding from. Thus: peme-czhdli, he passes througli; jxilipdhiic- 
mooHd, he walks about; pc-kuluj('(iua, he comes preaching. 

Adverbs of aftimmtion anil consent, as: yes, «, (i)ron. as in at, 
air) ; certainly, kmjdi; assuredly, (thhcddkummiij; let it be, ludluwo, 
or nic-cjd-iinf; it is so, siili, (in contradistinction to niih/' is it soVj^ 
of course, indeed, gooshdh. 

Adverbs of denial, as: no, kah, kahicecn; not, kdh, kdhwccnsc. 
Thus: "he dues ui'l, walk." k hirrcii pcinoosase; " by no means," A-ff/i- 
wasH//; "not at all," kdh kiilinnlujd. 

Adverbs of doubt, as: perhaps, iiuiungcshuh, kooncmah ; probably, 
kiilinuhhiij ; I don't know, dudulujican; I don't know where he or it is, 
ichc, tchc-cdoogj I don't know who, dhwdgwdn, diucdgivdiicdootjj I 
don't know how, ntihmuujcdoog. 

Adverbs of interrogation, as: Is it? -nuh? Thus: Is it a man? 
Encne nuh? Does he speak? Keckcdo nuh? Is he hungry? Pnlikuh 
-da nuh? Why? Wdgooimn oonjc? When? Alnwcu uli})ee9 How? 
Ahncen ezlw? Where? Ahnindc? How much? Ahnccn minik? 
W^hence? Ahnindc ooiije? 

Advei'bs used imperatively, as: Come! Umba! CoruJ here, ooti' 
dausj be quick, ivdweeb. Stop! Pdkah! Don't, kago. 

Adverbs of quantity, as: "It is enough," me menik; much, nebe- 
niih; very, keclie, ahpechv; more, nuhwvj uhivatishema; more and 
more, dshkum; little, pungcj almost, kdgahj so much, etch menik; to» 
much, osdum nebcicnh. 

Adverbs of comparison: thus, ezhe; too, also, kiihya; as much as,. 
tebishko menik; as, like, tebishko; more, nuhwiij; less, nuhwuj punge. 

Adverbial expressions, as: "It is wonderful," or "wonderful 
indeed!" inahmuhkaltdnhkiimruig; it is horrible, kuhgwdhnesuhgukum- 
mig; it is nice, pleasant, minwdnddhgwukummig. 

There is nothing in this language equivalent to our preposition 
with. The only substitute is tiie participle weej, which is prefixed ta 
the verb, and implies going with, accompanying; thus: He goes with 
him, o-weej-eicdun; he works with him, o-iveej-nhnookemaun. When 
we want to render such a sentence as "he killed him with his knife," 
we have to introduce the verb uhyoon, "to use," (or ahivauii, anim. ), 
thus: Oge-nesaun o-mookomaun ke-uhyood, (literally, "his knife 
using"). Again, "he met him with joy," oge-nuhgishkuhwaun emuh 
moojegezewening, (in joy) ; or, kemoojcgezekenuhgishkuhwaud, "h» 
rejoiced that he met him." 

From. This is expressed by oonje, (usually joined with thfr 
verb) and ng affixed to the noun. Thus: "He comes from town," 



Odanaung pe-oniijehah. Ho started from Toronto, Toronio-iny 

To, in, on, at, are oxproHH(Ml hy ->i(f afUxtul to tho noun, and ^on- 
ernlly by a voi-b denoting tho motion. Thus: "Iii the box,'' mtikiik- 
notKj; he goes to Toronto, Toronio-huj czhdh. 

Among, tiKKjifd. Thus: Among his friends, rnddwawcrjckncnipin. 

For, for tlio sake of, an account of, oonji: As: oonjc oirh Jesus 
Christ, for Jesus Christ's sake. Acting or iloing for is expressed by 
the accommodative modification of the verb, thus: nebo, he dies; o-)ie- 
botuhtrdiiii, ho dies for him. 

By, near, chijf. As: Chiij ishkoota, "by the fire;" clii<i ish- 
qudutnlum, "near tlio door." 

Tin' Interjection. Men express their emotion one way, women 
another. Thus, men, for oil! oh dear! alas! will exclaim, ali-tuliijali! 
ivcwd! whereas women will cry, neeijah! nceijo! ninjjo! nimja! pro- 
longing, always into a sort of wail, or howl, tho last syllable. 

Other forms of exclamation are, mill, nnslika.' lo, hark! ii'dff- 
u'dhfje! look! see! «,'o;tt'^««.' gone! disapi)eared! islifd! ah, ah yes! 
pdl<dh! stop! 

Tlie Verl). In this language the verb is very complox and im- 
portant, and, indeed, is the most intricate part of speech, all the other 
parts of speech depending on it; and nearly all others are capable of 
being put into a verbal form. The importance of this part of speech 
in this language is shown from the fact that in forming a sentence it 
is a rule to employ a verb wherever possible. Thus, the sentence in 
English, "ho was there at our last meeting," would be rendered in 
this language, " he was there when we last met." 

Rev. Edward F. Wilson, in his " Manual of tho Ojil)way Lan- 
guage," well remarks that it seems a marvelous thing, indeed, that 
"those poor, ignorant Indians," with no knowledge of literature or 
the general principles upon which languages are based, should have 
handed down so complex a dialect as the one before us. with all its 
niultitudinal inflections, afiixes and prefixes, from one generation to 

Mr. Wilson, in his work aforesaid, classifies the verb into the 
verb neuter, and the verb transitive. Tho neuter verb is compara- 
tively simple and easy of acquirement, but the transitive verb presents 
an enormous amount of matter in which it will require the greatest 
patience and a considerable effort of memory to grapple with; tho 
reason being that within its voluminous inflections are included all the 
persons, singular and plural, of the objective case of the pronoun, 
being introduced sometimes as afiixes, sometimes as prefixes, sometimes 



I\V H completo cluui<ite in the body of tho vt'i-b. Thus, in h^iirniii;;,' the 
noutor verb, we hiivo, I <r^>, thou ^oest, he <foos; we go, yuu go, they 
go — and have (lone; l)nt when we coinnience the trnnsitive verb wt> 
soon tind ourselves in ii maze of, I wee you, you see me, lie sees me, lie 
sees us, they see me, they see tlieni, he sees it, it sees him, lie sees lus 
brother, his brother sees me — (in, on to bewilderment. 

Among other rules in this language that are to be particularly 
noted, is that, in construetiiig words, a consonant shouio prt'ctHUi or 
folKnv a vowel, exei>})t in dissyllables, wherein two consonants are 
sounded in juxtaposition, as in iiiitlilcKk, a box, and tisslii, n stone The 
utterance in these cases is contlufnt; but in longer comjiounds this 
juxtaposition is generally avoided by throwing in a vowel for purposes 
of eupliony. as in the term ((sr^iiia hoiii, the (i in which serves as a mere 
connective and properly beh)ngs hero only for that purpose; the 
word being a com-pound of two words, (tst^in and hwoin, stone roasters. 

Nor is it allowable, in general, for vowels to follow each other in 
syllabication, that is, in forming words of two or more syllables, tAvo 
vowel sounds are not pr()i)erly allowed to come together, but a consonant 
sound is thrown in lietween them for eujiliony, as in the case of niiiino, 
good, and (iitkcc or (ikcr, earth. \> ' .i these tw(J words are combined 
to form "good earth."' the rule wouk' be to insert the letter t« between 
the two vowels, thus— -Minno' ulu^e, i in the case of Manilo-tnik, 
"spirit tr(V," it would be thus expref.ied, Manitojrauk. 

Mr. Schoolcraft, in : i erriiii; to this lan<;ua<;e, savs that a leadin<j 
feature in it is concentration; that the pronoun, adjective, adverb and 
preposition, in certain cases, are chietiy useful as furnishing materials 
for the 8i)eaker to be worke(i into a couinlicative texture of the verb 
and the substantive; and he remarks that nothing, in fact, can be 
more unlike than the language viewed in its original elementary state, 
in a vocabulary of its primitive words, and the same language as held 
under its oral amalgamated form ; that its transposition may be likened 
to n picture in which the copal, the carmine and the white lead are no 
longer recognized as distinct substances, but each of which has con- 
tributed its share towards the general effe. '• in which one element has 
been curtailed, another augmented, and all, however seemingly 
discordant, made to coalesce. 


Our Father 

be thy name. 


ish-pe-miug-a-yah-yan ; tuh-ge-che-e-uain-dah-gwud 

in heaven who art, supremely adored 


Thy kingdom 






iili-kci'iif4 tuli-o- 
ou oiirtli h't 

yuiider in licavtMi. 
tliiit whicli will 

slK'-iioo-nniii-gud. A-iuiin-diili-muii o-niiih 

foiiia Tliy will lion* 

zhu-cho-<i;(iiiii, ti^-bo-slikiio go ii-zho-uli-yof,' 
it 1)0 clone, hm it is 

Mcoii-zho-Hlio-noiii iioong-coin 

(live ua this day 

gun-e-mc-yoiig. Kiili-yii-\vn-l.,' ,.uli-iunli-\vo-8lie-noiu-e-iie\vli niiu- 
be our brend. Anil forgive us 

bah-tah-o-zhe-wa-be-ze-we-lu'-luili-nin, a-slic ko wa-he-nuh-niuh- 

our sins as \vt> for- 

wung-o-(lwah e-ge\vli nia-jiMloo-duh-we-yuli-min-gii-jig. Ka-go 

give tlieni who Imve done us evil. Do not 

ween kuh-ya uh-ne-e-ziie-we-he-she-kong-ain e-iuali zhoo-be-ze- 
(and) load us into ten][)ta- 

win-ing; mah-noo suli go ke-(lo-skeo-we-ne-sli«>-noin. Keen 
tion; but do thou deliver us from evil. For 

mall ween ke-de-bain-don mvh o-go umh-we-win, kuh-ya ewh 
thine is the kingdom, and the 

kuh-shke-a-we-ze-win, kuh-ya ewh pe-she-gain-dah-go-ze-win, 

power and fli> 

kuli-ge-nig kuli-ya kau-ge-nig 
forever and forever. 




The language of tlie Dakota stock, or, as they are commonly 
called, the Sioux, is more extensive and complex in many respects, and 
more difficult to acquire than any among the severil linguistic groups. 
It differs somewhat in its construction and sounds from the language 
of the Algonquins, showing in its general features that it has origii'- 
ated among a people possessing force of character and imaginative 
powers of mind. It is a stronger and more copious language, in many 
respects, than the Algoncjuin, but perhaps wanting to some extent 
as atTording the means of that elegance and figurative mode of expres- 
sion which characterizes the Algonquin language, in ct)nsequence of 
its peculiar construction and extensive and varied use of the verb. 

It is practically inq)ossible to give, in the limited space which 
can be here allotted to this subject, anything beyond the general rules 
of orthogi-aphy and etymology of this language, which, however, will 
serve, it is believed, to give a sufficient idea of the language for 
general purposes. In view of the limited space which must neces- 



sarily be here allotted to this subject, the rules of syntax governing 
its construction are considered of minor importance. 

The voiccls used in this language are a, e, i, o, u, and each has 
one uniform sou: d, except when followed by the nasal "??," which 
sometimes modifies. 

a, has the sound of English a in father. 

e, has the sound of English e in thcij, or of a in face. 

i, has the sound of / in marine or of e in me. 

o, has the sound of English o in yo, note. 

u, has the sound of English /( in rule, or of oo in food. 

The coiisoiKitits are twenty-four in number, exclusive of the sound 
represented by the apostrophe ('). 

In the use of the English ali)habet, in this language, the conso- 
nants, not being in number sufficient, have been extended by peculiar 
marks, added or attached to letters, indicating the change of sounds 
according to the fact. The apostrophe (') is used to mark a hiatus, 
as in s'a. 

Sijllablcs, in the Dakota language, terminate in a pure or nasal- 
ized vowel, as maka, the earth. To this rule there are some excep- 

In this language all the syllables are enunciated plainly and fully; 
but every word that is not a monosyllable has in it one or more 
accented syllables, which, as a general thing, are easily distinguished 
from such as are not accented. The importance of observing the 
accent is seen in the fact that the meaning of a word often depends 
upon it; as mn'ija, a field; ma(ja\ a goose; o'kiyu, to aid; oki'ya, 
to speak to. 

Hiijjlrcs do not appear to have any effect upon the accent; but a 
syllable prefixed or inserted before the accented syllable draws the 
accent back, so that it still retains the same position with respect to 
the beginning of the word; as nape', hand; miud'jy, my hand; 
iniksd'. to cut off with a knife; hawa'ksa, I cut off; vidaslia', tlat; can- 
nula' ska, boards; nia'ija, a field; mita'maga, my field. 

^1 or an final in verbs, adjectives, and some adverbs, is 
changed to o when followed by auxiliary verbs or by certain con- 
junctions or adverbs. 

According to Mr. Riggs, the Dakota language has eight parts of 
speech, the pronoun, verb, noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, con- 
junction and interjection. 

Pronouns may bo classed as personal (simple and compound), 
interrogative, relative an I demonstrative, together with the definite 
and indefinite pronouns or articles. 



To personal pronouns belong person, number and CRse. 

There are three persons, the first, second and third. 

There are three numbers, the singular, dual and plural. The 
dual is only of the first person. Like the Algonquin, it includes the 
p3rson speaking and tht person 8[)oken to, and has the form of the 
first person plural, but without the termination j)i. 

Pronouns have three cases, nominative, objective and possessive. 

The simple pronoun is divided into scpardir and incorporated; 
that is, those which form separate words and those which are prefixed 
and inserted into verbs, adjectives and nouns. The separate pronouns 
are, singular, mis, I; nis, thou; is, he. The plural is designated by 
unkis, for the first person; nis, for the second person, and is, for 
the third, adding pi at the end of the last principal word in the 
phrase. Dual, unkis (I and thou) we two. 

The intorjKjrated pronouns are used to denote the subject or 
object of an action or possessor of the thing. 

Nominative pronouns, or those which denote the subject of the 
action, are singular, wa, I; ya, thou; Dual, rni, (I and thou) we two; 
Plur., nnpi, we; yapi, ye. The plural tevm /)» is attached to the 
end of the verb. 

The objective pronoun, or those which dp •'^^e the object of the 
action, are, Sing., ma, me^ ni, thee; Plur., ntijyi, us, and nipi, you. 

The possessive pronouns are. Sing., mi or nia, my; ni, thy; Dual, 
■UH, fray and thy) our; Plur., unpi, our; nipi, your. 

The pronouns of the first and second persons prefixed to nouns, 
signifying a relationship, are singular /Hi", my; ni, thy; dual, unki (my 
and thy) our; plur. unkipi, our; nipi, your, as miciiica, my child; 
nidrksi, thy uncle; nisiinka, thy younger brother; unkicincapi, our 

Mita, nita, and ia, singular; unkiia, dual; and unkita-pi, 
and ta-pi, plural, are used to express property in things, as, mita- 
onspe, my ax; nitasunke, thy dog; they say also miiahoksidan, my 
boy. These pronouns are also used with koda, a particular friend, 
as mUakoda, my friend; nitakoda, thv friend; iakodaku, his friend; 
and with kicutcn, comrade; as iiitakicuwa, thy comrade. 

The reflexive pronouns are used when the agent and patient are 
the same person, as: wasicicidaka, he loves himself; wast('nicid(d<u, 
thou lovest thyself; wasicmicidaka, I love myself. 

The relative pronouns are: iiiwc, who, and tahu, what; inu-ekasta 
and ti,w(i kakcs, whosoever or any one; iaku kasia &nd taku kakea, 
whatsoever or anything. 

Interrogative pronouns are: tnwe, who? with its plural tuwepi; 



1(tku, wliat? which is used with the plural signification, both with aucl 
without the termination pt; tukte, which V hikicn, where? tuwe, 
iawa, whose? iona, tonaka, and tonakeca, how many? 

Demonstrative pronouns are: dc, this, and he, that, with their 
plurals, dena, these, and liena, those ; also ka, that, and kana, those, 
or so many. From these are formed: denaka and danakeca, these 
many ; hcnaka and heiiakcca, those many ; and kanaka, and kanakeca, 
so many as those. 

Also kon partakes of the nature of a demonstrative pronoun 
when it refers to some person or thing mentioned before; as: wicasta 
kon, that man. 

When a or an of the preceding word is changed into e, kon 
becomes cikon, as : tuwe wanmdake cikon, that person whom I saw, or, 
the person I saw. 

A Hide. There are, properly speaking, only two articles, the 
definite and indefinite. 

The definite article: is kin, the; as wicasta kin, the man; maka 
kin, the earth. 

The demonstrative kon approaches very nearly to the nature 
of the article and may often be rendered accordingly. 

The indefinite article is; wan, n or an, probably a contraction 
of the numeral wanzi, one; as wicasta wan, a man. 

Verbal Roots. The Dakota language contains many verbal roots, 
which are used as verbs only with certain prefixes, and which form 

participles by means of certain additions, 
the more common verbal roots: 

The foUowins; is a list of 

Bazu, smootb. 
Ga, open out. 
(tan, open out. 
Gapa, open out. 

Gata, spread. 
Guka, spread out. 
Hinta, brush off. 
Hmun, twist. 

Hna, fall off. 
Hnayan, deceive. 
Hubnza shake. 
Hca, open out, expand. 

Verbs Formed btj Prefixes. The syllables ba, bo, ka, na, pa, 
ija, and yu, are prefixed to verbal roots, adjective, and some neuter 
verbs, making of them active transitive verbs, and usually indicating 
the mode and instrument of the action. 

Compound V^'.rbs. There are several classes of verbs which are 
compounded of two verbs. 

Kiifa and ya, or yan, when used with other verbs, impart to them 
a causative signification, and are usually joined witii them in the same 
word, as: nazin, he stands; nazinkiya, he causes to stand. The first- 
verb is sometimes contracted, as: uanyatia, he sees; wanyaykiya, he 
causes to see. 

Conjugation. Dakota verbs are comprehended in three conjuga- 

" *' l ! ^ it W B*I W 



tions, distinguished by the form of the pronouns in the first and 
second persons singular, which denote the ngent. 

In the first conjugation the nominative singular pronouns are: 
wa or ICC, and ya or tjc. 

The second conjugation embraces verbs in /y?/, ija, and ijo, which 
form the first and second persons singular by changing the if into md 
and (I. 

Neuter and adjective verbs form the third conjugation, known by 
taking what are more properly the objective pronouns, ma and ni. 

Most Dakota verbs may assume a frequentative form, that is, a 
form which conveys the idea of frequency of action. It consists in 
doubling a syllable, generally the last, as: haksa, to ciit off witii a 
knife; fxiksfiksa, to cut off in several places. This form is conjugated 
in all respects, as is the verb before reduplication. 

Person. Dakota verbs have three persons, the Jirst, second and 
third. The third person is represented by the verb in its simple form, 
and the second and first person by the addition of the personal pro- 

Mood. There are three moods belonging to Dakota verbs: tlie 
indicative, imperative and indefinite. 

Tense. Dakota verbs have two tenses, the aorist or indefinite, 
and the future. 

Puriiciples. The addition of han to the third person singular of 
some verbs makes an active participle, as: in, to speak; inhan, spenk- 
ing; nazin, to stand; nazinhan, standing; moni, to walk; ni(niili(iii, 
walking. The verbs that admit of this formation do not appear to be 

Persomd forms. Active verbs are frequently used impersonally 
in the plural number, and take the objective pronouns to indicate tlie 
person or persons acted u[)on, in which case they may be commonly 
translated by the English passive; as kns'kapi (they-bound-him ), he 
is bound; nic'ns'kapi (they-bound-thee), thou art bound; makas'kapi 
(they-bound-me), I am bound; «'(ca/iTes'fcaj)t (they-bound-them), tliey 
are bound. 

Neiilcr and adjective verbs. Neuter and adjective verbs set-m 
likewise to be used impersonally, and are varied by means of the same 
pronouns; as ta (it-dies-him), he dies; nita (it-dies-thee), thou diest; 
mato, I die; tapi, they die, etc.; iras'fj (good), he is good; iiiirns'fe 
(thee-good), thou art good, etc. 

Double verbs. These are formed of two verbs compounded 
together. They usually have the pronouns proper to both verbs, though 
sometimes the pronoun of the Ifist verb is omitted; as hdiijontanka 



{hdi and lyontanka) to come home and sit down ; wahdimdoianka, I 
come home and sit down ; also say wahdiyonianka. 

Irrc()idar and defective verbs. Eya, to say, with its compounds 
heya and keya, are conjugated irregularly, h and p taking tlie place of 
y in tlie second and first persons singular. 

Nouns. Dakota nouns may be divided into two classes, primitive 
and derivative. 

Primitive nouns are those whose origin cannot be deduced from 
any other word; as maka, earth; peta, fire; pa, head; ista, eye; ate, 
father; ina, mother. 

Derivative nouns are those which are formed in various ways 
frouj other words, chieily from verbs, adjectives and other nouns. 

Diminutives dan, or na, is suffixed to nouns, pronouns, adjectives 
and verbc, and has sometimes a diminutive and sometimes a restrictive 

Dan is often joined to adjectives and verbs, as the last principal 
word in the clause, although it properly belongs to the noun ; as ^siik- 
tanka wan waste-dan (horse a good-little), a good little horse, not a 
horse a little good; ni'cinksi ce'ye-dan (thy-son-cries-little), thy little 
son cries. 

Gender. Gender is sometimes distinguished by different names 
for the masculine and feminine; as wi'ca'sta, man; winohin'ca, woman; 
iatanka, buffalo bull; pfc, buffalo cow; hehaka, the male elk; iijyan, 
the female elk. 

Number. To nouns belong two numbers, the singular and 

Case. Dakota nouns may be said to have two principal cases, the 
nominative and objective. 

Possession. The relation of two nouns to each other, as posses- 
sor and possessed, is sometimes indicated by placing them in juxtapo- 
sition, the name of the possessor coming first; as wahukeza ihnpa, 
spear-handle; tipi tiyopa, house-door; ivi'ca'sta oie, man's word. 

But the relation is pointed out more definitely by adding to the 
last term a possessive pronoun. 

Adjectives. Most adjectives in Dakota may be conoidered as 
primitive; as ska, white; tanka, large; wa'ste, good. 

Number. Adjectives have three numbers, the singular, dual and 

The dual is formed from the singular by prefixing or inserting un, 
the pronoun of the first person plural ; as ksapa, wise ; wi'ca'sta tin- 
ksajm, we two wise men ; waonsida, merciful ; waonsiunda, we two mer- 
ciful ones. 



The plural is formed by the addition of pt to the singular ; as 
wa'ste, good ; wi' casta wa'sicpi, good men. 

Comimrison. Adjectives are not inflec'-yj to denote degrees of 
comparison, but are increased or diminished in signification by means 
of adverbs. 

Adverbs. There are some adverbs in very common use, whose 
derivation from other parts of speech is not now apparent, and which 
may therefore be considered as primitives; as ehn, ^^her^ ; kuya and 
Jam, under, below; kiianna, a little, not much; ?im«and hinca, very; 
ohinni, always; sanpa, more; innkan, without, out of doors; wanna, 
now, etc. 

Prepositions. This part of speech may be divided into separate 
and incorporated. 

The separate prepositions in Dakota folic v the nouns which they 
govern, and hence might properly be called postpositions; as ''can 
akan naicazin (wood upon I-stand), I stand upon wood; he maza on 
kacjapi (that iron of is-made), that is made of iron. The following 
are the principal separate prepositions, viz. : 

ahna, with, 
akan, on or upon, 
ako, beyond, 
ebna, amongst, 
etka, at, to. 
en, in. 
etanLiau, from. 

etkiya, towards, 
etu, at. 

kahda, by, near to. 
kici, with, 
mahen, within, 
ohna, in. 
obomui, around. 

om, with. 

on, of, or from, with, for. 

opta, through. 

sanpa, beyond. 

tanhan, from. 

y-ata, at. 

Incorporated prepositions are suffixed to nouns, prefixed to or 
inserted into verbs, and prefixed to adverbs. 

The prepositions suffixed to nouns are ta and atn, or yaia, at or 
on; as tinta, prairie; tintafa, at or on the prairie; maga, a field; ma- 
gata, at the field; can, wood or woods; canyata, at the woods The 
preposition en, in, contracted, is suffixed to a few nouns ; as //, a house ; 
tin, in the house. These formations may in some cases ba regarded 
as adverbs; as he, a hill or ridge; heyata, at the hill, or back from. 

The prepositions a, e, i, o, instead of being suffixed to the noun, 
are prefixed to the verb. 

The preposition i is prefixed to a class of adverbs, giving them 
the force of prepositions. In these cases it expresses relation to or 
connection with the preceding noun; as iehan, far; itehan, far from 
any time or place; heyata, behind; ihcyata, back of something. 

Conjunctions in Dakota, as in other languages, are used to con- 
nect woids and sentences; as icaste ka ksapa, good and wise; wicasta 
siceca koya, men and children: ^'Unkan Wakanianka Ozanzan Jita, 
eyax: unkan ozanzan.'''' And God said, 'Let light be:' and light was. 

Interjections. It is very difficult to translate, or even to classify 



Dakota interjections. Tliose in common nae may be arranged under 
the following heads, according to the emotion they express: 

Pain: yiin! irhisiri! ah! oh! 

Rejrret: hehc! hclichc! linnlicl luinhunhc! oh! alas! 

Surprise: hopklan! hopidanniye! hopidansni! iiiah! inama! 
inyun! iijanaka! wonderful! surprising! astonishing! truly! indeed! 

Attention: a! e! hcs! Iiiivo! iho! mah! ioko! wan! hark! look! 
see! behold! halloo! 

Self-praise: ihdafan! ihilntanh! boast! 

Affirmation: iicahe! icxis! ecaes! ecs! ehaes! ehtakaes! cifakes! 
nnkas! indeed! truly! yes! 

Disbelief: ezc! lies! hinte! ho! hoecah! oho! fie! fudfje! you 
don't say so! 

According to Mr. Biggs, the Dakotas used in their language 
over 12,000 words. Something of an idea of the construction of the 
Dakota language may be gained from the following example of the 
Lord's prayer, rendered in both the Dakota Pud English languages: 


wakandapi kte; 
holy-regarded shall ; 
ekta token nitawacin 
in how thy-will 
econpi nunwe. 
done may-it be. 
ka waunhtanipi 
and our-trespasses 
tona ecinsniyan 

as-may-as wrongly 
kicicazu'/upi kin. 

Itancan tawocekiye kin 
Lord his prayer the. 
malipiya ekta nanke 

heaven in 
econpi 1 

thou-art the 

kin u 
the come 
kin maka 


is done the earth 

Anpetu kin de taku-yutapi 
Day the this food 

kin unkicicazuzu-po unkis 

Nicaze kin, 
Thy name the, 
us give ; 

we- forgive 
sni-po, ka taku 
not and what 
wowas ake kin, 
strength the, 
nunwe. Amen, 
may-be. Amen. 

the ease-for-us 
AVowawiyutanye kin 
sica etanhau 
bad from 
wowitan kin, 
glory the, 

hena iyecen 
those even-as 




lyaye unyanpi 
to go US-cause 

he en 

the that into 

eunhdaku-po. Wokiconze kin 

US-deliver. Kingdom, the 

henakiya owihanke wanin nitawa. 

all-these and none thine 




Mr. Lewis H. Morgan, in spenking of this language, considers it 
imperfect in its construction, anil says that it scarcely admits of com- 
paris(Mi, except on general principles, with those which have been 
lystemized and perfected; hut in this remark Mr. Morgan evidently 
does injustice to the language of this people, and liis want of proper 
estimation of it, no doubt, arises from the lack of a more thorougii 
knowledge concerning it. His assumption that a language is neces- 
sarily imperfect because it is unwritten, is scarcely warrantable. The 
language of the Iroquois was as nearly perfect and philosophical in 
its construction as the other leading native Aujerican languages. 

It was marked by six dialects, in use by the six nations of this 
group. The same general principle of construction prevailed among 
them all, the dialects differing among themselves, for the most part, 
in the mere use of words. Accortling to Mr. Morgan, the alphabet 
common to the six dialects consists of nineteen letters, a, c, d, e, g, 1j, 
i, j, k, n, o, q, r, s, t, u, w, x, y, in addition to which there are several 
elementary sounds formed by a combination of letters. The Senacas 
occasionally use the sound of x, which, however, is so closely allied 
with the sound of s, as not to be distinguishable, except by careful 
observation. Tiie Mohawks and Oneidas used the lic^uid /, and the 
Tuscaroras occasionally used the sound of /. The Mohawk language 
is destitute of labials, having no words in the pronunciation of which 
the li{)s are required to be closed. In this respect it is believed to be 
different from any other language. 

Careful investigation into this language discloses but twenty- 
tliree elementary sounds. Nouns of one syllable seldom occur in 
either of the dialects mentioned, and those of two syllables are not 
very numerous; but those of three and four syllables embrace the 
greater part of words which belong to this part of speech. The fol- 
lowing specimens are given as examples: 

















A spoou. 




























NOtms OF Foun syllables. 

























The plural of nouns is formed in several ways, by inflection, of 
wliich the following are examples: 




A tree. 




A house. 




A brook. 




A bird. 




A pole. 




A creek. 



Nouns in this language have three genders, which are indicated 
in general by prefixing words which signify male and female. The 
several dialects have the adjective, on which so much of the beauty of 
a language depends, to express quality in objects. The comparison, 
of which they have the three degrees, is effected by adding another 
word, and not by an inflection of the word itself, in the following 


Great, Go-wa ua', 
Good, We-yo', 
Sweet, 0-ga-uh'. 
Small, Ne-wa-ab', 




Ha-yo-go-sote '-go- wa-na. 
Ha-yo-go-Bote'-ne-wa ab. 

But in connecting the adjective with the noun, the two words 
usually used enter into combination, and lose one or more syllables, 
and this principle of construction is observed throughout the language. 
The following examples serve to illustrate tlie manner of com[)ounding 
the adjective with the substantive, the words being according to the 
Seneca dialect: O-ya, irnit; 0-ga-uli', Bweet; 0-?/rt'-f7a-»/t, sweet fruit; 
O, the first syllable of sweet, being dropped. Again, E'-ijose, a 
blanket; Ga-gch-ant, white; Vosc-a-yeh'-ani, white blanket; Ga-no'- 
soie, a house; IVc-yo', good; Ga-no'-se-yo, a good house; literally, 
fruit sweet, blanket white, and house good, illustrative of that natural 
impulse in man which leads him to place the object before the quality. 
In other instances the adjective is divided, and one part prefixed and 
the other suffixed to the noun, thus: Ga-nun'-da-yeh, a village; Ne- 
iL'a-nh, small; Ne-ga-nun-da'-ah, a small village; Ah-ia' -qua' -o-weh, a 
moccasin ; Nc-wa' -ia-qua-ah, a small moccasin. The adjective is alsa 



frequently used uncompounded with the uoun, ns Ga-na' -dike-do 
E'-yosa, a green blanket. 

The indefinite article a or an does not exist in this language; but 
there are numerous particles which, without significance in themselves 
separately, are employed for euphony and to connect words. This 
language has also the adverbs, of which the following are examples: 
Nakc-ho', here; O-na, now; Td-da, yesterday; Skfi-uo', well. 

The preposition is a part of speech, the most perfectly developed 
in this language. The following are examples of simple prepositions, 
as: Da-ga'-o, across; No'-ga, after; Na-ho, at; O'-an-do, before; 
Dose-ga' -o, near, etc. 

In the declensions through which the substantives are passed, 
pronouns as well as prepositions, are interwoven by inflection. These 
declensions are not reducible to regular forms, but admit of great 
diversities, rendering the language somewhat intricate in its inflections. 
The following are examples of the ordinary variations of the nouns: 


















Sa-wen nis'-bat, 



Dwa-snn '-da-da, 


A bouse. 

His house. 

Of, to, fro, or at his house. 

In bis house. 

A pipe. 

His pipe. 

Of his pipe. 

lu hie pipe 

A tree. 

His tree. 

Of, to, from, or at his tree. 


His fruit. 

Of, to, fro, or at his fruit. 


At a day past. 

At a day future. 

With the day. 


At a night past. 

At a night future. 

With the night. 

The following are examples of the pronoun: E signifies I, we, me, 
and us; Ese, thou, ye or you, and thee. He and they are wanting, 
except as expressed in the verb by its inflection. The possessive pro- 
nouns make the possessive case very regularly, thus: Ah-ga-iceh', 
mine; Sa-weh', thine; Ho-weh\ his; Go-iveh', hers; Ung-gwa-icch', 
ours; Swa-weh\ yours; Ho-nau-weh' , theirs. Similar variations can 
be made on some of the relative pronouns. 

Interjections are numerous and well adapted to the broad field of 
passions. This language has also the ordinary conjunctions. 

The Iroquois verbs are conjugated by the variations throughout 
the verb itself, thus: Che-wa-ge-'ya-go, 1 had shot; A-wa-ge-'ya-go, I 



hIuUI have shot. In this manner the conjugation not only dispensed 
witii tht', pronouns I, thou, and he, witli their plurals, but also with the 
au.xiliary verbs, which have introduced no much prolixity into modern 
languages. The Inxjuois verbs are conjugated with great regularity 
and [)reci8ion, making the active and passive voices, all the moods, 
except the infinitive, and all the tenses, numbers, and persons ct)mmon 
to the English verb. But the participles are wanting. A sulistantive 
for the infinitive mood is found in the present tense of the subjunctive 
mood, together with a pronoun, as in the following passage: "Direct 
that He' -no may come and give us rain," instead of saying, '"Direct 
He' -no to come and give us rain." 

In the active voice of Iroquois verbs,-tlie dual nund)er is well 
distinguished; but in the passive voice the dual and the plural are the 

This language has the substantive or neuter verb e-nch-(fci, I am. 
Impersonal verbs are also very numerous, as O-yeon-de-o, it snows; 
O-iKi-iioxc-tloii-dc-o, it hails; Ga-ic(i-iio-(l(is, it thunders. 

To illustrate tlie manner in which words are made up in this lan- 
guage, Mr. Morgan gives the following example: 

Nun-da-iva-o, the radix of the name of the Senecas as styled by 
themselves, which signifies " a great hill;" by suffixing o-»o, which 
conveys the idea of " jjeople at," Xittt-dn-ica-o-)io results literally 
" the people at the great hill." Next, by adding the particle ya, itself 
without significance, but when conjoined conveying the idea of "place" 
or " territory," it gives the compound Nim-da-wa-o-no-yit, " the terri- 
tory of the people at the great hill." 

The number of words in use by the Iroquois in their language 
from the best authority attainalile was about ten thousand. 

A more perfect specimen of this language Avill be found in the 
Lord's Prayer, here given in the Seneca dialect, with a liberal transla- 
tion accompanying the same: 

Gwa-nee che-de-oh ga-o-ya-geh, ga-sa-nub, 

Our Father which art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name, 

ese sa-nuk-ta-ga-oh, ese sne-go-eh ne-ya-weh yo an-ja-geh 

thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth 

ha ne-de-o-deh ga-o-ya-geh. Dun-da-gwa-e-wa-sa-gwus ong-wa- 
as it is in Heaven. Forgive us our debts 

yeh-his-heh da-ya-ke-a-wa-sa-gwus-seh ho-yeh-his. Da-ge-oh ne 
as we forgive our debtors. Give us 

na-ge)i wen-nis-lieh-deh e na-ha-da-wen-nis-heh-geh o-a-qwa. 

this day our daily bread. 



Ha-squa-ah e sa-iio 

Load us uot 

uake no wa-ato-keh, 
from us evil, 

iia ga-hus-tes-lieh, na-kuh ila-ga-a-Ka-oh. 
the power, and tl 

ha wa-ato-ki'h, 
into temptation 
ua-soh-eh nees 
for tliine 


lie gh)ry. 


but dclivt'i' 

o-uuk-ta, na-kuli 

is the kingdom, and 

Na-huh se-ya-weh. 


Mention has been maile in a former chapter of this work, see ante 
page 49, of the Clierokee alpliabet, invented by a native Indian, an 
example of which is here given, showing a degree of inventive genius 
in the Indian mind trulj- wonderful. It is a syllabical alphal)et con- 
sisting of eighty-tivo characters, each rc[)reseiiting a single scmnd in 
the language, and is considered the most perfect alphabet over in- 
vented for any language. 

In forming these characters, the inventor used, as far as they 
went, those which he found in an English spelling book, although he 
knew no language but his own. Sequoyah was what Christians call 
a Pagan Inilian, not having adopted the Christian religion, and it is 
said he regretted his invention when he found it used for purposes of 
spreading the Christian religion among his people. 


The letters and syllables subjoined in italics at the right of each 
character, indicate the sound of the character with which it is con- 

In this dialect there are no labials except m, and that appears to 
be modern, w having been formerly used instead. The sound of j and 
cli are not expressed, as or ts being used instead. B is not used by 
the majority of Cherokees, thougii a rolling r seems to have been the 
original sound of /. Those who use /• do uot use /, except as dialects 
are confounded. T' is not used, nor z, but w and ,s instead. The 
nixmber of consonant sounds is not great. 

The examples which have been given in this chapter concerning 
the Algonquin, Dakota and Iroquois languages, will serve well to 
illustrate the construction and general features of the languages spoken 
by other linguistic groups of the continent; for, as it has been here- 
inbefore observed, there is a similarity in construction throughout all 
the American languages. 




^ — . — ■ 








o i. 

1 JKa' t)/'/ 



A /A. 















^ ///// 




\Jf//7 VM/iiif\ji'iw/c 










Hi// tiJj' 






l»«'/^/ Wv/ 

cl^/-" l>/' 





^ff/a 1 i y./ 












\ M «» 













a as a in father, or short as a in rival, o, as aio in laio, or short as o in not. 
e, as a in hate, or short as e in met. //, as oo in fool, or short as it in pull, 

i, as i in pique, or short as i in pit. '; as u in but; nasalized. 


g nearly as in English, but approaching to k. — d nearly as in English, but 
approaching to t. — //, k, I, m, n, q, s, t, w.y, as in English. Syllables beginning 
unth g, except f, have sometimes the power of k. A, S, 6. are sometimes sounded 
to, tu, tv, and Syllables loritten with tl, except C, sometimes vary to dl. 



rillNOOK lAIKlON. 

It is found tlint tlii> Iiidiiiii laii<;un<^t's of tin' continent hnvc coii- 
stantly Ix'cii un(lfri^oiM<,' clinn^jt's to )i greater or less extent tiDni 
iissociation and intei'niixing of the tril)es. This has h'd to tiieehanges 
which are found in tlie several stock languages growing into varioUH 
dialects. One of the curious instances in this regard is that vvhicli is 
called the Chinook jorjion. the origin of wiiicii has heen vaiiuusly 

The Chinoolvs were a family of Indian tribes on tlio norihwest 
coast of North Ann ricn, who formerly iidiahited hoth hanks of the 
Coluinhiu river, from its mouth to the (irand Dalles. !)r()ken u|) into 
numerous hands. The t'hinooks proper are on the north side, and tin* 
Clatsops on the south and along the coast. The language varied as 
the tribes extended into the interior. In all its dialects it is very 
comi)licated and ditllcult to pronounce. This led the traders of that 
country, in early days, to form and introduce a dialect called the 
' Chinook jargon,"" for use among all the various tribes and bands, as 
1' was found diiticult and almost impossible to trade among a people 
having such a diversity oi dialects as were found existing in that 

This movement was started and the jargon introduced about the 
year IS25, audit was at once adopted for coni.iiuincation. ('S[)ecially in 
commercial transactions among all the tribes of that locality. In 
this jargon, of the ancient language of the C'linooks, onlj sonn'thii\g 
like two hundered words are used, the remainder being derived from 
Yakima, AVasco, Nez Perce and the coast tril/cs, with words from the 
French, English and Spanish. At this day, however, the progressive 
English, it is said, is forcing its way even into the lodges of the nn)8t 
savage tribes of that country, and many of the original dialects of the 
coast, of which Chinook Avas the most important, have disappeared 
entirely with the nations or tribes that spoke them. The following 
example of words will serve to show the peculiarity of this jargon: 



All! (Admiration). Wah! 

Almighty (the). 






As if. 



(•The word to-loosh occurs in llie dialect of the OJibways, nml in the B.amc scnsi' liorc used). 

Sah -a-le. 












Boston man. 











Mail oo-sbo. 

Stick kli-a-tan. 


Stick Shoes. 



T(>n-aR man. 

























Deity (the). 



Drink (to). 




Eat (to). 

En^rlish. / 

Eiiylishmau. ) 










Mox Sunday. 



Hy-as cole. 



Slioo-kum winit. 

Ten-as moos-moos. 


Kui-tus pol-hitch. 


Give (to). 




8ah-a-le ty-ee. 






Cly tum-muni. 



La tate. 

Ten-as eole. 


Wake Kick. 

Hy-as Siinilay. 



Hy-as watch. 


Mi-ka house. 











Kiss (to). 




Ten-as puss-puss. 

Doct iu-keel-al-ly. 






I\[uck-a-muck chnck 


liO nies-sen. 




Sun cliah-co. 





La moii-ta. 



Hy-as salt chuck. 

Kiiijf ( teorf,'e. 





See-ow-ist. Shell money (the Hy-kwa. 

l'ai)-pah. lart,'ei. 

La pe-a. Shell money (the Coops-coops al-le-ka- 

Klooch-man. small). cheek. 

Waum sick. Talk. Wa-wa. 

Kloshe. Tall. Hy-as, 


Whether the ex!iin[)les in the foregoing list of the same words 
occurring in otlier dialects is a mere coincidence of sounds, is not cer- 
tain ; but occurrences of this kinc,! are very frequent in languages and 
dialects; of peojile remote from each other, and many of those who 
have inv'-^rttigated the subject set it down as an evidence of race unity 
amon<r the North American tribes, and of a more intimate commiuir- 
ling at some remote period, which these remaining evidences, in their 
opinion, fully establish. 

The tendency in the construction of this jargon, as will be 
noticed, is that of the free use of what is termed shnu/, which, per- 
haps, has been introduced from two causes: first, the work being com- 
mitted to persons wanting in culture and refinement; secondly, because 
this style of language is easier taken up and retained than one more 
refined in the use of words. The jargon, it is noticed from the afore- 
said example, is marked also by (|uit(! a free use of French words, or 
such as are derived from the French. 

(•The Willi) mwiN (Kcurs in lliu Al);<iii(|iiin laiiKiii<^<'. .iikI ^^•'>s Die ii.Tme wliich Unit pcopU' k.ivo to 
till' saiiii' aiiiiiKil, whlcll we call inodsc). 

( ri'lie wiiril lor crow in the Ojibway ilialcet, anil many ulliera of tlie Algonquin laiiyuage is A'li/i- 

(i'llie word (or luilk iu the OJibway dialect is To-ioosh-waie-bo), 



Si{?n Latifjiiagp nmonff nil the Amprioaii Tribos—Ono System Univprsal— Most Tribes 
UmlerstcMMl Eat-b Other— rraetieal lustaiico Cited— Manner of AUuilinp to the 
Great Spirit— Practical IllustrationR — Use of Si^u Lans^nafje— Interpretation of 
Sentences— Definition of Various Signs— Si^niiila — Fire— Smoke — Use of Pony — 
Blanket — Illnstration. 

^1|P^!ICtN language, so-oalled. 
c-jXix^ is n inoile or means of 
j^yjj coniimuncating desires, 
'v"" ideas and thouglits hc- 
tween individuals in aid of, or 
taking tlie place of, vocal lan- 
guage. This may be by means 
of gestures or other manifesta- 
tions of the person. This will 
be recognized as an intuitive 
mode of communication, anil 
was apparently the original 
m ed i u m of communicating 
thoughts and desires l)etweeu 
man and num. 

This mode of communica- 
tion was also aided by various 
mcchanic.'il devices, in Avhich 
the use of firt^ appears to have 
been among the tirst. Among 
the American Indians, a regular 
system of sign language appears 
to have prevailed throughout 
all the tribes, and was every- 
where common in use. This 
seems to have arisen from a 
peculiar condition of things existing in regard to a great diversity 
of dialects among the various tribes, showing that changes or dopart- 


'■lUNAL OK I'EAl K. 




ures from the germ, or stock language, wore constantly going on in 
their midst. 

Mr. Kt)hl, in his book entitled "Wanderings around Lake Super- 
ior," says, "It is a curious fact, though Indian dialects differ so greatly, 
their language of signs is the same for enormous distances. All trav- 
elefs who have crossed the prairies told me that there was only one 
sign language, which all the Indians comprehended, and any one 
who had learnt it could travel with it from one end of America to the 

Mr. Ellis, in his work on the "Red Man and the White Man," on 
this subject also observes, that Indians of mt)st widely separated tribes 
could understand and amuse each other bv means of the sjijn lanifuajfe, 
in perfect silence without tlie utterance of a single word. 

Mr. Heckewelder also remarks that by this means the Indians 
make themselves understood to those nations of Indians whose lan- 
guages they are not accpiainted with, "for all the Indian nations 
understand each other in this Avay." He further remarks: "It is also 
in many cases a saving of words, which the Indians are much intent on, 
believinj: tliat too much talkin<r disirraces a man." 

As an instanct! showing conversation witii the voice was aided by 
sign language among tlie Indians, Mr. Caleb Atwater relates the fol- 
lowing circumstances which occurred in iS'it). at Prairie du Chien, 
where he was a commissioner in negotiating a treaty with several 
tribes of Indians. He says: 

"If a Winnebago wished me to walk aside and converse with him 
by ourselves, as Xawkaw often did, his only way of communicating his 
wish to me was to [;oiiit to his own breast first, then to me next, and 
finally to that part of tii(> prairie (in which we happened to be stand- 
ing) where he wished me togo; he uniforndy said ''Mditiicc'''' (walk), 
and that was the only word which was uttered until we had retired to 
the [)lace pointed out and thus designated. When arrived at the spot 
the conversation was carried on between us with as few words as pos- 
sible, using signs for ol)jects, by pointing to them. With his pipe 
stem or a stick he would draw in the sand the lines of ilemarkation, 
when the limits of the lands to l)0 purchased of his {)eople were in dis- 
cussion between us, and a stick was stuck in the ground to indicate a 
corner in the plat. If he approved of my proposition " Oali " (yes) was 
nil he said in reply, and I answered him in the same way. If the 
proposition pleased either of us very much ti)e reply was uttered with 
jrreat vehemence, otherwise faintlv." 

Mr. Kohl, in tlescribing the mode of using the sign language 
among the Indians, for example, says: When speaking of the Great 






Spirit they usually direct a reverential or timid glauce upwards but 
gently, to the sky. 

When alluding to the sun or time of the day, which is thcL only 
clock or mode of marking time, and indicating the spot at ,vhich the 
sun stood when the event to which they are alluding oc( arred, they 
point fixedly to that spot and hold their arm in that position a sufficient 
time to impress the fact upon the mind. 

When speaking of a day's time, they pabs the extended finger 
slowly over the head along the sky from the east to the west, com- 
mencing at the east and terminating at the west. This is the sign for 
"one day." 

If the shot of a gun is mentioned in an occurrence being narrated, 
they usually strike the palm of the left hand with the back of the right, 
so as to produce a sharp sound. 

If describing a journey on horseback, the first two fingers of the 
right hand are placed astride of the forefinger of the left hand, thereby 
representing the galloping movement of a horse. If it is a foot 
journey, they wave the two fingers several times through the air. 

In counting by signs the fingers of the hand are used, ns would 
naturally be suggested, and the number intended is represented by 
holding up the number of fingers corresponding to the number in 
question. This mode of expressing numbers is common among our 
own race in aid of oral conversation, and it is also used by the Indians 
in like manner, as well as in the use of sign language for purposes 


example will further illustrate the use of 



Suppose an Indian wished to convey to another the information 
that he had ridden for tiiree days over the prairie. In doing tins, he 
commences by pointing to himself, which will indicate "I;" he then 
makes the sign of riding on horseback, as before explaijied, which says 
"I traveled on horseback;" he next passes his hand with forefinger 
extended once over his head athwart the sky, which means a "day," 
and finally holds up tiiree fingers to the person he is communicating 
with, to show he spent "three" days in his journey. 

To further illustiate the mode of communicating by this means, 
and show the manner in which sentences are constructed, the follow- 
ing examples are given by Capt. W. P. Clark, of the United States 
army, in his book on the Indian Sign Language, showing how sen- 
tences, in conveying information, would be construed when communi- 
cated in the sign language: 

"I arrived hero to-day to make a treaty — my one hundred lodges 



are camped beyoud the Blnck Hills, near the Yellowstone river. You 
are a great chief — pity me, I am poor, my five children are sick and 
have nothing to eat. The snow is deep and the weather intensely 
cold. Perhaps God sees me. I am going. In one month I shall 
reach my camp." In signs this, literally translated, would read: "I- 
arrive here-to-day to mnke treaty — My-hundred-loilge-camp-beyoiul 
child-sick-food-all gone (or wiped out) -snow-deep-brave or strong. 
Perhaps-Great chief (Great Mystery) above-see-me-I-go-Moon-die-I- 
arrive there-my canip." 

It will be noticed that those parts of speech called articles, con- 
junctions and prepositions are omitted, and that adjectives follow the 
nouns which they qualify. Verbs are used iu the present tense; 
nouns and verbs are used in the singular number; the idea of plu- 
rality being expressed in some other mode. Abbreviating is constantly 

The mode of making signs for purposes of this language are in 
general simple, and such as would naturally be suggested to the 
human mind as conveying the idea intended. For instance, the sign 
for earth is by pointing with the right forefinger to the grounii. 
The sign for afternoon or latter half of the day, by indicating the 
position of the sun westward of the zenith, with the incomplete circle 
of thumb and forefinger of the right hand, the other fingers of the 
hand closed, held to the right and above the head, and following the 
path of the sun in the heavens. For braid (of the hair) carry both 
'\ands to the right side of the head, and make motion as though grasp- 
ing hair and braiding it. For brain, touch the forehead with the tips 
of the extended first and second fingers. As the passing of the hand 
from the eastern to the western horizon marks the day, so the her.d 
reclining on the hand denotes a night. The palm of the hand [lassed 
smoothly down the face and body denotes a woman. The forefinger 
raised to the ear means, "I have heard," or "I ap[)rove." The back 
of the hand })laced on the ear means, "I did not hear," or "I do not 
believe." Tiie hand laid flat on the lips and then raised, means a 
prayer or an oath. 

In addition to sign language by gestures or motions of the person, 
the Indian had also a mode of conveying information by other means, 
through the use of objects, as that of smoke, fire, blanket, arrows, and, 
in modern times, by a pony, mirror, flint, steel, etc. The signal by 
display of fire or rising smoke is very ancient. We are informed that 
it was by this means, under divine direction, that the children of 
Israel were guided on their journey to the promised land. Signals by 



fire unci siuoko were miieli in use among the Indians in the mountains 
or hilly portions of the country. Signals by this means were used 
in various ways for various purposes. The common mode of announc- 
ing the success of a war party was to build two fires a short distance 
apart, and tlierefrom send up two parallel columns of smoke. Two 
columns signified good luck. 


A marked manner of attracting attention or giving signals by 
smoke was by having it suddenly ap[)ear and as suddenly disappear, 
this being a sure way of attracting attention. For the purjjose of 
producing this effect, a small fire was built of dry wood, without the 
bark, thus making but little smoke. Then some brushy grass or ever- 
greens were thrown on the fire, and a blanket was held over it and 
removed at intervals. This would send up great puffs of smoke, and 



by proper use of the blanket in this manner it could bo sent up forcibly 
and suddenly or more slowly, as desired, according to the way the 
blanket was used, which would convey information according to the 
effect produced. This mode of signals could be enlarged U[)o'. by 
additional fires, when necessary to convey information more fully, 
which might not so well be done by a single fire. Tims a given num- 
ber of tires would be a signal to convey some particular information, 
which the number would denote. 

Signals by the use of a pony or horse were quite universal among 
the tribes west of the Mississippi, where horses were in general use 
and considered indispensable, especially among those tribes of the 
great western plains. Signals by this means are fully explained by 
Ca[)t. Clark, in his book on Indian Sign LangUMgi>. The principle of 
which, l)rieliy stated, is to this effect: 

Considered st^parately, we have first the pony, used to attract 
attention to denote danger, indicate presence of enemy, game, etc. 
For this pur[)ose, however, there is but one general, well defined sig- 
nal, which is by riiling in a small circle or backwards and forwards. 
With some the size of the circle or distance ridden up and down 
behind the crest of a hill, determines the size of a party, concerning 
which infornnition is given, (U- the quantity of game discovered. This 
attracts attention, gives warning, and is intended to concentrate or 
scatter the party to whom the information is given. If a hunting 
party is out, and one of tiie party discovers game, or if one of the 
scouting party discovers the enemy, this signal is useil. Indians can 
easily tell whether it is intended to give information or warning of 
the enemy or as to game, by the care taken by the rider to conceal the 
movements of his pony and himself, as well as the circumstances of 
the partic ;' .r case. If nothing is discovered, the Indian in advance 
rides up ou the crest of a hill or eminence, and usually dismounts, 
but the riding on the top of an eminence in full view is sufficient. 

The rapid movement in riding backwards and forwards, or around 
in a circle, determines the importance or necessity for immediate 
action. Very fast riding would call for desperate or extraordinary 
exertion, and violent efforts to reach the rider as soon as possible. 
Should an Indian advance, after riding rapidly in a circle, suddenly 
secrete himself, those with whom he is communicating will do the 
same, thus indicating that the enemy is near and too numerous for 
them to attack. Before the Indians had ponies, like movements were 
made by men on foot, in giving signals and conveying infornmtion. 

Another method of signals, especially among the Indians of the 
plains and the mountains, is by the means of a blanket, or article 



.serving the like purpose. For instance, in case of the discovery of 
buffalo, the wutclier stands erect on a lull or eminence, with his face 
toward the camp, or in the direction of the party with which he is 
connected, holding his blanket with an end in each hand, his arms 
being stretched out (right and left) on a line with shoulders. 

Encdiiip. When it is intended to encamp, a blanket is elevated 
upon a pole so as to be visible to all the individuals of a moving party. 

Come! To beckon io a person. Hold out the lower edge of the 
robe or blanket, then wave it into the legs. This is made when there 
is a desire to avoid general observation. 


Come back! Gather or grasp the left side of the unbuttoned 
coat (or blanket) with the right han.., and, either standing or sitting 
in position so that the signal can be seen, wave it to the left and right 
as often as may be necessary for the sign to be recognized. When 
made standing, the person should not move his body. 

The following illustration of the use of sign language is from 
Major Powell's Annual Rejjort of the Bureau of Ethnology, ISTO-SO. 
It is obtained from Tce-caq-a-daq-a-qidG (Lean Wolf), chief of 



tlie Hiclntsa IiuUans, of Dakota Territory, who visited Washiugtou in 
188U, in tlie following words: 

"■Four years cii/o flic American people agreed to befrieit<ls with 
us, hut they lied. That is a//." 

(1.) Place the closed 
hand, with tlm thumb rosting 
over the middle of the index, 
on the left side of the forehead, 
palmer side down, then draw 
the thumb across the forehead 
to the right, a short distance 
beyond the head — while man, 

(2.) Place the naturally ex- 
tended hand, fingers and thumb 
slightly separated and pointing to 
the left, about fifteen inches before 
the right side of the body, bringing 
it to within a short distance— Mv7/t us. 

(3). Extend the flat right 
hand to the front and right as 
if about to grasp the hand of 
a n o t h e r individual — friend, 



(i). Place the tint riglit liaud, 
with fingers only extended, baok to the 
front, about eighteen inches before the 
right Hhoulder — fovr (years). 

( 5 ) . Close the right hand, leaving 
the index and second tin^rers extended 
and slightly separated, place it, back 

(0). Place the clinched fists to- 
gether before the breast, pahns down, 
then separate them in a curve outward 
and downward to their respective sides— 
done, finished; '-'that is alV 

forward, about eight inches 
before the right side of the 
body, nu'l pass it quickly to 
the left in a slightly down- 
ward curve — lie. 


Type of Character— Native ChnrncteriatioR—Attachmont to his Tribe— IntoRnty and 
Fidelity — Peaceable, Sociable, Obligiu^; and HoHpitablc" amou^; Tlii'iiiKflvcs — 
Opinion of ColiinibuH — Love their Neitfhbors a.n Themselves — Due Ucsptn't to 
the llif,'hts of Others Vices Aciiuired from the White Man — Honorable Char- 
acter of the Iro(iuois -Opinion of the Novelist Cooper- Opinions of Indian 
Traders— Tlie Crow Indians— Opinion of Mr. Catiiu— Testimony of Cajitaiu 
Carver— Treatment of Captives. 

^HAT the human niiiul is jn'one to piejmUfes is 
iui axiom in ethics, of which the American Indian 
f may justly comphiin, as tending to establisli an 
^^y'' erroneous idea concernin>^ his native clniracter 
Our notions of Indian character have been formed 
from an aggressive standjjoint, in which the Indian lias 
been constantly in a condition of defense against con- 
tinued invasion. From a more eligible standpoint, 
the Indian in his native characteristics might 
'X appear to us quite different from what we have been 
inclined to paint him. 

When we have divested our minds of all [U'oj- 
udices, and viewed the Indian from a standpoint of justice and 
humanity, we must concede that, if there are degrees of manhood in 
the great family of mankind, by which one people may take rank in 
excellence above another, it may be justly claimed for the American 
Indian that he stands forth in his original condition, uncontaminated 
by the vices of civilization, as among the highest types of native man. 
This bold conclusion, it is true, may not apply to every individual 
Indian ; neither can the character of the white man, or the Caucasian 
race in general, l)e judged by a single individual, or any given 
number of individuals. Neither can the character of the Indian be 
formed from isolated tribes or bands in particular localities; but the 
aforesaid assertion may be taken as the general standard of Indian 

The Indian in his true native character was not aggressive. His 




geneml clmractor wns timt of coutiMitmout in wimt ho possosHcd; but 
when his possessions were encroached upon, iiiid his dignity insulted, 
his chiinu'ter for reveni^o was not unlilie that of the white man un(h>r 
siniihir circuinstanct's; and he invoked tlie Inw of retaliation, so early 
laid down in the rides of human conduct, which by some is also 
considered the great law of nature, "life for life; limb for liml)." 

Mr. Heckewelder, tiie Moravian missionary, whose thirty years' 
experience among the Indians in that capacity afforded liim sucii an 
excellent opportunity of forming a true estimate of the Indian 
character, refers with much earnestness to the integrity and fidelity 
of the American Indian in his native condition, not only iu regard to 
individual intercourse and obligation, but with reference, as well, to 
the tribe or band to which he belonged, and for which he {)08sessed 
ail unexami)led attachment. 

The Indians combined, as if they were actuated by only one soul, 
against the enemies of their nation or tribe, and banished from their 
minds every co-'sideration oppo.sed to this [)rincii)le. No selfish views 
ever influenced their advice, uor was it in the power of bribery or 
threats to diminish the love thev bore for their country, or the 
particular band or tribe to which they belonged. The honor of their 
tribe, and the welfare of their nation, was the first and most 
jiredominant emotion of their hearts, and from thence proceeded in a 
great measure all their virtues and all their vices; and, as Mr. 
Heckewelder expresses it, "actuated by this they brave any danger, 
endure the most excrutiating torments, and expire triumphant in their 
fortitude, not as a personal qualification, but as a national character- 

Mr. Heckewelder further remarks in defense ol the Indian, as 
against the abstract conclusions from the over-wrought pi'ejudices of 
the white man, that the Indians in their true character are peaceable, 
sociable, obliging and hospitable among themselves. These virtues 
are a part of their nature. In their ordinary intercourse they are 
studious to oblige each other; they never wrangle or fight; they treat 
one anothei- with the greatest respect, aurl live as peaceably together 
as civilized people, who have succeeded them. Whether this is a 
compliment to the Indian or white mar; i > left to individual opinion. 

The great discoverer of the American continent, in letters to his 
sovereign respecting this people, says: "There are not a better people 
in the world than these, nor more atfectionato, affable, and mild. They 
love their neighbors as themselves." And to the same eflfect, in general, 
is the testimony of all the early impartial explorers. They pay great 
respect to old age. The advice of the father is listened to with attention 





niul o])edieuco; but that of tlio <fniiulfiithor irt rojijnrdod with iiuTcusi'il 
rcspoct on account of his n'^(\ Thi» wonlri of tho nioro ajjod of thoir 
eonminnity nro cstotMiKnl l»y them as orach^H. 

Though iioHsoHsing those general cliaracteristics, it is not claiintnl 
for the Indian, however, that he differs essentially from the white man 
in regard to a propensity for Hun<lry vices, whicli we claim as infesting 
civilized society. It is said that a prominent trait in native Indian 
character wa, ihatof dun res[)ect for tlie inilividual rights of others, 
nnd that the olfense of stealing from one aiiutiier was never known 
among them. From reliable accounts of Indian character, it wimld 
seem that this vice which has been so freely charged u[)on the Indian 
is one whicli evidently entered into his diaracter since the connng of 
the wliite man. Mr. Lewis H. Morgan, tiie faithful historian of the 
Iro(piois, speaking of tiiis point in native Indian character, forcibly 
remarks that '• theft, the mostdespisable of human crimes, was scarcely 
known among them. In the days of their primitive simplicity, a 
mercenary thought had not entered the Indian mind."' He attributes 
this vice in subseipient Indian society to the conduct and exam[)le3 of 
the white man. 

But, as between the Indniii and the white man in this regard, 
history records for us the fact that the white man himself was the 
first ott'eniler. The first larceny committed in this country, or the 
first instance of property taken without the consent of the owner, was 
by a party of Plymouth Rock Puritans, who, while exploring the 
adjacent country to fix ii[)on a site for their settlement, found a 
quantity of corn which had been stored by the Indians in a place of 
deposit for wintei-'s use, which they tot)k and carried away and 
a[)propriated to their own use. It is said in explanation, however, by 
the historian, that the intention of the Puritans was to recompense the 
Indians for this property whenever they could find them. But 
whether they ever found the identical natives who owned it, and made 
them recompense therefor, the historian does not inform us. The 
explanation given is not very satisfactory, in any event, when we take 
into account that the Puritans at this time were armed with guns and 
SAVords, and were in pursuit of the Indians with hostile intent (at least 
as seemed to them) ; at any rnte th.e transaction lacked that mutuality 
betAveeu the parties which lawyers inform us is necessary to nmke a 
valid contract and relieve the transaction from the taint of a criminal 

In estimating Indian character through details of history the 
importa^it fact must be taken into consideration, that upon the arrival 
of the whites in sufficient numbers to form communities, whereby the 




Indians wero bi-oii<,'ht in continuod c'(>ntact with them, their chanicter 
iu many respects became materially changed. The simplicity of their 
liatnre was insufficient lo resist the subtle vices attending civilized 
life, and, after n few years' intercourse between the two races, the 
character of the Indian underwent material change, so that the Indian 
as viewed by the white man of latter years is not the Indian he Avas 
before the Avhite man's invasion. 

Mr. Cooper, the great American novelist, who took occasion to 
investigate Indian character pretty thoroughly, in the introduction to 
his book entitled "The Last of tlie Mohicans," says: "Few men exhil)it 
greater diversity, or, if we may ho express it, greater antithesis of 
character than the native warrior of North A.nerica. In war he is 
daring, boastful, cunning, ruthless, self-denying, and self-devoted; in 
peace, just, generous, hospitable, revengeful, superstitious, modest, 
and commonly chaste. These are qualities, it is true, which do not 
distinguish all alike, but they are so far the predominating traits of 
these remarkable people as to be characteristic.'" 

Our best estimates and most reliable sources for information 
concerning Indian character are derived from those having had 
experience among the native tribes in the far distant past, and who 
were induced to study this people not from a standpoint of prejudice 
but from one of desire to learn the truth. Of this class were 
intelligent, respectable traders, whose interest with them was, to some 
extent, mutual. To this class may also be added the early French 
travelers, also American explorers, like that of Jonathan Carver, and 
the great American artist, Mr. Catlin. 

Among the Indian traders to whom reference is made and who 
has left us valuable information on the subject of the American 
Indian, is Mr. James Adair, who was for forty years a trader am<mg 
the Indians in the southern colonies towards the Gulf of Mexico, 
commencing in the year 17.'55. He wrote a volume on his experience, 
giving much valuable information concerning the Indians during the 
period aforesaid, which book was publishetl in 1775. In the preface 
he says: 

"I sat down to draw the Indians on the spot; had tiiem many 
years standing before me, and lived with them as a friend and 
brother. My intentions were pure when I wrote; truth hath been my 
standard, and I have no sinister or mercenary views in publishing." 

Of the general cliaracter «)f the Indian, Mr. Adair speaks to 
the like effect as Mr. Heckewelder and other subsequent writers of 
similar motives and oppo/'tunities for observation. S[)eaking of the 
general character of the Indian, Mr. Adair says: "Not an individual 



durst ever presume to infringe on iinotlier's liberties. They are all 
e<]^ual. The only precedence any gain is by superior virture, oratory, 
or prowess; and they esteem themselves bound to live and die in 
defense of their country. A warrior will accept of no hire for 
performing virtuous and heroic actions. Tiiey have ex(j^uisite pleasure 
in pursuing their own natural dictates. 

''Their hearts are fully satisfied if they have revenged crying 
blood, ennobled themselves by war actions, given cheerfulness to their 
mourning country, and fii'ed tiie l)refists of the youth with a spirit of 
emulation to guard the beloved people from danger and revenge the 
wrongs of their country. Warriors are to protect all, but not to 
molest or injure the meanest. Every warrior holds his honor and the 
love of his country in so high esteem that he prefers it to life, and 
will suffer the most exquisite torments rather than renounce it." 

In answer to the charge against the Indian of his savage nature, 
inclining him to wmvs among themselves, Mr. Adair assures us tiiat 
the Indians in their primitive nature ai'e not fond of waging war with 
each other; but that, when left to themselves, free from outside 
interference or nieddltvs, they consider witii the greatest exactness 
and forethought all the attending circumstances of war. 

NathauielJ. Wyeth, an Indian trader in the country of the Rocky 
Mimntains and through portivMis of the American plains scduethiiig 
over forty years ago, s[ieaking of the Indians of that country, with 
whom ho became acquaii.Led, says that those Indians, according to his 
ex[ierience. did not possess the feelings of revenge or gratitnde in as 
great a degree as the English rnce. and had almost none as compared 
with the conceived notions in legard to the original inhabitants of the 

Alexander Ross, an early Astorian and fur trader of the North- 
west among the Indians of Oregon, s[)eRking of the mysterious Indian 
character, says: "Frcni Cliili to Athabasca, and from Nootka to Lab- 
rador, there is an indescril)al)le coldness about the American savatre 
that checks familiarity. He is a stranger to our hopes, our fears, our 
joys, and oui sorrows; that his eyes are selo' •> moistened by a tear, or 
his muscles relaxed by a :<mile; and whetlu r > basks ben<>ath a verti- 
cal sun on the burning plains of Amazonia, or freezes in the ccmntrv of 
eternal winter on the ice bound shores of the Arctic ocean, the piercing 
black eyes and the stern nobility of countenance equally sets at naught 
the skill 'tf the physiognonnst."' 

Mr. Catlin, the American artist, speaking in defense of the 
character of the Crow Indians dwc'ling about the head waters of the 
Missouri river, and who are a fair type of the native red man, says. 



that whilst these people liave sometimes been called rascals and thieveK, 
and rogues of the first order, yet they do not consider themselves such, 
for thieving in their estimation is a high crime, and in their eyes a 
disgraceful act; that Avhiist they sometimes capture and run off a 
trader's horse and make their boasts of it, they consider it a kind of 
retaliation, or summary justice, which they think it right and lonornhle 
they should administer, for the unlicensed trespass througlv tljeir 
country from one end to the other b) Viiercenary Avhite non, who 
destroy the game, catch the beaver and drive valuable furs out of 
their country without paying them an equivalent, or in fact anything 
at all for it, and this, too, when they have been warned time and again of 
the danger they would be in if they longer persisted in such practices. 

And Mr Catlin boldly remarks: "'Reader, I look upon the Indian 
as the most honest and honorable race of people that I have ever lived 
amongst in my life, and in their native state, I pledge you my honor, 
they are the last of all tb.e human family tliat will plunder or steal if 
you trust to their honor, and for this never ending and boundless 
system of theft and i)lunder and debauchery that iii practiced u[)oii 
these rightful owners of the soil by acquisitive white men, I consider 
the infliction or tlie retaliation by driving otf and appropriating a few 
horses but a lenient jamishment, Avhich those persons should expect, 
and wliich, in fact, none l)ut a very honorable and high minded people 
coidd intlict, instead of a much severer one which they could easily 
practice upon the Aliite mcMi in their country, without rendering them- 
selves amenable to any law."' 

Pere le June, one of the early historians in that portion of the 
North American continent then called New France, concerning Indian 
cinvracter, remarks: "I thi)ik the savages, in point of intellect, nmy be 
placed in a high rnnk. Education and instruction alone are wanting. 
The ])o\vers of the mind operate with facility and etfect."' 

Lafitau says of the American Indians: 'They are possessed of 
sound judgment, lively imagination, ready conception, and wonderful 
memory," and iie further adds, ''they are high minded and j)roud; 
possess a courage ecpud to their trial; an intrepiil valor, and the most 
heroic constancy under torments; and an equanimity which neither 
misfortune nor reverse can shake." 

Pere Jerome Lallement says of the Indians: "In point of intellect 
they are not at all inferior to the natives of Europe, and had I remained 
in France I could not have believed that, without instruction, nature 
could have [irodu(!ed such ready and vigorous eloquence, or such a 
sound judgment in their affairs, as that which I so much admired 
amonir the Hurous." 




La Potliei'ie says: "When they talk in France of the Iroquese 
they suppose them to be barbarians, always thirsting for human blood. 
This is a great error; the character which I have to give that nation is 
very different from what the prejudices assign to it. The Iroquese are 
the proudest and most formidable people in North America, at the 
same time the most politic and sagacious." 

Clinrlevoix says, in speaking of Indian ilmracter: " The V)eaut)' of 
their imagination equals its vivacity, which appears in all their dis- 
course; they are very quick at re[)artee, and their language is full of 
shining passages, Avhich would i^ave been ap[)laudpd at Athens or 
Rome. Their elocpience has a strength, nature and pathos which no 
art can give, Hiid which the Greeks admired in the barbarians." 

Capt. Jonathan Carver, who penetrated the heart of the American 
wilderness over a hundred years ago. where he spent over a year's 
time among the native Indians in the country of the upper Mississippi 
river, during Avhich time he was a close observer of the hal)its, man- 
ners, and customs and diameter of the native Indians, remarks of 
their character, that, like that of other civilized nations, it is com- 
posed of a mixture of ferocity and gentleness, guidcul by passion and 
appetite which they hold in common witli the fiercest beasts that 
inhabit their woods, and are possessed of virtues that do honor to human 
nature; that they have a cruel, revengeful, inexorable disposition; 
that whilst they hear unmoved the piercing cry of such as unhap[)ily 
fall into their hands, and receive a diabolical pleasure from the tor- 
tures they inflict on their prisoners, yet there is a reverse of this 
picture Avhich commands our attention: that we find them temperate 
both in their diet and potations; that they withstand with unexampled 
patience the attacks of hunger, or the inclemency of the season, and 
esteem the ^ratification of their appetites but as a secondary consid- 
eration; that we find them social and Innnane to those whom they con- 
sider as their friends, and even to their adopted enemies, and ready 
to partake with them of the last morsel, or to risk their live;; in their 

C:'t in pursuing this subject, we are not bound to rely solely on 
authorities dating back to the earlier period in history, when the Indiiin 
was living in a more primitive state, and uninfluenced i)y the white 
man's vices; but at this day evidence is abundant in su|)port of Iiulian 
character an here laitl down, even from official sources, coming from 
those having charge of Indian affairs in later times. 

Mr. W. W. Anderson, United States Indian Agent at Crow, Creek 
and Lawn Brule Consolidated Agency, Dakota, in his report to the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Auj^Mist 2S, ISSC), speaking specially 



of Indian character, says: "As a rule, with few exceptions, they 
have pleasant countenances, and are kindly disposed. They are tem- 
perate, honest, truthful and moral ; in fact, compare with any people I 
ever saw in these [)articulars, and the chasteness and modesty of the 
women mignt well be the bonstof any civilized or enlightened people." 
A singular trait in Indian character was that marked in their 
treatment of prisoners and captives. Whilst such persons were con- 
sidered their enemi'.,s, and were captureil because they were such, bar- 
barous as tb.e Indiaii character has been charged to be, it did not fol- 
h)w that the captive would necessarily be treated or dealt with in a 
barbarous manner. He might be put to death by burning in the most 
horrible and barbai'ous manner, but it did not necessarily follow that 
such course would be taken with every captive. Some capiice might 
take hold of the mind of the captors, or of the people to whose village 
the captive rai< '.t be conducted, whereby it would be decided by the 
council convene ^o purpose, that the captive would be permitted 

to run the gant^jt ■ is, pass between two lines of Indians arranged 
so that the captive wouKl run between them, subject to blows inflicted 
by standing in the lines between which he passed. If he suc- 
ceeded in reaching the further end of the two lines, the general custom 
was to adopt him as a friend, u[)on which every animosity that before 
possessed the minds of hi^ captors was removed, and the captive was 
thereafter treated as a friend, between whom and his captors there- 
after remained the most intimate relations of friendshij). Sometimes 
captives who huJ been taken as enemies would be received into an 
Indian familj and adopted into the tribe, in lieu oi some Indian wlut 
had been slain in battle with the whites. Such was the peculiarity of 
native Indian character. 



Argument for Race Unity— Uniformity in Physical Characteristics— InHueuced by 
Climate nud Siirroundiugs — Cranial Structure— General Description— Com- 
plexion —Stature— Muscular Strength— Facial Outline— Eyes— Teeth— Beard, 
Disputed Point -Mixed Blood Ules-Choctaws—Shawnees—Kawas— California 
Indians— Sho.shonees -Hair of the North American Indian. 

!^HE traveler who makes only a pass- 
',fk iiig note of the physical charac- 
teristics of the American Indian, 
or the ethnologist who deligiits in 
theories more than facts concerninir 
them, finds mucli on which to base his 
faith in the belief that these people are 
an entirely different species from any 
other people on earth. 

However deeply interesting and dif- 
ficult the study is, the fact remains that 
the majority of real students of ethnology ignore the theories that 
claim for humanity a specific classification. Enquiry, in this regard, 
finds its most fertile field among the aborigines of America, a subject 
which attracted early attention, continiing down to the present day, 
with unabated interest. Ethnt)logist8 of Europe, especially, appear 
to have been making this subject one of diligent study and research 
down to recent date, an example of which is afforded in tlie fact that 
the minister from Mexico to Spain, only a short time ago, sent a 
request to friends in the city of Chicago for specimens of Indian 
auatt)my, to aid in ethm)logical research concerning this ()eople. 

A strong phase in the argument for race unity is, that philoso- 
phers of tiie same school differ so widely in regard to tiie physical 
being of the natives of America, and, in search of physical character- 
istics, tread on such divergent lines back to the same source. All 
agree, however, in giving them an ancestral heritage of remote 
antiquity, and greater uniformity in the piiysical man than the ])eopIe 
composing the natives of the Old World. Timt they exhibit a striiiing 



uuifonuity in physical cliarncteristics, might be said of any race, until 
observation over comes first impressions. 

History provfes that the American Indian, in his physical charac- 
teristics, has been decidedly influenced by climate and surroundings, 
in like manner as noticed in the i)rimitive people in other countries of 
the world. 

It is claimed by some that the cranial structure of the American 
native is marked by a decided similaritv throughout the entire tribes 
of the continent. Much importance is attached to the uniformity of 
the facial angle, which is said by ethnologists to be at a mean of 
seventy-five degrees for the natives of America, whilst the mean of 
the European facial angle is eighty. In both cases a decided national 
uniformity exists. Perhaps, however, the infln.ence of custom and 
condition would give marked results in this direction, anil prove noth- 
ing in aiil of the theory of non-unity of the human race. 

The controversy grows interesting when we reflect that our own 
ancestors were a muscular, thick-set, tangle-haired, furtive-eyed, not 
to say bloody-lianded people, and that we of the present day are only 
a few centuries in advance of the primitive American Indian. 

A general description of the Indian tells us that the aboriginal 
of America i ji 1, s' night of stature, and muscular, having coarse 
black hair, well-formed limbs, deep chests, brown or copper colored 
complexion, head a little flat, prominent, compressed lips, dark 
eyes ami possessed of a great power of endurance. 

In regard to the com[)lexi()n of the American Indian, Father 
Charlevoix says: "The colour of the Savages does not prove a third 
Species between the White and the Black, as some People have imag- 
ined. They fire very swarthy, and of a dirty dark Red, which appears 
more in Florida, of which Loiiinidiifi is a Part: But this is Dot their 
natural Complexion. The frequent Frictions they use, gives tliem this 
Red; and it is surprising that they are not blf^ker, being continually 
exposed to the Smoke in Winter, to the great Heats of the Sun in 
Summer, and in all Seaso)is to all the Inclemencies of the Air."' 

In stature, some of the tribes are much above the ordinary 
height of men, while others are below this standard. In the 
average, however, they do not ditfei essentially from people of our 
own race. They are generally less in girth and lighter in their limbs, 
and almost entirely free from corpulency or useless flesh, with here 
and there exceptions, as in the case of some tribes of the Iroquois, 
and O'.iiwas of the Algonquin group. Their bones are lighter, their 
skulls thinner, and their muscles less hard than of our own race. But 
the legs and feet, which are brought into more continual action by 



violent exercise on foot or on horseback, which tend to swell the 
muscles, and give them great strength in those limbs, are more fully 

It does not follow that the Indian, because he is generally narrow- 
in the shoulders, and less powerful with his arms than those of our 
own race, is as effeminate as his structure would indicate, nor so widely 
inferior in brachini strength as one woild be led to su[>pose from the 
smooth and rounded appearance of his limbs. The habits and customs 
of the Indian are such that his lindjs, which are for the most part, 
while on the war path or engaged in hunting, denuded and exposed to 
the air, are in exercise the most of his life, whereby his muscles 
become enveloped by a thicker and more compact layer of integu- 
ments, which hide them from the view, leaving the casual observer to 
suppose them more inferior in muscular strength llian people of our 
own race. On this suliject Mr. Catlin says: 

"Of muscular strength in the legs, I have met many of tlie most 
extraordinary instances in the Indian country that ever I have seen in 
my life: and I have watched and studied such for hours together, with 
litter sxirprise and admiration, in the violent exertions in their dances, 
■where they leap and jumj) with every nerve strung and every muscle 
swelled, till their legs will ofti n look as a bundle of ropes, rather 
than a mass of human Hesh. from all that I have seen. I am 
inclined to say that whatever differences there may be between the 
North American Indians and their civilized neighbors in the above 
respects, they are decidedly the results of different habits of life and 
modes of education, rather than of any difference in constitution. And 
I would also venture the assertion, that he who wo ild see the In;lian 
in a condition to judge of his muscles, must see him in motion; and 
he who would get a perfect study for an Hercules or an Atlas should 
take a stone-mason for the iipper part of his figure and a Comanche or 
a Blackfoot Indian from the waist downwards to the feet." 

Mr. Catlin further remarks, that there is a ^renerai and strikinj; 
character in the facial outline of ihe North American Indians, which 
is bold and free, and which would seem to mark them as disti:iguished 
from natives of other parts of the world. Their noses are generally 
prominent and aquiline, and the whole face would seem to approach to 
the bold European character. 

Many travelers, in describing the American Indian, renresent the 
eyes as being smaller than those of [)eople of our own race. This has 
arisen from mere casual observation, rather than from close inquiry. 
This want of expansion and apparent smallness of the eyes in the 
Indian, has been found, upon examination, to be principally the effect 



of continual exposure to the wind and rnys of the sun, in tlie absence 
of some protecting shield generally Hdo[)ted by civilized peojjle. 
Added to this is another cause, having an influence in the direction 
aforesaid, that of the smoke constantlv Imnirinir ai)()ut their witrwams, 
and wliich necessarily cinitracts the lids of the eyes, much in contrast 
with that full tlame and expansion of the eye, promoted under the cir- 
cumstances of the cool and clear shades wliich our own habitations are 
calculated to promote. 

The teeth of the Indian are generally regular and sound; usu- 
ally remaining wonderfully preserved to old age. This is largely 
attributed to the fact that their food is without spices, saccharine or 
salt, and which are considered destructive to the teeth. Their teeth, 
though sound, are not absolutely white, but have a yellowish cast. 
They, however, look wliiter than they really are, from the c(mtrast 
with the copper or dark color of the skin. 

It has been noticed that the true type of the American Indian is 
found without beard upon his face. Beard they consider a vulgarity, 
and use every means, upon signs of its appearance, to remove it. 
Since these people were first known to the whites, Indian authorities 
liave been at variance on this subject; ajid there still remains an un- 
satisfied curiosity, there being much dispute among those who have 
given it attention, as to whether Indians naturally have beards or not. 

The writer was assured by an intelligent, educated Indian of the 
Flathead nation, that Indians, at least those of his nation, were naturally 
inclined to have beards, though to a very limited extent. This 
Indian himself liad a light scattering beard. He said it was a custom 
among his people, in their native condition, to keep the beard plucked 
out by meaiis of a sort of tweezers constructed ft)r that purpose. 
When asked the reason for this custom, his reply was that Indians, 
like white men, desired always to appear young, and therefore took 
great pains to keep constantly eradicated any show in the growth of a 

Mr. Catlin says that, from the best information he could obtain 
from the forty-eight tribes which he visited, so far as the wild tribes 
amongst them were concerned, ami where they had made no effort 
to imitate white men, at least the proportion of eighteen out of twenty 
were by nature entirely without the appearance of a beard, and, of 
the very few who had them naturally, nineteen out of twenty eradicated 
them by plucking out several times in succession, precisely at the age 
of puberty, when its growth was successfully arrested. Sometimes 
this process, from carelessness or inclination, was neglected or omitted, 
and when the beard was thus allowed to grow, it would reach the 



length of nu inch or two, in which case it was generally very soft and 
exceedingly sparse. 

Whenever there was a cross of the blood with the European or 
African, which occasionally occurred on the frontier, a proportionate 
beard would be the result. If plucked out in such case it would be 
with much toil and great pain. Exce[)tion8 are found to this aversion 
to beards among some of the north westtu'n tribes on the Pacific coast 
inhabiting Alaska and Washington Territory, where a slight moustache 
is not unfrequont and a full board is quite common. 

The foregoing descri})tion, as applied to the Indian in general, 
implies uniformity indeed. Hovvever, ''facts as they do appear" prove 
as much diversity among the Indian nati(ms as exists in the Mongolian 
or Caucasian races. This is made further apparent by reference to 
particular tribes in various parts of the continent. 

The Mandans, who inhabited the regions of the upper Missouri, 
were remarkable for their fair complexion, blue eyes, and lack of 
prowess in war ov endurance in toil. 

The Iroquois differed in their physical charactei'istics in some 
respects from other tribes of the continent, and the separate tribes of 
this nation differed, also, among themselves. 

The Mohawks, in their physical structure and appearance, differed 
essentially from the Senecas of the same group. The former were 
rather thick-set, stout-built people of iihlegmatic temperament; whilst 
the Senecas were more slight, with countenance not so full, but more 
mild, indicating a higher order of intelligence. 

The Ottawas of the Algonquin group are also thick-set in their 
build, inclining somewhat to corpulency, and are, in stature, of but 
medium height. 

The Menominees of the same group are in marked contrast with 
all other tribes of that group, their skin being of a much lighter 
copper color. They are of a very mild disposition and not inclined to 
be warlike, essentially differing in the foregoing characteristics from 
their neighbors, the Ojibways, of the same stock and who speak the 
same language, thus presenting an anomaly, under the circumstances, 
which has never l)een accounted for. 

The Dacotah, or Sioux Indians, are described as the finest 
specimens of physical manhood ever known among primitive people. 
Their mental faculties are of a high order. Their spirit and arrogant 
natures find expression in their war-songs, indicating their determined 

The Utes are mountain Indians, who are likewise arrogant, brave 
and aggressive. They have a much darker complexion than the 



Sioiix, keen eyes of full size, and almost superhuman power of 

In rej^jird to complexion, the fact is noted that the natives of the 
equinoctial region are not darker than are those of the mountains of 
the temperate zone. Off the southwest const of California is the 
beautiful island of St. Catherine's. The natives of this island are of a 
ruddy com[)lexion, the red and white blending with beautiful effect; 
whilst the tribes on the adjacent mainland in the same latitude are 
dark coniplexioned or cinnamon color. The older people of the 
Cherokees are described as of an olive complexion, while their ytning 
girls are as fair as the daughters of the white race. 

Tiio Choctaws of the Appalachian group have rounded features, 
their cheek bones being less prominent than are those of the Indians 
of the plains. Their eyes large, oval and brilliant, and, though not 
blue, iiave the mild expression that pertains to that color. They are 
an eniluring, patient peoj^Ie. 

The Sliawnees of the Algonquin group are not broad chested like 
the Choctaws. They are above medium height, are rather inclintid to 
an active life, can endure the fatigue of the hunt, and accomplish 
tedious journeys without abatement of physical vigor. 

The Kawas are lank, "lean and long." Tiieir shoulders broad; 
limbs muscular; com[)lexion lighter than most of the neighboring 
tribes, and eyes small, piercing black, with fiendish expression. 

Among the California Indians, considered by some ethnologists a 
different race from the other groups of the continent, a very great 
diversity exists. The tribes of northern California are much superior 
to those of the central or southern portion. The men are large and 
muscular, and have great force and energy of character. They have 
somewhat regular features, notably expressive and intelligent. A 
writer in an Eastern magazine has described the women as "well 
formed," of small features, well turned hands and feet, graceful in 
their movements, and intelligent. With their hazel complexions, 
bright black eyes and oval faces, they have large claims to beauty. 
The California natives present a greater diversity of tribal relation and 
condition than any other of the aboriginal nations. 

The Shoshonees of the southern sections of California are of 
medium stature, powerful build, coarse features, dark bronze color, 
and indolent. These are more widely known as the "Digger Indians," 
and are safely classed as the lowest type of humanity on the American 

A tribe of Indians of the Shoshonee stock, formerly inhabiting 
the country in the vicinity of Columbia river, were commonly called 


Flatheads. They were noted for the peculiar shape of their iioails, 
produced, liowever, by artificial means. Their foreheads were flat and 
pressed back, wherel)y the tops of their heads became leii<^tlieued. 
This was done in early childhood by applyin<^ a board or some hard 
or heavy substance, as that of a mass of clay, to the forehead, with an- 
other board or hard substance at the back of the head; and then, by n 
continual pressure upon the forehead for a sutticient time, as the child 
^rew in years, the desired result of tlatteninjf the fon^head was 
produced. No child was aUowed to escape this process, so that this 
became, by artificial means, a universal piiysical characteristic with 
that people. The origin or reason for this singular custom is not 
accounted for. 

That the hair of the American Indian is coarse, is no doubt 
owing to the care or dressing it receives and to climatic infiuenct>s. 
One peculiar feature of the hair is that, in all tribes, the filament is 
round; there are no exceptions. In the Mongol race each hair is oval, 
whilst in the Caucasian it is elliptical. 

In general, every Indian is a perfect form of man. Capt. Mai'cy, 
in his re[)ort to the Secretary of War, concerning his exploring expedi- 
tion in the country of the lied River of the South, says of the Indians 
of that country: "I have never seen an idiot or one that was naturally 
deformed among them." 

The physical characteristics of Indian women, in their native 
c<nidition, are thus described by Jtjsselyn in his "New England 
Ilarities," published in London in ](J72. He says: '"All of them are 
black-eyed, having even, short teeth, and very white, their hair black, 
thick and long, broad breasted, handsome, straight bodies, and slender, 
considering their constant loose habits (clothing), their limbs cleanly, 
straight, and of a convenient stature, generally as plump as partridges, 
and saving here and there one, of a modest deportment." 


Qeneriil Uniformity in rrimitivo Condition— Best Sources of Information— Testimony 
of Mary Jeniison, " White Woiuan of tlio O^nesco "— Ti-stimony of John Brick- 
ell, II Captive— Exemplary Character in their Homo Intereonrse— Precept and 
Example Honesty, Bravery ami HoHj)itality - llelatioii Between the Sexes- 
Strict Couduet— Near Jewish Kites in Traditional Bules -Medicine Lodye — 
Tabernacle of the Jews — Custom of Indian Women —Politeness in Conversation 
— Hospitality to StrauK'Ts— Retentive Memory— Crime of Murder — Death 
Penalty— No Titled Personai,'es— Dreasin>,' and Paiutinj;— H(d)it8- No Idlers 
amonjf Women- Traiuiuf^ Boys as Hunters— Making Presents— Hha\-inir the 
Head— Scalp Lock— Cultivation of the Hair— Native Ingenuity— Treatment of 
Prisoners- Burning at the Stake. 

!;f:,CCORDING to nn 

olil adiige, 11 sitiglo 
■Uv'^1 swallow or bird of 
passage does not 
bring with it the season of 
summer; so it miiy be said 
of the American Indian — 
the manners or special 
customs of a single band 
or tribe in a [)articular 
locality, do not serve to 
indicate the manners and 
customs of all the Ameri- 
can tribes in general ; but, 
notwithstanding these 
special customs or particu- 
lar manners, which i-re 
found here and th.ere, 
growing out of isolated 
circumstances, there Avas 

very general uniformity in regard to manners anil customs throughout 

all the American tribes, all marking race unity. 

It is here proposed to speak of the Indian in his primitive condi- 




tioii, before his character or mnnnevH mid custoiiis were, in any way. 
iilFocted by tJie iiiHiieiu'e of tiie white man's civilization. Later wrilt'is 
are quite too apt to present tlie Indian as he lias appeared in modern 
times, under tiie contaminating,' intlnences of wliich we comphiin. as 
inCt'stin*,' our own oivili/ation; all of which havti tended to shar[)en our 
prejudices ayainst the red man. 

The best sources from which our information concerning the 
manners and customs of the Indian is derived, are from the earlit-st 
writers on the Indian subject, or those* who dwelt with tliem in their 
native condition as cajitives, missionaries, traders, or in any other 
capacity of intimate relation; aniouir wliom there is very general uni- 
fornuty in their re[)resentations of Indian character. There are some, 
however, like ("otton Mather, in the days of the early New England 
I'uritans, who have attempted to dt'scribe Indian character, and speak 
of their manners and customs in an unfavorable light, who occu[)ied no 
])osition to «letermine the facts, of which they pretended to speak, with 
any degree of accuracy: but who occupied an outside position and 
spoke from a jjrejudiced view. 

Among the reliable Indian authorities is Mary Jemison, who, 
when she was about thirteen years old, was taken captive by the 
Indians on the fi'ontier of Pennsylvania, from whence she was taken to 
Southern Ohio, and from there transferred to the tribe of Seneca 
Indians in Western New York, in the vicinity of the (lenesee river, 
where she lived among that tribe and where she continued to remain 
after the country was settled by the whites, dying at an advanced age, 
Sept. IK, 1.S33, at her residence on the Buffalo Creek Ileservation. 

Her evidence goes to confirm what is so frecj^uently remarked by 
those best accjmiinted with the Indian in his native conditi )n, that the 
Indians were, in their nature, peaceable and not naturally inclineil to 
war, and did not resort to hostile conflicts of this kind except upon 
provocation, in defense of their ))osgessions, or, in later times, Avhen 
interfered with by the whites, influenced to join in their wars, on the 
ground that their own interests were involved, as in the case of the 
so-called French war, and the war of the American Revolutitui, in both 
of wliich the Seuecas, and many other tribes, were induced to take part 
from representations that their possessions would be in danger unless 
they did so. 

In regard to the character and manners and customs of the Sene- 
cas, who were a fair type of the North American Indian, Mary Jemisou 
says : 

"After the conclusiou of the French war our tribe had nothinir to 
do till the commencement of the x\.merican Revolution. For twelve or 



fifteen ye' iS the use oi the impleinents of war was not known, nor the 
war wliooj) heard, save on clays of festivity, wlien the jicliievenients of 
former times were commemorated in a kind ot' mimic warfare, in which 
the chiefs and warriors displayed their prowess and illustrated their 
former adroitness by laying the ambuscade, sur)iri;ung their eremies, 
and [)erforniing many accurate maneuvej's with the tomahawk and 
scalfjing knife, thereby preserving and handuig to their children the 
theory of Indian warfare. During that period they also pertinaciously 

,^,j(^~r,;^%^ ■i^i^^^-'^^'vSfe^^^ 




observed tiie religious rites of their progenitors by attending, with the 
n«)st scrupulous exactness and a degree o^' enthusiasm, to the sacrifices, 
at particular times, to appease the anger of the evil Deity, or to excite 
tlie commiseration of the Great Go(k1 Spirit, whom they adored witii 
reverence, as the author, governor, sui)porter and disposer of every 
good thing in wliicli they jiarticipated. 

"Tiiey also jjvacticel in various athletic games, such as running, 
wrestling, 1 'aping and playing ball, with a view that their bodies might 



be more supple, or, rather, that they might not become enervfttea, niid 
that they might be enabled to make a pioper selection of chiefs for the 
councils of the nation and leaders of war. 

"While the Indians were thus engaged in their round of tradi- 
tionary performances, with the addition of hunting, their women 
attended to agriculture, their families, and a few domestic concerns of 
small consequence and atterided with but little labor. 

"No pei)ple can live more ha})py than the Indians did in times of 
peace, before the introduction of spirituous li(pior among tiiem. 
Their lives were a continual round of pleasures. Their wants were 
few and easily satisfied, and their cares were only for to-day — the 
bounds of their calculation for future comfort not extending to the 
incalculable uncertainties of to-morrow. If peace ever dwelt with 
men, it was in former tir»i'>s, in the recess from war, among what are 
now termed barbarians. The moral character of the Indians was (if 
I may be allowed the expression) uncontaminated. Their fidelity was 
perfect and became proverbial. They were strictly honest; they 
despised deception and falsehood, and chastity was held in high venera- 
tion, and a violation of it was considered sacrilege. They were tem- 
perate in their desires, moderate in their passions, and candid and 
honorable in the expression of their sentiments on every sid)ject of 

This is a faithful ))ieture of tlie American Indian, whatever 
writers like that of Mr. Ellis, the author of a work entitled, "The 
Red Man and the White Man," may present to the contrary notwith- 
standing; for, as before intimated, writers having no exi)erience 
among the Indians in [)ri!nitive life, and who, from their prejudices, 
are disinclined to accept tiie representations of those who have actual 
knowledge on this subject, seem to delight in indulging in unfav()ral)le 
criticisms on the Indian, in order to conform to the popular [)rojudicea 
which have arisen against him in later times. 

Another reliable autlu)rity on Indian manners and cnstoras, 
arising out of general Indian cluiracter, is John Brickell. who was 
foi several years a ca[)tive among the Delaware Indians in the latter 
part of the last century, and who, in his narrative, says that during 
the time of his captivity he had every opportunity ot oI)serving the 
Indian manners and cust(nus. which he gives in general terms to the 
following etl'ect; "The sijuaws do nearly all the labor except hunting. 
They take care of the meat when brought in, and stretch tiie skins. 
They plant, tend, gather and house the corn, assisted by young boys 
not yet able to hunt. After boys arrive at the hunting ago they are 
no longer considerei! iis squaws, and are kept at hunting. The men 




are faithful hnnterB, but wlien at home he lazily abdut and are of little 
apoouiit for anytliiii;:^ else, seldom or never assistiiijf in domestic duties, 
whic'li they consider a callintf solely for the women and dishonorable 
to men. Tiiey are Kind and indulf^ent to their children, and are 
remarkably quiet in the domestic circle. A dozen persons of all a<^es 
may be in a wigwam at the same time, and would not make noise 
enough to prevent the hearing of a pin falling (-n a hard place. Their 
leisure hours are, in a grc.vt measure, spent in training u[) their cliil 
dren to what they believe to be right, pointing out bad examples, as: 
'See that bad man; he is despised by everj'bod' he is older than you 
are; if y )u do as he does, everybody will despise you by the time you 
are as (AA as he is.' They also point to good example worthy of 
imitation, such as brave and honest men;" and Mr. Bri. /vi^ll remarks 
in his narrative, in the decline of life: "I know I iwn influenced to 
good ev&n at this day, more from what I learned among them, than 
what I learned among peo[)le of my own color." 

Honesty, bravery and hospitality, Mr. Brickell assures us, are 
cardinal virtues with the Indian. Let a man prove himself remiss in 
respect to any of these virtues, and he will soon find that he has no 
business with these people. If a man proves to be cowardly, the 
finger of scorn is soon pointed at him, and he is styled a squaw. In 
that way they turn a strcnig current of public sentiment against all 
infractions of their moral and religious code. 

In regard to hospitality and neighborly kindness, the same 
authority says the Indians set a good example for any people to follow. 
Their custom of hos])itality was well ex[)re8sed in the language of the 
Indian chief, Logan: "When did ever a white man enter an Indian 
cabin hungry, and he gave him no meat?" When a company of 
strangers or travelers come to an Indian town, or camp in the vicinity, 
they are not asked if they want anything, ])ut a runner starts through 
tli(* town proclaiming that strangers have arrived. On this intelligence, 
every family cooks of the best they have and take it to the strangers, 
for which there is no thought of a charge being nnide, or anything 
given in return. If they desire to l)e helped on their way, every 
possible assistance is graijted them in the same benevolent spirit. 

Mr. Brickell further remarks: "Their rules and traditions forbid 
any indiscriminate intercourse of th^ sexes; and I believe as respects 
the crimes of fornication and adultery, they are the moht strictly 
chaste and virtuous people on earth. They worship the Great Si)irit, 
whom they call Manito, which signifies or conveys to their mind the 
idea of all-strength, or rather all-sufiiciency. They never used that 
name irreverently on one occasion when I was with them. They have 





3 ! 

no terms hi their language by which they can swear profanely; anil 
if they ever do it, it nii:st be by means of phrases learned of white 
men. Their young, in a remarkable degree, reverence and honor the 
aged, especially th<>ir parents. They do not covet each other's goods, 
nor intentionally make a false accusation against any one. that I ever 

Mr. Brickell also assures us that the Indians are remarkal)ly near 
the Jewish rites and ceremonies in their traditional rules. "They have 
their regular feasts, such as the first corn that is fit to use, wliich is 
made a feast-offering. When they start on a hunting ex[)edition the 
first game taken is skinned and dressed, leaving the ears and mouth 
entire; this they bring to camp and cook wliole, and every one eats of 
it, and the r(!st being burned entirely u[). They also follow the 
Jewish law in res[)ect to things clean and unclean. They frequently 
observe family worship, in wliich they sing and pray. Taking the 
manners, customs, rites, ami ceremonies and the observance of what 
these people believe to be right for them to do or observe, they follow 
s<i closely in general that as a nation they might be considered fit 
examples lor many of lis Christians to follow."' 

In conclusion on this subject Mr. Brickell says: "Should any 
object to these opinions of mine and point to the cruel treatment of 
their enemies and often barbarous treatment of prisoners as proof to 
the contrary, I will answer and say, consider their ignorant condition, 
and withal that they seem to act out liut the Jewish precepts, an oyo 
for an eve, a tooth for a tooth, and blood for blood. I am stroiiirlv 
inclined to believe that their ideas of right and wrong somehow or 
other descended from those laws." 

A reliable writer on Indian manners and customs says that a 
counterpart tlierefor may be found in the ancient history of the Jews 
or Israelites after their liberation from Egy[)tian l)ondage. Tlie 
medicine lodge of the Indian may be compared to the place of worship 
or tabernacle of the Jews, and the sacrifice, offerings, [mrification^, 
ablutions, and annointings may all be found amongst and practiced by 
tht)se people. 

The custom of liulian women at certain periods and after child- 
bearing were almost tiiose of the Jewish women. They had to 
undergo n probation for a certain number of days on all such 
occasions, besides ablutions and purifications, before they were 
considered fit to enter on their donn^stic duties: during this prob<iti(m 
they were considtn-ed unclean and altogether unfit to enter the lodge 
or \oi\\ Avith the family. 

Reliable authorities on native Indian customs assure us that the 



politeness of the Indians in conversation was indeed carried to excess. 
It did not permit tliem to contradict or deny tlie truth of what was 
asserted by anotlier person in their presence. By this, in their civility 
to others, they avoided disputes, seemingly acquiescing in whatever 
was affirmed by anotlier, apparently assenting, yet in reality perhaps 
not actually concurring in anything that Avas said to them. Thus the 
early missionaries, who attempted to convert them to Christianity, 
were led into a supposition that the liidian was concurring in his 
teachings, when in fact it was no such thing, but a mere civility in not 
dis[)uting the assertions of another. 

When a stranger entered a town or wigwam he was offered 
something to eat, then he was offered a jiipe and tobacco. After 
smoking, conversation was begun, but never before. No inquiries 
were made of the stranger f re m whence he came or the object of his 
mission until he was thus refreshed by their accustomed hospitality. 

The Indians had a retentive memory, and could remember events 
and details with the utmi^st accuracy. They were wholly free from 
care beyond that of procuring a sufficiency for their subsistence. 
They had no set hours for meals. They ate when hunger indicated. 
They were, in general, however, inclined to a morning meal, or a meal 
in the early part of the day. When not pressed to toil for subsistence 
they were given to a course of pleasure, such as games, telling stories, 
holding councils. The nieti were generally grave and sober-looking. 
They repeated to the family traditions and maxims, and told their 
children they must live up to them. They had among them many 
injienious t/aditions and stories of fiction which show them to have 
possessed an imaginative mind. In short, they had, in their way, a 
regular system of education of the youth. 

Their law of civil conduct was, in general, that arising from 
immemorial custom or usage, like that of the common law of England 
among the Englisli people and their descendants. The crime of murder 
was punished with death, in accordance with the Mosaic law, whiiih 
has been adopted by civilized nations; but the mode of indicting the 
punishment differed from the white man in this, that under Indian 
laws the penalty wjis infiicted by some relative of the murdered man 
or person aggrieved, while under the white man's government the 
deatli of the murdered man is avenged thiough a hangman or public 
executioner, who is paid for his services. Ir Indian society no Indian 
could be induced to take the life of another for a m-^'e pecuniary 

In the case of orphan children, they were, in general, taken care 
of by their nearest relatives, and the children, when grown up, took 



care of their aged parents. "When invalid parents had no children tr 
provide for them, they were generally taken care of by the next of kin. 

The Indians had no mechanics or artisans who pursued such voca- 
tion as a calling. Every man was supposed to be his own mechanic 
and his own artisan, and constructed his own canof or built his own 
lodge. They were not dependent upon any particular class in this 
regard. The white man boasts of his skill as a mechanic or artisan, 
forgetting that such calling or prof ession rests with but few persons in 
his community, in proportion to the whole, and that if those in his 
society wli > have become proficient as mechanics and artisans should 
be removed, their number would scarcely be missed, ami th(; white 
man could no longer boast of his skill. 

Indians, in their intercourse with each other, had no tiiles to dis- 
tinguish one person from another, even with reference to their gieat 
captains, leaders or counsellors. The language commonly made use 
of in addressing each other was grandfather, father or uncle, or that 
of my friend, brother, cousin, mother or sister. They had no such 
term among them as sir, madam or mister. 

They were very tenacious of their own mode of dressing and 
painting, and did not change their fashions as we do. 

They were very fond ol tobacco, which they generally smoked by 
mixing it with the bark and leaves of sumach or red willow pulverized, 
and called kinnikinic; but they did not smoke strictly as a habit. Th(>, 
act of smoking was considered a communion with the Great Spirit, 
and was practiced as a token of love and friendship towards others 
who joined th-em therein. The primitive Indian was not seen going 
about with a pipe in his mouth in the act of smoking, as is the manner 
of the white man of to-day. When an Indian indulged in smoking 
tobacco, he lighted his pipe, and, after his usual custom of devotion 
to the Great Spirit, ho sat down, and pursued his smoking in silence. 

Although some historians have given us illustrations to the con- 
trary, like that from Goodrich, in one of his popular histories, referring 
to the discovery of smoking by the Spaniards among the natives of 
the West Indies, it is not believed that the Indians of these islands had 
a different custom in this regard from those of the continent. 

It is stated that amcjiig the lower type of natives of the West 
Indies, Columbus found a custom of smoking rolls of tobacco, they 
being without the ingenuity or knowledge of art sufHcient for making 
pipes, as was found existing among the Indians of the continent; and 
this, it is said, is the origin of cigars, used for smoking at the present 
(lay — a mode of smoking ado[)ted among the Spaniards from the use of 
the weed, as originally discovered among the natives of the West Indies. 




Tlio popular idea is that the Indians are constitutional itllers. The 
same niay be said of many other rac(^s, and even of a lar<fe proportion 
of our own races. The professional man of our own race, may, in like 
manner, he called an idler; because, first, he is never seen working 
with his liands to any extent; second, a great portion of his time, to 
all a[!peavance, is spent in complete idleness. The Indian was of the 
o[)inion tliat labor was a disgrace to a man. Ho was, in every sense of 
the word, a professional man. He engaged in nothing except that which 
belonged to him as a profession. The labor incident to household and 
domestic affairs, bolongtnl to the woman, and from it none were exempt. 
There was no such thing in Indian 
society as an idler among women, 
and a woman was not reipiired to 
perft)rni any part of the labor which 
naturally belonged to the man in 
the line of his profession. He was 
a warrior and hunter. The making 
of his arms, his nets, and all the 
et]ui[)iige of tlie hunter's life, he 
considered a part of his duty and 
profession, in which he engaged 
diligently. Mr. Lewis H. Morgan, 
tlie author of the '"League of the 
ri(H|uois," says that the most at- 
tractive feature of Indian societv 
was the spirit of lu^spitality by 
which it was jiervaded. 

The children, as soon as they 
had left their cradles, were al- 
lowed to go at will wherever they 
chose, whether into the water, into 
the forest, or in the snow. This 
accustcmed them to hardship, their 
limbs became supple and hardened 
against the injuries of the air; at 
the same time it also made them 
subject to distempers of the 
stomach and lun<rs, often resultiiiir 
fatally. In the summer, as soon 
as they were up, they ran to the river and into tlie lake, and continued 
there. ])laying like fish, in fine weather, at the surface of the water. 

They put a bow and arrow into the hands of their boys as soon as 





they arrivoil at u suitable n<^e, and sent them fortli to the forest to 
j)ractice the art of hunting. In this pursuit they needed no incentive 
or enc()uraiijin<^ words, for they were anxious to engaj,'e in learning to 
be a hunter. Tiiey were encouraged to enter into athh^tie sports and 
iXanies, to (exercise and strenjjthen tlieir muscles, to fit them for the 
war path and fatigue in hunting. One of the first lessons inculcated 
in the children was duty to their j)arents and respect for old age; 
and civilized society does not afford better exam[)les of filial obedience 
than was found in the Indian family. 

Making [jresents, in testimony of esteem or gratitude for acts of 
kindness or favors received, was a custom prevailing in Indian cliar- 
ac-'^v I. There is an old and metaphorical expression as to the mode of 
making presents: "laying [)resents at their feet.*' This was literally 
an Indian custom in making presents, ])lacing them at the feet of tlie 
persi>n to whom the presents were made, Mrs. Kinzie, in her book 
entitled " Waubun, or the Early Day in the Northwest," refers to pi-cs- 
euts of ducks, pigeons, whortle -berries, wild plums, and the like, being 
maciB her by the Indian women at Fort Winnebago. She says: 
"These they would bring in and thiow at my feet. If. through inat- 
tention. I failed to look pleased, or raise the articles frcmi the tloor and 
lay them carefully aside, a look of mortification and the observation, 
'our mother hates our gifts,' showed how much their feelings were 
Avounded. It was always expected that a present would be received 
graciouslv and returned with something twice its value." 

The painting of the face Avas a custom which existed among the 
Indians, time out of mind, for which various reasons have been 
assigned. The painting of the face is not a custom confined exclu- 
sively to the American Indian. It is practiced by the white race, 
especially among the female portion. The reason for the practice is 
not foundeil upon the naked custom, but U[)on the grt)und of adding 
to the beauty of the countenance. The Indians painted their faces 
more from some symbolic design they had in view; or paint may have 
been a[)[)lied in some insiances f(U' the [lurpose of disguise; but it 
must be accorded to the good sense of the Indian tiiat, in general, in 
the painting of his face he had in view some rational, symbolic design- 

The Indian had another custom which was a characteristic feature 
in many tribes, that of shaving the head closely, leaving only a sn)all 
tuft of hair upon the crown. But this custom was not general among 
the American tribes. It was practiced by the Osages, Pawnees, Sacs 
and Foxes, lowas, Mohawks, and the Moheagans. This tuft of hair, 
left upon the crown, was called the scalp-lock, which, it is said, was 
allowed to grow, out of an act of bravado to the enemv. tlaring him to 



take his scalp-lock if lie could. Before the Iinliau could obtaiu 
knives or scissors Avith which to shave his head, the hair was removed 
by means of buniiii',' it off with red hot stones, a very slow and pain- 
ful operation. Tlie American tribes ^'onerally took <^reat pride in the 
cnltiviition of their hair, allowin>.f it to j^row to the most extreme 
length that it could naturally reach, preseiving it to grow over their 
shoulders in great profusion, and were quite unwilling to spare eveii 
the smallest lock. 

Native ingenuity of the In- 
dian was displayed in his manner 
of producing fire, which was by 
friction applied in different ways. 
The most sim^jle was that of rub- 
bing together two dry sticks of 
wood, of that condition to pro- 
duce fire with the least exertion. 
Among some tribes and nations a 
more efficient mode was used. A 
piece of wood was squared or 
flattened so as to make it lie 
steadily, and in this a small hole 
was commenced with the point of 
a stone; then another stick M'as 
made, round and tapering at one 
end. The small end was placed in 
the small hole in the piece of wood 
first mentioned. He then put 

one hand on each side of the small, round stick, which was usually 
about six inches long, and commenced turning it as rapidly back and 
forth as possible. Another perscjn held the under piece in one hand 
and a piece of spunk in the other, so that when there was the leas^t 
sign of fire it would readily communicate with the spunk, and the fire 
was kindled by putting the lighted spunk into a bunch of dry grass 
that had been rubbed fine in the hands. The Iroquois and Dakotas 
used the string of a bow to turn more rapidly the stick l)efore 
described, showing more skill in this regard. 

The Indian custom of burning their prisoners at the stake is one 
which has been the subject of severe criticism and condemnation 
among our own race. It was, however, their established mode of put- 
ing their enemies to death after capture. According to their law the 
fate of an emnny was, in general, death; so under our law, the fate of 
one who commits treason against our government, who is reganbnl as 




our enemy, is death. As between the Indian and ourselves, it is 
merely a (juestion as to the mode of executinj,' the law. 

Wo forget, iiowever, that our own race have put to death, by burn- 
ing at the stake, more persons, wilhiii the time even of our modern 
history, than would equal the whole Indian population of America at 
any time during that period, for the commission of no crime whatever, 
but upon the ill-founded notion that it was required in defense of our 
peculiar notions of religion. While we are criticising the Indiiin for 
such barbarities in enforcing the law of his society, we are critizised 
by the Indian, in return, in unmeasured terms, for our own acts of 
inconsistency and barbarity, to which we really have no defense. 



The Institution of Daiicos — Tlianksirivinj,' Coromoninl— Accoptahio to the Oront 
Spirit — Timybt to ConHider it ii Divino Art — Do8if,'Upd by the Great S|)irit for tlieir 
Pleasure and Hia Worship— A Mode of Sot-ial Iutera)urse— Arousing' Patriotic 
Excileiueut— Streuj,'lhens Popular Enthusiasm— Inspires Indian Youth— The 
Iroiiuois had Thirty-two Distinct Dances— Ditrereut Kinds of Dances anion),' 
Different Nations and Tribeo— Suu Dance of the Sioux— Declared by Indian 
Agents Barbarous aud Forbidden— Comiiarison with the White Man's Pugilistic 
Exhibitions — Other Barbarous Practices of the Wliite Man. 

A:^>iMONG tlio estab- 
v(i)l' lislied customs of 
ylt^% the aborigines of 
'^4^^ America, that of 
(lancing appears to be the 
most prominent and firmly 
fixed in their social us- 
ages. This people are 
not alone in a custom of 
this kind, for it is an insti- 
tution of great anticjuity 
among some of the more 
enlightened nations of the 
Old W o r 1 d, especially 
araonjj the Jews ;and there 


is a singular coincidence in the purposes of dancing among this latter 
people and the aborigines of America, 

When Jephthah returned from his conquest over the Ammonites, 
"his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances." 
Judg. xi, 84. When the men of Benjamin suri>rised the daughters of 
Sliiloh, the latter were dancing at " a feast of the Lord." Judg. xxi, 
It! -21. AVhen David returned after the shiughter of Goliah, the 
Israelitish women met him witli singing and ilancing. 1 Sam., xviii, 
0. When the ark was brought home, David danced before it "with 
all his might." 2 Sam,, vi, 1-1. On another occasion, it is said, the 




women went out with timbrels mul witli dnnces. Ex. xv, 20. Goliith 
praisotl Hod in 8on<:f ami diinces after the deiivernnce of the Israelites 
from Pharaoh. On several oceasions the people of Israel were 
exhorted to praise the Lord in the dance. Ps. cxlix, )J; cl. 1. Danc- 
ing was common among the Hebrews at their feasts in public tri- 
umphs, ami at all seasons of rejoicing, and it was practiced on th(> 
occasional festivals, and was a part of the sacred \vorshi[) on such 

It is said that among the people of Israel dancing was ai first on 
sacred occasions only. It was also a part of the religious ceremonies 
of the Indiai.". Among the Hebrews it was joined with sacred song 
and was usually participated in by the women only. When the men 
danced, it was in company separate from the women, promiscuous 
dancing not being piacticeil. It was usually performed in the day- 
time and in the open air. 

Mr. Heckewelder refers to a tradition informing us that when 
the Dutch first landed on New York Island, the native inhal)itants, 
believing them to be celestial beings, or messengers from the Great 
Manito, began a solenin dance in order to propitiate them, much iu 
the manner of the ancient Jewish cu.stom, on like occasions. 

Throughout the entire American race, dancing was regarded as a 
thanksgiving ceremonial, acceptable to the Great Spirit, and which 
they were taught to consider as a divine art, designed by the Great 
Manito for their pleasure, as well as for His worship; and it is said 
that the popular enthusiasm broke forth in this form, and was nour- 
ished and stimulated by this powerful agency. It is therefore to be 
observed that dancing among the Indians was not strictly an institu- 
tion of social amusement, but in general i)laced upon higher and more 
sacred grounds. 

Mr. Morgan informs us that the Iroquois nation had thirty-two 
distinct dances, of which number twenty-six were claimed to be 
invented by or wholly original with that people, to each of which a 
separate history and oliject, as well as a different degi-ee of popular 
favor, attached. Some of these were costume dances, and were per- 
formed by small and select bands; some were designed exclusively 
for females ; others for warriors alone ; but the greater part of them 
were oi)en to all of both sexes who desired to participate. 

The Feather dance and the War dance were the two most ])romi- 
nent of the Irot|uois, and were esteemed the highest iu the popular 
favor. The first they claimed was original with them, the other 
was important and common among all American ti-ibes. One had a 
religious and the other a patriotic character. Both were costume 



•liiiioos aixl wei'o performed hy n select band. raiij,'iiif:^ from fifteen to 
twenty-tive in Dumber, and who wer.^ distin^^uislieil for their jiowers of 
endurance, activity and spirit. liesideH these tiioro were four other 
costume dances. 

Tiie War dance, called by the Iroquois Wa-an-srh, was UEually 
])erformed at ni<,'lit, and only on prominent occasions, or at domestic 
councils of unusual intert'st. After the business of the day was dis- 
posed of, and when the dusk of the evening came on, preparations for 
the dance bej^an; the people gathered within the council lumse in 
large nund)ers to witness the performance, while in an adjacent lodge 
the band of performers assembh^d to array themselves in tlnur cos- 
tumes, and to |)aint and <lec()rate their persons for the occasion. A 
keeper of the faith, in the meantime, occupied the attention of the 
people assembled, with a brief speech concerning the nature and 
objects of this dance. A war-wiioop now announces the approach of 
the band, who, preceded by tiieir K'ader, marcii in single tile to the 
beat of a (h'um into tlie council liouse, where the dance immediately 
opens. They group tli'^mselves within a circular area, standing thick 
together, when the singers commence the war song, the (hums beat 
time and the dancers proceed. After a moment the song ceases, so also 
the dance, tlie band walk around a common center to the boat of the 
drum at half time Another scmg soon commences, when the drums 
quicken their time, and the dance is resumed. 

In the middle of the song there is a change in the music, accom- 
panied Avith a slight cessation of the dance, after which it becomes 
more aninmted, until the song ends, and the band again walk to the 
beat of the drum. Each tune or war song lasts about two minutes, 
the intervals between them being about the same. The drum beats 
time about twice in a second, the voices of the singers keeping pace, 
thus making a rapid and strongly accented species of music. 

Charlevoix gives the following translation of one of these war 
songs: "I am brave and intrepid. 1 do not fear death nor any kind of 
torture. Those who fear them are cowards. They are less than- 
women. Life is nothing to those who have courage. May my enemies 
be confounded with despair and rage." 

Unlike tlie mode of dancing as an amusement among < 
on the toe of the foot, with rapid changes of position, * ' 
method, in the War dance, was chiefly upon the heel, with 
of position and rapid changes of gesture. The heel is 
brought down with quickness and force of muscular strength, to k- ep 
time with the beat of the drum, making a resounding noise by the con- 
cussion, at tlie same time shaking the knee-rattle, contributing niateri- 

r. ^v' 




-ed and 



Ab th. 


nlly to tl»G pomp ftiul show of tho dnnce. Tlio nttitudus in this (huicc 
wore those of violent passion, therefore not so very <^r»iceful. J)iirin>,' 
its prof^ress, anionij the group of thmcers one nmy be seen in tiie ntti- 
tmle of attack, another of defense; one will be in the act of drawing 
the i)ow, another of striking with the war club; some are in the act of 
throwing the tomahawk, otlit^rs listening or watching for an oppor- 
tunity; and others are seen striking the foe, naturally leading to dis- 
tortions of countenance and unseendy attitud<!8. At the same time 
their striking, wild costumes, erect forms at certain stages of the per- 
fornnince, their activity and wild music, the rattle of tiie (hmce, together 
with the excit)d)lo and exciteil pranks, make up a scene of uncommon 

In this dance the war whoop and the response, given by the 
lender and answered by the band, always preceded each song, and, as 
Mr. Morgan remarks, a description of this ttMrific outbreak of human 
voices is scarcely possible. It was n 
prt)longed sound upon a high note, with 
a decadence near the end, followed by an 
abrupt and explosive conclusion, in which 
the voice is raised again to the same 
pitch. The whole band responds in a 

united scream upon the same key with which the leader concludes, ami 
at the same instant. When reduced to a written scale of music, as 
given by Mr. Morgan, is as here shown. 

The second dance in public estimation, by the Iroquois, was the 
Feather dance, called O-fffo-ivclt'-fjo-wa, sometimes called a religious 
dance, because it was specially consecrated to the worship of the Groat 
Spirit. The music was furnished by two singers, seated in the cekiter 
of the room, each having a turtle shell rattle. It consisted of a series 
of songs or measured verses of about two minutes each, the rattles 
being used to mark time, anil as an accompaniment to the songs. 

The Thanksgiving dance, Gd-mi'-o-uh, was likewise a costume 
dance, closely resembling the Featl"?r dance, and was given by a select 

One of the most remarkable dances among the Iroquois was called 
the Trotting dance, Oa-da'-shoie, which was usually the opening dance 
at councils and private entertainments. On the latter occasion no 
costume figures were required. The music was entirely vocal and 
furniidied l)y those who danced. 

Another dance in general use was called the Fish dance, Ga-so- 
wa'-o-no, which was adopted among the Iroquois from other tribes. 
The music consisted of singing, accompanied with the drum and the 



squash-shell rattle, the two singers being seated in the center of the 
room, facin»r each other, au'l ubiug the ilruui and rattle to mark time 
and increase the voluuie of the music. This dance vvas partici[)att'd in 
by both sexes, a peculiarity of which is that it affords an opportunity 
for tlie Indian maiden to dance with whoever she prefers as a [mrtner, 
th'it privileire being accordeil to her. 

An occasional and very singular dance was that called the dance 
for the dead, or ()-ki-'-ivti, which was performed alone by the women. 
The music was vocal, being plaintive and mournful, and was sung by a 
select band stationed in the center of the room. This dance was given 
in the spring and fall, when it was ijelieved the tlead revisited the earth 
and ioined ir. the ceremony. 

One of their dancts v;'"-- c.uled the JJutfalo dance, Dd-fic'-i/d-i/d-o- 
an'-no, designed for mtdes alone, the music consist! .g of singing, 
accompanied with the drum and rattle, the principal feature of wiiich 
vvas to imitate tlie actions of tlie butfalo. According to radition. this 
dance originated in a warlike ex[)edition of tlie Iroquois against the 
Cherokees When they had proceeded as far as the Kentucky Salt 
Lick, they heard, for the first time, the butl'aloes " singing tlieir favorite 
songs," (bellowing and grund)ling;. and fnnn this bellowing, the 
uiusic. and from tlitnr actions, the plan of the liance was made. 

The brief desci'iption of tliese dances here given will, ftu- all 
practical purposes, doui)tless sutHce to atford a general idea of dances 
among the Iroquois. The following are additional (hiuces among that 
people. Those marked with a star are ada[)ted from other tribes: 

For both tiexes: I. O-sfo-irrh'-jio-irci, Great Feather Dance. 2. 
Oa-na'-o-uli, Great Thanksgiving Dance. 3. Dii-niin'-dd-ncH-huni-hd, 
Dance with Joined Hands. 4. (h-.-iln'-xholc,* Trotting Dance. 5. 
O-io-wa -qd-ka,* North Hance. (>. .IC-Iki'-ijk, Antique Dance. 7. 
(i(i-)K)-jil'-(f(f-o, Taking tlie Kettle Out. H. Gd-so-int-o-no.* Fish 
Dance. '.*. C>.s-/>'y-(/a'-/o, the Bush. 10. rr'ff-;/o-//a'-//o. Kattle 
Dance. II. So-irck-D-dii'-no.'* Duck Dance. 12. Ja-ko' -im-o-ini' -no, 
Pigeon Dance. IM. ^r^A'-.s-a'-f/a-zir-a, Grinding Dishes. 14. (fd-t^o'-a, 
Kne»^ Rattlt! Dance. 

For fenial(>s: l"). ()-kc'-ii'<i, Dance for the Dead. 1(1. O-as-ka- 
iu"-(t, ShulUe Dance. 17. D<i-siva-(((i-)ic'-(i, Tumbling Dance. IS. 
Un-(hi-(la-o-(U'-h(i, Turtle Dance, lit. Un-d<i-da-o-at'-ha, Initiaticm 
Drvnc3 for Girls. 20. Un-lo-we'-sus, Shuffle Dance. 21. Da-ijo-da'- 
8un-d(i-e' -(/<), Dark Dance. 

For males: 22. I rff-.sff'-sc/t,* Sioux, or War Dance. 2i}. Dd-ifc- 
ij(i-(jo-u-au -no, Buffalo Dance. 24. N(;-<i'-(fwi-o-an'-no,* Bear Dance. 
25. Wa-(i-no'(i, Striking the Stick. 2tJ. Nc-lio-sa-den'-dd, Scpiut 



Dance. 27. G a -im-ioi' -da-do, >iiia\i> Dance. 2S. I'li-df-d iic-aiik'-hi. 
Track Fiii;liiig Dance. 20. Eli-iirs' -hen-do. Arm mmk'mir Dnnee. 80, 
(x(i-<jo'-S((, Falsa Face Dance. 8 1. Ga-jc' -an. False Face Dance. H2. 
Un-d(i-dc-((-<liifi'-shnii-iic-(if'-h(i, Preparation Dance. 

Mr. M(»r^»Hn is [)r()bably mistaken in classing the Butl'alo dance 
as among those invented by the Iroquois, oi as meaning to convey the 
idea that this dance did not exist among other tribes; for, according to 
the Bishop of Meaux, there was a dance among the tril)e3 "in the 
western {•arts."' called the D'.iuce of the Bull, which is a term here 
used for Buffaloes. 

Mr. Catlin also specially mentions the Buffalo dance amcmg the 
Mandans, which iie witnessed while at tlie ?iIaMdan village. He says. 
"I have for several days past been peculiarly engrossed, and my senses 
have been confounded with the Rtam[)ing, grunting and bellowing of 
tiu' Buffalo dance, which closed a few day.s since at sun-rise."' These 
dances, he says, were somotiiues continued in that village two or three 
weeks without stopping nn instant, until the doubtful moment when 
buffaloes made their a|>pearance. so that tl)ese dances never faihnl of 
effect, as if they have been the means of bringing them in by this 
time, the object of tliese dances, it seems, being for that purpose. 

Mr. Heckewelder says: "It is a pleasing spectacle to see the 
Indian dances, wlitui intended merely for social div(>rsion and innocent 
amusement. I acknowK'dg" I would prefer being {iresent at them for 
a full hour, than a few minutes only at such dances as I have wit- 
nessed at our country taverns among white people. Their so.igs are 
by no means unharmonious. They sing iu chorus; first the men and 
then the women. At times tiie women join in the general song, or repeat 
the strain which the nu>n have just finished. It seems like two parties 
singing in (piestions nud answers, and is upon tlie whole very agreeal)le 
and enlivening. After thus singing for aboet a (puirter of an hour, 
they coiu'lude each song with a loud yell, which I must confess is not 
in concord with the r(>st of tiie music; it is not unlike tlie cat-bird whicli 
closes its pretty song with nunving like a cat. I do not admire this 
finale. The singing always begins by one person only, but others 
soon fall in successively, until the geneial chorus begins, the drum 
beating all the while to mark the tinu>. The voices c f the women are 
clear and full, and their intonations generally correct." 

But the same authority observes that war dances have nothing 
engaging in their object; on the contrary, they strike terror to tl'e 
behohlers, those engaged in them being dressed and [tainted, <u- rather 
bi'daubed with paint, in a manner suitable to the occasion, holding the 
niunha'ous weapon in their hands anil inntating in their dance all the 



warlike nttitinles, motions and actions which are usual in an engage- 
ment with the enemy. 

Before starting out on a war campaign, the War dance was per- 
formeil around a painted jwst, which was tlie Indian mode for recruit- 
ing for such service. Whoever joined in the dance was considered as 
having enlisted for the campaign, and assumed the obligations of 
going out with a party. This ceremt)ny was more commonly called 
sfi'ikiiit/ ilic poi^f. Those participating were painted red, as a symbol 
of war. Around the post the warriors recited their deeds of dai'ing, 
and it is said that no ancient hero drawn from Homer could exhibit 
more fire in words and acts, each warrior detailing his exploits, and 
closing each important sentence by striking the post with his sjjear or 
other weapon of war. It was the forest school, 'm which the young 
learned their first lesson in the art of war. Occasions of this kind 
among the untutored natives took the place of our more civilized mili- 
tary reunions and Fourth of July celebrations. 

When returning from a successful exi)edition, the dance of Thanks- 
giving was always indulged in. It partook of the character of a 
religious cei-emony, accom[)anied with singing and choruses, in which 
the women joined, but otherwise took no part in the [)erfornmnce. 

L,i Hontan, speaking of dances among the Nm-tii American In- 
dians, says tliey were of seveial sorts, the i)rinci[)al of which was the 
Calumet dance; the others were the Chiefs dance, the Warrior's dance, 
the Marriage dance, and the dance of the Sacrifice, differing from each 
othor both in cadences and in steps or leaps, as he terms them, it 
being impossible, he says, to describe them, for "they have so little 
resemblance to ours: the Calumet dance, which they [)erform only on 
certain occasions, as when strangers pass through their country, or 
when their enemies send them ambassadors t(j treat of [)eace, being 
the most grave and handsome."' 

The rattle used in dances is called by the Iroquois (iiis-<l(i-irn-S((, 
and by the Algomjuins Clii-clii-coiic. 

Capt. Jonathan Carver, in s[)eaking of the style in performing 
any dance, says that the women, particularly those of the western 
nations, dance very grac(!fully, and that ditferent nations vary in their 
manner of dancing. The Ojibways thn w themselves into a greater 
variety of attitud<« than any othor people, sometimes holding their 
heads erect, at other times bending forward almost to the grounil, then 
reclining on one side, and immediately after on the other. The Sioux 
or Dakotas carry themselves more upright, step firmer and move more 
gracefully; but all accompany tlieir dances with a disagreeable noise, 
both in their style of singing and words of exclamation. 



Mr. Catliii, the artist, mentions the following vlnnces among the 
western tribes wliom he visited: Tlie Slave dance, the Begging or 
Beggar's dance, the Discovery ihince. Dance to the Medicine of the 
jjrave, among the Sauks and Foxes. The Beggar dance, the Buffalo 
dance, the Bear dance, the Eagle dance, and the Dance of the Braves, 
among the Sioux and Ojihways: the Buffalo dance, the Boasting ilance, 
and the Begging dance among tiie Mandans. 

Mr. Fletcher, I'liited States Ai^ent amonjj tlu! Winnebnj'oes in 
1S4S. says that dancing is a national trait of this tribe, and is a part 
of their religious, social and military system; that the War dance was 
celebrated by them before starting on the war-path, and although this 
tiibe at that time had not for several years been engaged in war, it was 
htill kept up among them, concerning which he says: "The object of 
this seems to be the same as that sought to I. effected by martial 
mrsic and military reviews amimg the whites, namely, to keep alive 
a martial spirit and in peace pre[)are for .var." 

The Bear dance was engaged in as a religious ceremony by the 
tSioux. In this ilance the dress was of bear skin; the dancc^rs imitated 
the motioris of that animal, and they hoped ])y this ceremony to win 
success in hunting tlu^ l)ear. 

W. P. Clarke, of the United States Army, in his work on the 
"Indian Sign Language," thus refers to dances among the wdd tribes 
of the western [)lains: " The Comanches have thi> Haven, Buffalo, 
Bull. Swift Fox — all war dances — and Dance of Fear, with shields 
ami hiiiccs. when they expect an attack; Turkey Dance, inutating 
motions of turkeys. Tho Deer dance might be called the Juggler's 
dance, as the dancers pretend to swallow red beans and then throw 
them out thnmgh the breast."' 

The Caddoes had a Corn dance, held when the corn was ripn 
enough to eat, and, until this ilance took place, no one was allowed to 
pick any of the corn. They also liad a Beaver dance, in which the 
medicine men swallowed large shells. 

The Jiertliold Indians had a special dance for the women, called 
the White Butfalo danc(^. They also had the Strong Heart, Bull, 
Wolf, and Young I3og dances. Th.iy usi'd masks of buffalo heads for 
the Bull dance, and wolf skins for tin' Wolf dance. 

The ("heyennes had a special war dance, when all the soldiers 
were wanted for war purposes. A large fire was made in the center 
of the camp, where the warriors assembled, mounted and dismounted, 
but wearing all their "war toggery," weapons, etc. Men, women and 
childven joined ia the dance, and when the excitement had become 
intense and reached its greatest height, the head men went among the 




dancers anil picked out twelve of tlie best and bravest soldiers, and 
placed two lines of six each on opposite sides of the fire. Then the 
old men and head men ^ave them advice, telling them that they must 
be vigilant and bravt>, and must never run from their enemies, and 
that tiieir peo[)le vrould, after their return, sing of their brave deeds, 
but should they be killed on the battle fitdd, than whit'li there is no 
more glorious death, tliey v/ould be great chiefs in tlie hereafter. 

Generally speaking, the Plains Indians had the Omaha or Grass 
danc'e> engaged in by men, old and young, at any time; this is also a 
be'fj'in}' dance. The Fox dance was for vounjr men, at anv time. The 
Wolf dance was performed by those just going to war. The H( rse 
dance took place once in two years ; a large lodge is pitched in the 
center of cam[); the men are in war costumes, and their ponies painted; 
they then circle, charge, discharge guns, etc. The Scal[) dance was 
engaged in by men and women, after the scalps have been brought 
home; those who have been on the war-path have their ffices lilackened. 
Chief, or Short Hair dance, was mostly for old men, at any time. In 
the Night dance, young men and girls engaged, at any time The 
Strong Hciirt dance was for young men, at any time, as als(j was theS[)irit 
dance. In the Otter diince, young men used poles Avith otter skins, 
th(( ceremony taking place at any time. This was a medicine dance. 
The Kill dance was performed by mothers whose sons had been to war 
and met with success. These do not exhaust the list of dances, but 
are the princij)al ones. 

The Corn dance, or Green Corn dance, was one which seems to 
have been observed among all the tribes within the country where the 
zea maize or Indian corn was found, and although very many, and. it, 
may be said, nearly all of the dances, once faithfully observed by the 
tribes in their native or wild condition, have disappeared and fallen 
into disuse, especially anv ngst those Indians called the civilized tribes, 
yet the festival or Green Corn dance is still ob.served by these latter 
tribes, especially those of the Indian Territory. 

The Indians of the countrv of the Northwest coast, alonij the 
Columbia river and other waters, where salmon abounded, had the 
Salmon dance, with which was connected many superstitions; but 
since the coming oi the white man it is no longer observed. 

The Gins Ventres celebrated the Goose danca to remind the wild 
geese, as they left in the autumn, that they had Jiad good food all 
summer and must come back in the spring. This dance wiis performed 
bv the women, each one carrying a bunch of long seed grass, the 
favorite food of the wild goose. They danced to the souikI of the 
drum, circling about with shulHing steps. 



Acconliii'' to Beverlv. some tribes of ludiaiis luul also a danco 
called the Festival dance, which vms j)erf()rined by the "dancers them- 
selves forming a ring, and moving round a circle of carved posts that 
are set up for that purpose, or eh e round a fire made in a convenient 
part of the town ; and then each has his rattle in his hand, or what other 
thing he fancies most, as his bow and arrows, or his tomahawk. They 
also dross themselves up with branclu^s of trees or some other strange 
accoutrements. Thus they proceed, dancing and singing, with all the 
antic postures they can invent, and he is the bravest fellow that has 
the most prodigious gestures." 

In this connection it is intei-esting to note information given in 
the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the year 
18s4, p. i37, wherein is set out the report of the Pine Ridge agency, 
Dakota, in which it is noted that the Indians about that agency have 
made "great progress in abaudonin.g many of their customs, noticeably 
that of the Sun dance, which, for the first time in the history of the 
Ogal la-Sioux and Northern Cheyennes, was not held. The abandon- 
ment of such a barbarous ami di'moralizin*; ceremonv. anta<fonistic to 
civilization and progress, as it has been proved, is a bright and prom- 
ising event in the tribe's struggle towards advancement in the white 
num's ways, and for this, credit and thanks are duo the younger element 
among the tri])e, having encountered in so doing the opposition of the 
old and non-progressive Indians. It is to be hoped that a firm stand 
on the part of the government in the future will prevent the reapi)ear- 
ance of the Sun dance." 

In the report of the Indian Commissioner for ISSli, is also found 
the following information from the Indian Agent at Crow Creek and 
Lower Brule consolidated agency: "These Indians have given up the 
Sun dance, Scalp dance, and other barbarous dances that keep alive 
their wild natures and retard their progress, but I have not endeavored 
to break up the Scjuaw dance and such other harndess amusements." 

It is noticoil tluit otlit^r Indian agents, in these various reports, 
frequently take occasion to inform the commissioner that they have 
broken up and prohibited the Sun dance and other l)arbarous dances 
and practices among the Indians under their control. 

The ho[»e so earnestly indulged in by these Indian agents that the 
firm stand taken by the government will prevent the reaMpoarance of 
these barbarous practices among the Indians, will find a licartv 
response from every true philanthropist and advocate of Indian welfare; 
but those who look r,()on th(> civilization of mankind as something 
tending to contribute to their lia|)piness. in the advancement of their 
moral condition, cannot well content themselves witii a success accoin- 



plishcd through the Jiu'iun (lopiirtiiieiit in iiuluciiig the Ugfilhi-Sioux 
and other trihos to iil)an(i>m their long-estahlisluHl ami extremely bar- 
barous eustoins mentioned, but they may properly demand, in the 
interest o£ civilization, that the barbarous and brutal })Ugilistie practices 
of tlio white man's pri/e-ring shall be abandomul, that liis bull-fights, 
cock-lights, horse-races, and other like ])rutal exliibitions for the 
amusement of the grosser senses of the civiliztnl white man, be also 
removed from the catalogue of favorite amusements for the editicaticm 
of civilized peop](>, and wliilst the government agents are so active in 
patting a stop to thi^ barbarous and demoralizing influence of the Siiii 
(Unicr, let tlieir activity include also attention to the aforesaid ilenioral- 
izing practices among our own people. 

THi: iUAia- DANCE. 


Indians nro Fond of Anmsement— Deliulit in Games of Chance — Ball Playing— 
Game of LaCrosse— Addicted to Practical Jokiiif;— Various Modt s of (lainblinsj 
— Various Devices for Amusement— Gamo of tlie Plum Stone— Card playiuj,'. 


'^pT'7HE Imliiins, in their native 
^:i A condition, were fond of 
/tjl Jf amusements and games of 
^ chance, and, above all, 
were much <,'iven to j^ambling. 
In this regard, however, it may be 
said of them, as in respect to most 
other peculiarities of character, 
they do not perhaps dilfer essen- 
tially from the white man, especi- 
ally so far as a propensity for 
gambling is concerned, and it is a 
singular coincidence that, in their 
games and mode of gambling, in 
many respects, they are similar in 
character to those amongst civil- 
ized ju>()[)le. 

Their dances, spoken of in 
tho foregoing chapter of this work 
s[)ecially devoted to that subject, 
whilst not designed strictly as 
an institution of amusement, but 
more as a religious (".evotion. 
might perhaps, to a certain extent, 
bo classed under that head. 
Amusements and games, among tiio Indians, were something 
which attracted the special attention of travelers ami writers at an 
early day, the trait being so prominently nuirked in the Indian char- 
acter. Their attention was drawn in this direction particularly from 




the fact that in their ainusemonts and games so many features Avere 
found mufli resembling, in this respect, the practices of the white man. 
The Iroquois liad, in connection with tln>ir dances, a kind of 
amusement, in tlio nature of what we would call concerts, four in num- 
ber, as follows: O-cc-dosc' ; the Medicine concert, Oa-no-d(i -ijo-suh ; 
the Female concert, O-c-iiti'-do-la ; and Thanksgiving concert, Ah-tlo'- 
ircli. The O-ci'-dosf' was the most prominent, and is thus described by 
Mr. Morgan: 

'•It was given in the night, in a dark room, and no women were 
allowed to be jjresent. Those engaged in the concert were seated on 
benches around the room, in a continixous row, each one holding in his 
hand a rattle. These rattles were made to give each one a different 
note, by means of diiferent sized shells, and holes bortul in them to 
♦unit the sound. Among twenty of them, rattled together at such a 
concert, no two would give the same sound. Corn was placed inside 
the shell. When the parties were ready, one of their number sang a 
song, to which they all beat time with their rattles, and at certain 
intervals all joined in the song in chorus. Another then commenced 
a song, which was continued and finished in the same manner. After 
each one in turn had sung his song, which, with the accompaniments 
and the choruses, made a not unpleasant entertainment, the concert 
was ended."' 

Tlieir games, except those involving athletic sports, were played 
by both sexes, some of them together and some of them separately. 
They also had games belonging to children only. Their games were 
much the same as those found among all the tribes throughout the 
continent, in which the practice or mode of playing* them was (^uite 
uniform, subject to the same rules and proceedings. 

Mr. Morgan notes the following games amcuig the Iroquois: The 
Ball game, or O-id-dd-jish' -qiia-iujc ; the game of Javelin, or (ln-iuf- 
(/a-o; the game of Deer Buttons, or Uui^-ya-c-sd'-id; game of Snow 
Snake, or U(i-ira/-s(i; game of Arch(>ry, or 1k)W and arrow, Wd-a'-iio, 
(jd'-iio; game of the Bowl and Peach Stones, or (jii)i-k(i'-rli. 

The games of the Iroipiois, like those of other nations, were 
divisible into athletic games and games of chance. As Mr. Morgan 
observes, unlike the prizes of the Olynijjic games, no chaplets awaited 
the victors. Tiiey were strifes between nation and nation, village and 
village, or triiics and tribes; in a word, parties against parties, and 
not champion against champion. The prize contendeil for was that of 
victory; and it belonged not to the triumphant players, but to the 
party which sent them forth to the contest. 

Betting upon the result of games was not only common among 



the Iroquois, but was a custom among all the Americau tribes, thus 
referred to by Longfellow: 

" So tliey sat and playod toyotber, 
All the old tTien and tlio yountt inou, 
Played for drosses, weapous, wampntii, 
Playod till iiiidui(,'lit, played till mornin>f, 
Playod until tlio Yeuadizze, 
Till the cmining Pau-Piik-Koowis, 
Of their treasures bad despoiled them." 

The bets were generally niado in a systematic manner, the articles 
at stake being deposited with the managers of the game; thus the 
j.rincipal stake holder, so well observed among our civilized people, 
was an established feature with the Indian in their institution in 
gambling and games of chance. A bet offered by a person upon one 
side, in the nature of some valuable article, was matched by a similar 
article, or one of equal value, by some one upon tiio other side. Per- 
sonal ornaments were the usual gambling currency. Other bets fol- 
lowed in like manner, until hundreds of articles were sometimes col- 

The game of ball is usually [)layed in the winter season, after the 
winter's hunts are over, and during the summer while the game is 
unfit to kill, and in the midst of their athletic; sports, games of chance 
and war. The mode of playing this game is thus described by Mr. 
Schoolcraft : 

" The game is played by two parties, not necessarily equally 
divided in numbers, but usually one village against another, or one 
large village may challenge two or three smaller ones to the combat. 
When a challenge is accepted, a day is appointed to play the game; 
ball bats are made, and each party assembles its whole force of old 
men, young men and boys. They women never play in the same game 
with the men. Heavy bets are made by individuals of the op[)osite 
sides. Horses, guns, blankets, butt'alo robes, kettles and trinkets, are 
freely staked on the result of the game. When the parties are 
assembled on the ground, two stakes are placed about a (quarter of a 
mile a[iart, and the game commeiu'cs midway bt>tween them; the object 
of each party l)eiiig to get the ball beyond the limits of its op[)oiit'nts. 
The game commences by one of the old men throwing the ball in the 
air, when all rush forward to catch it in their ball bats before or after it 
falls on the ground. The one who catches it throws it in the direction of 
tlie goal of the opposing party, when, if it be caught by one of the 
same side, it is continued in that direction, and so on until it is thrown 
beyond the limits; but if caught by an opponent, it is thrown back in 
the opposite direction. In this way the ball is often kept all day 





between the two bouiuliiries, neither party beinj; nble to get it beyond 
the limit of the other. When one lias caught the ball, he has the 
right before throwing it to run towanls the limits until ho is overtakiii 
by tiie other party, when, being compelled to throw it, he endeiivorw 
to send it in tlie direction of some of his own party, to be caught by 
some one of tliem, wlio continues st'iiding it in tlit^ same diret^tion." 

Till- ball IS carved from a knot, or made of l)aked day covensd 
with rawhide of the deer. The bfdl itiit is from thrtHi to four feet 
long; one end bent up in a circular form of al)out fcmr incites in 
diameter, in which is a net-work made of rawhide or sinews of the 
lU'i'V or l)utl'alo. 

Mr. Morgan says this game rencheil back to remote nntiquity, and 
was universal among tiie rod races, and was playetl with a degree of 
zeal and entiiusiasm which would scarcely be credited. Among the 
Iro(juois the parties to the play stationed themselves in two [)arallel 
lines, facing each other, each one holding a ball bat, and with which 
aloiK* the ball was handled. As soon as all the [ireliminaries were 
adjusted, the ball was dropped between the two tiles of players, and 
taken between the l)ats of the two who stood in the middle of each 
file, opposite to each other. After a ijrief struggle betw<H'n them, in 
whicii eacii endeavoreil with his bat to get possession of the ball and 
give it the first impulse towards his own gate, it was thrown u[), and 
then commenced the contest. 

The play went on with so much earnestness that they frequently 
wounded each other in their unconscious zeal for succes-. resulting 
Bonjetimes in bn)ken bones. Notwithstanding this, no ill-feeling 
between them arose in consequence of mishaps of this kind. These 
plays were conducted with the utmost fairness, during which (lis[)utes 
seldom arose. 

Among their prominent games was one called the game of Plum 
Stone, or game of the J3owl, known according to otiier translations as 
the game of the or Platter, and sometimes known as the game 
of the Little Bones; pieces of bone, worked into form, being some- 
times used in place of plum stones or other substances, thus described 
by Mr. Kohl in his " Kitchi-Gami. or Wanderings Anmnd Lake 

'• It is played with a wooden bowl, and a number of small figures 
bearing some resemblance to our chessmen. They are \isually carved 
very neatly out of bones, wood or plum stones, and represent various 
things: a, a hand, a door, a man, a canoe, a half moon, etc. Tliey 
call these figures '7>af/«a// ' (carved plum stones l, and the game 
has received its name from them. Each figure has a foot on which 



it can Btiiiul upriglit. They nro nil thrown into a wooden howl ( in 
Indian, (intKidn). The players make a hole in the ^Moiind, ami thrust 
the howl with tlie ti^un>s into it, while <^iviiirr it a sii'.jht shake. Tlie 
luore ti^'ures stand ii[)ri<,'ht on the smooth hottom of the liowl tiirou^'li 
this siiake, all the i)etter for the player. Eaeli fl^'ure has its vidue, 
and some of them represent to a certain extent the pieces in the ^'ame 
of diess. Then) are also other fij^ures which may similarly he called 
the pawns. The latter, carved into small round stars, are all alike, 
have no pedestal, hut are red on one side an<l plain on the other, and 
are connteil as plus and minus, according to the side U[>periiio8t. 
With the pawns it is perfect chance which side is up, but with the 
pieces much <lepends on the skill with which the howl is shaken. The 
other rules and mode of calculation are said to he very complicated, 
and tht) game is played with great attention and passion. This game, 
as thus described, singularly corresponds in some respects to our game 
of chess. It is somewhat diU'erently played among ditTerent tribes, 
although all are founded upon the miiiw general principle." 

('apt. Jonathan Carver speaks of the game as tlu; game of the 
Bowl or Platter, which, he says, is played between tw persons oidy, 
each person having six or eight little bones, not unlike a peach stone 
in sizo or shape, except that they are quadrangular, two of the sides 
of which were colored black and the others white. These they 
threw up into the air. from whence they fall into a IjowI or platter 
placed I. nderneath, and made to spin arounil. Accordingly as these 
bones present the white or black sicL upwards, they reckon the game. 
He who happens to have the greatest number of a similar color turned 
up, counts five points, and forty is the game. 

Hennepin, referring to this game, says the men ctimmonly play 
with the stones of certain fruits that are red on one sitle and black on 
the other. These they put into a largo wooden platter not very deep, 
or into a basin of birch bark upon a woolen blanket or dressed skin. 
They ])iay six or seven together, but only two of them take hold of the 
plattiu" with their two hands. One after another they lift it up and 
strike the bottom against the ground to hustle these six objects 
together. If there come up five red or five black, all of the same side. 

Mr. Morgan thus speaks of this game as {)layed among the 
lro(juois: '"A dish about a foot in diameter at the base was carved tmt 
of a knot, or made of earthen. Six peach stones were then ground, or 
cut down into an oval form, reducing them in the process about half in 
size, after which the heart of the pit was removed, and the stones 
themselves were burned upon one side, to blacken them. The peach 



Htonort wen< Hliakt'ii in tlm l)()wl by tho pliiyt'r, tlio codiit (lopcMidiiif^ 
upon tlin iiuiiil)!'!- w liirli cdiuo uj) of ono color, utter tlifv had ctiiised 
rolliii<^ in tlio disli. It was played in tho public council Iiouho, by ii 
HUccBSHion of plfiycrs. two at a time, under tlui sufx'rvisioii of niana/^^ors 
appointed to represent thi» two parties and to conduct tiie contest. The 
game was ended and the victory gained by hini who finally won all the 
peach stones in the iiank, wiu(.'h was usually one huudred." 

John Tanner, tlu! Indian captive, speaks of this game as the 
Bi'(j-ijti-n(ih-))ilk\ which lu* says ai'e small pieces of wood, bone, or 
sometimes brass, made by cutting uj> an old ketthi. One side is 
stained or colored black, tlu^ other side they aim to have bright. 
These may vary in numl)er, i)ut can never be fewer than lune. They 
are put tog(;ther in a large wooden bowl or tray kept for that purpose. 
Two parties, sometimes twenty or thirty, phiy sitting o[>posite each 
other in a circle. The mode in [)laying consists in striking the edge 
of the bowl in such a manner as to throw all the Bcij-ifd-tinh into the 
air; and on the manner in which they fall into the tray depends the 
gain or loss of the party. If his stroke has been to a certain extent 
fortunate, the player strikes again and again, as in the game of billiards, 
until he misses, when it passes to the next. 

Among the Dakotas. it is said, the women often [)lay this game of 
Plum stones more than the men, and often lose all their trinkets iu 
betting on it. 

The game of Deer Buttons among the Iroquois was much like that 
of the game of Dish and Plum stones, e.vcept that the use of the dish 
was omitted. It was rather a fireside game. 

The game of Javelin, which, it seems, was most common among 
the Iroquois, depended upon the dexterity with which tlm javelin was 
thrown at a ring, as it rolled upim the ground. The javelin was an 
instrument five or six feet long, and about three-fourths of an inch in 
diameter, made of a substantial kind of wood, sharpened at ono end. 
The ring was about eight inches in tliameter, made either into a hoop 
or solid like a wheel, by winding with splints. Sometimes the javelin 
Avas thrown horizontally by placing the forefinger against the end, 
supporting it with the thumb and second finger. In other cast's it was 
held in the center and thrown with tht^ hand raised above tht^ shoulder. 
The javelins themselves were the forfeit in the play, and the game was 
gained by the party which won tlnnn. 

Among the nmu.sements of the Iroquoi.s, Algonquins and other 
nations, in the latitudes of snow iu the winter season, was the game of 
Snow-snake, designed primarily as a diversion for the young, but was 
occasionally njade a public game between tribes, like other games, and 



nrousfti (I (Ici^rt'c of spirit iiivolviiij^ l)t>ttiii<,'. us in otliiT ^luut's. Tliose 
wcro Hindu ol' liicknry with |M>rfo(it precision and HiiiKh. Tlioy wcro 
from fivi> to sfvi'ii feet in li'n<,'tli, about onc-fourtli of an inch in fiiick- 
nt'ss, and <^radiially diniinishin<^ from about an inch in widtii at tlio 
Horn] to alnmt half an inch at thu foot. Tim licad was round, tuiricd 
up siii^iitly. and p<iintcd with sonin hard or heavy sul)stanc('. to 
increase its momentum when Htarted. 

in playing' this <^ame. tiio snake was thrown witii tiie liand l»y 
piacin^r tlie foretin^'c^r at the tail end, and starting' it with the tiiund) 
ami remaininix fiiif,'ers. It was thus inado to run upon the snow crust 
with the speed of au arrow. an<l to a muc.i ;,M('ater distanct^ 
Honit'times ninniiif;' sixty or oi^dity rods. Sui-cess depeiide<l upon 
dexterity and muscular stren<,'th of tins parties enj^nu^'d. 'i'lie snake 
wlii<-h ran the ;.:reat('st distance was a point for the side to which it 
' elon;,'ed 

.Vrcliery, or practice with the how and arrow, as a matter of amuse- 
ment as well as profit, to ac(piire experience for hunting,', was sometliini.ij 
c'lmiiKUi aimuij,' all the trilii>s, as with all our civilized peoide. who 
practice shooting at u mark or target. 

Charlevoix speaks of a game he saw played between the Pt)ttawat- 
nmies and Miamis. called the game of Straw. These straws were 
small reeds, about the bigni ss of a wheat straw, and about six inches 
long. Thev took a jiarcel commonly of L'dl ; always an odd number. 
After having shullled them well togetlnu', making innumerable contor- 
tions, and invoking the(}tMiii, they separated thtuu with a kind o!' an awl 
or pointed bone, into parci'lsof ten each; every one taking hisoNvn at a 
vcuiture, and he that happeneil to g(*t the parcel with II gained a cer- 
tain number of points that wtM'e aijreed on. the whole game being 
sixty or eighty. 

Women have also a game, called anionic the Ojibwi.ys I'li -jniii-sf- 
knli-iraii, which is pla_\eil with two leather lielts tied with a string, 
idioiit two feet long. These art^ placed on Uie ground and each 
woman, with a stick dxuit six feet long, irien to take up the Ch-itiili- 
sr-Liili-initi from tlie other contesting party, and in doing so throws it 
in the air. Whichever [larty gets it first to tin' place designated, 
ctuints one in the game. 

Tlie ph'V of the M<iccaHi!i is aiiotlier game practiced among tho 
Indian tribes, the mode of proceeiling being siilistantially the sann< 
among them all. It is thus desciibed as plavyd amoii<^ the l>akotas: 
There are two parties to the play, se\eral on a side, one playing 
agai!iMt the other. One side will sing whilst one man of the other 
party hides a ball and moccasins. There are three moccasins used for 



the pnrpost!. The iiiaii takes tlic Imll or sticU Ixstweon liis tlimnl) and 
forftin^cr, and slips it I'lnm one niocciisin to another several times, 
and leaves it in oni' of tlitun. and then stops — soin(^thin^ liko thindilu- 
plav ainon*^' the wiiites. The party who hhvo l)eeii sin<^ini,' liavo to 
j^ues.-( in which moccasin tin* hall is, for wliicli purpose one man is 
<diosen. If he <fuesses where the hall is the tirst time, ho loses. 
Slionlil tho hall not he in the moccasin ho guesses the tirst time, he can 
try again. He has now two moccasins for a choice, and has to guess 
wiiich one the i)all is in. If he is successful, he wins; if not, he loses. 
and ^'o they have only one cluii-ct) in two of winning. When one side 
loses, the other gives up the ;i;o<'easins to the clher parly to try tli'dr 
luck awhile at hidinif a i)all. There are no lii'di numoers in the <famo. 

The children sometimos play the gann^ of I'inni stont^ The 
children also have a game, played witii grains cf corn, precisely liki! a 
game sometimes played among our white people. They take some 
grains of Indian corn, or something of tlu* kind, and put them into tlie 
hand, closing it U|i, and asking aiiotiier liow many there are in the 
hand. Tho one who guesses right has tln^ game — soimithing liko what 
our white (duldren sometimes call tlie ganu) of "odd or even." 

The Indian children also had two other gam(!S. thus descrihed hy 
Hennepin: "They 'ake a how and two sticks, onti hig, one little; they 
lioM the little one in their right hand and ■ rike it .i(> as higii as tln-y 
can with the other; another looks where it tails, and throws it upagain 
to him that struck it. This play has likewise something in it like 
some among tho European children. They likewise make a hall of 
rushes or leaves of Indian corn; they toss it up and catch it upon the 
point of a stick. Tho gl'oat [)eople. men and women, pass aw!iy Ihi' 
winte'- I'-g. <;i atelling stories over the tiro, liko tho Europeans." 

Foot racing hetwcen individuals vasidsi. a favorite pastime among 
a'! tl trihes. Anioiig those trihes who. after the discovery and intro- 
tluctiou of horses into this country, had ac(piir(>il them, this was suc- 
ceeded hy horse-racing. Aiound or in the vicinity of the villages of 
Indian nations, especially among iho trihes of the Anu'rican plains, « ho 
were jiossi'ssed of horses, wouM he found race tracks, fnv tint purpose 
of running and competing in trials of s|)eeil of t' is kind, tho same as 
foi'.nd upon the agricuimnil lair grounds in the tanuiiig communities 
of our white people at the presold day. 

Caleh Atwater sa\s that in lM!'.t, during tho time he was among 
the trihes of Indians in th(> I'pper Mississijipi country at i'rairie du 
Chien, as a commissioner to m'goliato tho treaty, ho found them, their 
young nmn eKpocially, addicted to card playing, on which thev het 
heavily, in some instances losing largely at the so called game uf "old 


nil': AMK/JU'AN IMilAN. 

Hlotl^o."' Card pl/iyiii',', and otluT likcj^aiuos ot' tlu> wiiiti' iiiaii, iiitro- 
ducod jimoii" tlicin l»v tli»> whites at an «>arlv dav. arc larijelv iiululyfotl 
ii;; but t*iis siiii|ily provfs iiotliiii}^ bcvoml tlio I'act of iiiiToartjiiin'- 
rneut of ai; additional kouivh of victi borrowed froiu tlit> irreat stock of the 



[t iit'ltlicr Ktrciii/tlii'Mcd IImi Indian's jiroiKMisitv for 

<Mi>iblin<r, nor added anything to the JndiauH held of satiBfvin'f his 
propensity for playin«^ ^'anies of ehanee. It opeiated simply as an 
evidence upon the Indian ndnil that the while man. in liis evil ways in 
this I'espect, did not dilfer essentially from liimsdl'. 



Lon«'tiil "f Iii'lian ("urn Fuels ('oiiccriiiiij,' Simic I'scnof Ccuii Mciil Mini Dtlicr 
AitK'Ifs Ni> lt<t;iilar 'rime for Mfiils Kal wlicii IIhv jut l!un;,'iv Moilf of 
CoiikillH Wolin'li (ill llic Wiirk 1)1' ('iiokillK Mtnii' of I'lfsiTviliU .Meal — 'Till' /I'll 
Maize - Mi nl(>, I'm" ami MaiiiMT of (!<M)kiui:— Wild Kicf Vc^'ctultioK ami FniilH 
— FoiuliicsM fur Simar— Siiu'ar Makiiiir A (Jraml liuliiiii Carnival Mmli' ci( 
l'ri)rc<'iliiiK in Makinj,' Sn^,'ar Mukuks, or MIrcli Mark Muxes. 

A i; I !■; I) iih.i iii^io- 

liiii'd lia\c lict'ii tilt' 
IMltilP||> (if tlif wliitf 

lllilll l\f, to till' I'i'Ulj 

1111(1 siili.siHtnirc of till' Iiiiiiiiii 
ill Ills iiativn coinlitioii. One 
tliiii<,'. liuwt'vcr. is .-.I'ttlt-d aiul 
>;«'iu'nilly iiiuln -toml. tlmt 
t!ii' Iiidiiiirs •stiitV of lit'i'." 
ill till' vt'<;t'tiililii kiii^filoiii. 
\Mis till' /I'll iiiiii/i'. or wlint 
Wf Coliiliiolllv eall liiiliiiil 
rani , ihoiiikI w liieli cliiHlcrcil 
ill bis iiiin;;iiiiitioii. iju' saiiii' 
as witli lii.s toliari'o, variou.'^ 
su|)t'istitioiis. lii'li 'viiiir it to 
liiivf liiiii iri\»"ii liiin jiH 11 
s|p('i'iiil favor tliioiij,f|i tlir 
uooi|iu'>s of till' (Jiral Siiiiit, 
and roiu'i'iiiiiii,'' wliieli tin' 
Ojiliways liavi' tin' tollowiii;,^ 
I'l'iiiitifiil It'ui'inl : 
A poor Indian wiig livlii;^ with Ii'h wifimiid cliildi'i'ii in a liuaiitiful 
|iarl of till' ('(iiinti'y. Hin cliildri'ii wiTo too yoihii^' to ;^ivn liim aiiv'^taiici* ill lllilll iii^X- "ii'l )>** !>'> ' '>>i' <" \nr\i liinisclf. Kiit lif wan 
tliaiikfiil for all In' ri'ci'ivi'd from tlm foii'sl. and altlmn^fli in' was vi rv 
poor. Iii> was vi'iy coniiiitid. 

His oldest Hon inlu'ritml thi> Haiiii> disposition, and liad cvor lu't'ii 


II. "I I 1 I IV 




obtvlioiit to liis parents. Ho hnd now ronohod the n<:fo fit whicli ir is 
[)n)[>'T to nmke tlio initial fast, whicli tlio Indian lads all tlo at about 
foni'tt'iMi or fifttH'ii. As soon as the sprinj^ arrived, his mother built 
liini a little fasting-iiMlirc in a nitired spot, where he would not be 
disturlx'd; and when it was finished he went in and began his fast. 
He iiniuscd liiinsclf for n few niornini^s by ranil)!in<f about in the 
vicinity, Inokinj,' at the shrubs and wild tlowers (^having a taste for 
such things I and brought great bunches of them ah)ng in his hands, 
wliicii Itnl him often to think on the goodness of the Great Spir't in 
proviiling allkimlsof fruit and herbs for the use of man. This idea 
(piite took possession of his mind, and he earni'stly praytnl that he 
might lircani of SDmetliing Ui benefit his peo[tl(.', for he had often 
seen them snll't-riiig for the want of food. 

On the third day he becann' too wtiak and faint to walk about, 
and kept his l)ed. He fancied, while thus lying in a ilreamy state, 
that he saw a handsomn young man, dressed in green robes, and with 
grt'cn plumes on his head, advancing towards ',im. The visitor said: 
'• I am sent to you, my friend, by the Great Spirit, who made all things. 
He has observed you. He sees that you desire to procure a benefit 
to your people. Listen to my words, and follow my instructions." 
Hi' tlii'n told the young man to rise and wn^stle with him. Wt^ak as 
he was. he tottered to his feet and began, but after a long trial, the 
hamlsome stranger said: **My friend, it is enough for once; 1 will 
come again." He then vanislied. 

On the next day the mysterious visitor reappeared and renewed 
the trial. The young nniii knew that his physical strtMigth was ev(Mi 
less than the day before; i)ut as this declined, he f(ilt that his mind 
becanm stronger and clearer. Perceiving this, the stranger in 
plumes again spoke to him. ■To-morvow," he said, "will b(> your last 
ti iai. iJe strong and courageous; it is the only way in which you can 
obtain the boon you seek." He then departed. 

On the tliir<l day as the young faster lay on his palh^t, weak and 
exhausted, the ph'asing visitor returned; and as he renewed the con- 
test, he looked more l)eautiful than ever. The young man grasped 
him. ami seemed to feel new strength imparted to his body, while that 
of liis antagonist grew weaker. 

-Vl length the stranger cried out: "It is enough. 1 am lutaten. 
Vou will win your desire from the (}reat Spirit. To-morrow will be 
the seventh diiv of your fast, and the lust of your trials. Your father 
will bring you food, which will recruit y(m. I shall then visit you for 
the last timi'. and I foresee that you ani destined to |irevail. As soon 
as you have thrown nie dow n, strip otf my garments, and bury me ()n 



tlie spot. Visit t • pldoe, and keep the enrth dean and soft. Let no 
Aveeds grow there. 1 sliall soon come to life, and re-appear witli all 
the \vra[)[)ing8 of my garments and my waving plumes. Once a 
month cover my roots with fresh earth, and by following these direc- 
tions your triumph will he comph^te." He then tL.rippeared. 

Next morning the youth's father came with fool, hut he asked 
him to set it by, for a particular reason, till the sun went down. 
Meantime the sky-visitor came for his final trial, and althougli tin- 
young man had not partaken of his father's otVcr of food, he engaged 
in the cond)at with his visitor with a feciling of supernatural strength. 
He threw him down. He tiien stripped off his garments and plumes. 
He buried his body in the earth, cart-fully [)re[)aring the gnmnd, and 
removing fvery weed; and then returned to his father lodgt\ He 
kept everything to himst'lf. revealing nothing to di'nute his vision or 
trials. Ht* jiartook s[)aringly of food, and soon recovered his [)erfect 
strtiiigth. But h(* never for a moment forgot the burial-|)lace of his 
friend. He carefully vi.sited it. and woidd not let even a wild tlower 
grow there. Soon he saw the tops of the green plumes coming out of 
tlie ground, at first in s|iiral points, then expanding into i)road leaves, 
and rising in green stalks, and finally assuming tiitir silken fringes 
and yellow tasst>is. 

I'hc spr'ing and summer had now passed, when one day towards 
evening, lit* reijuested his father to visit t!i. ioiu^ly spot whcri' he iiad 
fasted. The old man stood in anni/.(wnent. The lodge was gone, and 
in its [)lace stood a tail, graceful and nnijestic plant, waving its tapi-r 
leaves and displaying its bright colored plumes and tassels. J5ut 
what most attracted his admiration was its cluster of golden ears. •' It 
is the friend of my dreams and visions," said the youth. '• It is 
M(in-(l(i-niiii ; it is tiui spirit's grain." said the fatlit'r. .\nd this is the 
oriiiin of the Indian corn. 

H is this legend from which the poet Longfellow draws in tlie 
fifth canto of his •■ Song of Hiawatlia," relating to '' Hiawatha's fast- 
ing." For the voutli mentione*! in the legend ho substitutes his char- 
actt'r. Ifiairdlliii: wherein, in closing his description of the fasting of 
Hiawatha, and his contest with "■ the friend of man, Mondamin." he 

" H.imt'wanl then wont KiawatLa 

Tn tli(> IdiU'i' of "III NDkiimiH, 

Ami till! Hovi'ii (liivs of his fiiKtinj,' 

WiTi' nrciiiiiiihslu'il aud cnmiiloU'd. 

But tliii plaoo was not foi-Kottcu 

Wlieri" ho wrPKllo<l witii Mninlaniiu; 

Nor forifoitoii nor ni'i;li'cti'il 

Whh the f^ruvo whiTo lay Moudainin, 



SliM'iiin^' ill III)' ruin and Hiinsliiiii', 

WliiTf IiIh HcaltfiiMl pluiri'K iiikI ^'aruu'UtH, 

Fndfil iu tbo rain and siinNbiiie, 

Day hy day did lUuwatlia 

(Jo to wail and watch ln'H:d(> it; 

.vi'pt till' ilark mold ho'I aliovc it, 

Ki'pl il cli'an fiuin wimmIm and inH('<'tH, 

Drove awiiy, with hi(>!Th nud Hliitiitui).')), 

Kah^'ahucc, thtt kiiii; of ravfiis. 

Till at li'iiKlh a small (.rrccii feather 

From the earth nhot slowly iipwnrd, 

Then another and another. 

And liefore theHiimmer ended 

Stood the iiiai/i' in all its lieaiity, 

With its shining robes aiiont it, 

And itH loii^, Koft, yellow lrt>H8eH; 

And ill rapture Hiawatha 

Cried aloud, ' It is Moiidaniin! 

Yes, I lie friend of man, M uniiiu!' 

Then he called to old NokoliiJH 

And Ia«oo, tb«< j,'rt':'t liousU'r, 

••showed them where tliH iiiaize was Krowin^', 

Tohi nielli of his wondrous vision, 

or his wrestlin*,' and his triuniph, 

Of this new 1,'irt to the nations. 

Which sliould he their fooil forever." 

A<'conliii<,' t(i Mr. Mmojiiii. tlic lni(|ii<ii.s liavc a It'o-cml tlmt tlio 
com |ilaiit .K|iraiijf from tiix Imishiii of tlif iiiotln'i' of tlif (rifut S|)ii it, 
after litT Ituriai. Finni IJic iimst ri'iiiuto |icrii((l to wliicli tradition 
reai'liOH, tlii'V cnltivatt'd this |ilaiil, also tlio liraii ami tiic sipiasli. of 
wliii-'i fill'} raisn Hiillicii'iit nuaiititit's to sii|i|ilv tln'ir utmost want, [irc- 
jiarini,' tln'in for food in a ^^'fcat varifty of wavs. In tli(> Ifocmoirt 
mode of t*x|iit'ssin<,' tim idea, tlicso plants art) mt'iitioncd too^ctinT 
tiiidiT till' li^Mirativt' natuo "Our Lif*',"' or "Our Sii|i|Hirt<r.-i." From 
this it would a|i|M'ar that this |n'o|ilc did Hot ndy, like sonif id' t\\o 
trilatH in other parts of the continent, ho much upon the chase as a 
means id' sulisislence. Tiny were not so mi;,'ratory in they character, 
and resided more in permaii ;it vili.' j.ri>H and within certain well delined 
territorial limits; and it is aHirnuul that amoii^ this people, two tiiirdsof 
their food or means of sulmiHteiu'e wuh veirctahle. 'I'lie fruit of the 
chaso wa.s ii secondary, ai(hou;,'h a iiecesHary. means of subsistence, the 
same as animal food is with the white num. 

'I'his proportion in the sulisistence or articles of food anion;; the 
IriMpuiiK, as to the amount of corn found in their country at various 
tiiiicri, is well sustained throii^rh many accounts .nuin^r to us from 
earlv wrileiH. When their country was invaded in Ids" liy the French 
uiuh'r L)c Nonvilh*. in the vicinity of the (imiuHuit river, La ilontau 




informs us timi the FitMicli iiniiy "sju'iit fivt' or six diiys in cnttiii"^ 
«li>\vn tilt' Indian corn with (iiir swords." TlifM'o wore probahiy at least 
six hundred persons on<^af^ed in this work, which W(»uld show the 
<ixist«nce of (juite extensive fields. The French commandant liini- 
Helf, in referriui,' to the ([uantity of corn destroyed at this time, says: 
'* W(* remained at the four Seneca villaj^es luitil the 24tli of July. 
All that time we spent in destroying the corn, which was in such ^'reat 
abundance that the loss, includin<,' old corn that was in cdi-lir. which 
W(^ Itnrnt, and that which was standin<^'. was computed, accordiu",' to 
the estinnite aftewards made, at four hundred thousand niinots of 
Indian corn" ( l.liU( 1.(1(10 hushelsi. This, however, must he regarded 
ns an eytrava<fant estimat'.'. 

In the report of (ren. Sullivans expedition into the Senecn c 


Iry in ITT'.l. that portion relating to a destruction of property on the 
occasion shows tiie abundant I'esources of that people in their su|)ply 
of means of suhsisteiu'e. and especially in regard to corn anil other 
vegetable productions. In this expedition (ten. Sullivan is reported to 
have destroyed forty Imliaii villages, U»().(H)0 bushels of corn, vast 
(|uaiitititw of beans and other vegetables, a great number of horses, 
hogs. ca(tle. farming utensils, etc.. and everything that was the res\dt 
of labor or production by cultivation, and this was tlu< sanguinary 
achievenuMit of three weeks' unmolested auil unremitting employment 
of lietween four and live thousand int ii. 

Tiie Virginia tribes for a long time sustained the English colony 
at .lamestown with supplies of corn from tiieir own tields. without 
which, ("apt. Smith says, they must have perished; and in which all 
the early writers coiuMir. 

The tribes oil the noi'th of thr (iulf of Mexico, in the country of 
the Ap[)alachians. raised the zea nnd/e in such (pnintities that De 
Soto's army on one occasi(Ui. it is said, marched through the tie'ds of 
nniize for the distance of two leagues. Mr. Schoolcraft says it is<|uite 
evident that the cultivation of the zea maize gave the ancient mound 
Ituilders the capacity of concentrating their inunbers and living 
together in large towns, which created a necessity for and enaliled 
them to constnn-t and ilefend those anti(|ue works. 

It is true that in every case where tin; Indian population was con- 
centrated to any considerabl(> extent, we must believe that they were 
Hustained by cultivation of tiie zea maize, accompanied by other plants 
within the catahtgueof edible vegetable products. Out upon the groat 
plains in the country of vast herds of butValo. where the <'ircumstancert 
permitted the ctiucentration of population, the Indian became nmre ii 
hunter: relying more u[K)n the chuHe fur subsistence, and less upon 



tho ouMivntioii of vf><jrotiiblo products, iiml all this rathor from necessity 
than as a iiiattt'r of clioicc. 

Tliu /A'H iiiai/,t'. like th»< su<,Mir cam', scoms to have bt'Oii originally 
a tropical plant, and bocanic <^radually carried northward hy migration 
of the tribes, until, in time, by care and cultivation, it reached to forty- 
nine de<^rees of north latitude. Spanish writi'is mention the fact of 
its l)ein<f found in abunduiice in the \Vt»st Indies, at the time of the 

Mr. Schoolcral't thinks that the presence of r.ea maize, in various 
|>arts of the North American contineid, constitutes one of the best evi- 
dences of tiie track of nu^Mation of tiie Indian tribes. From this he 
derives the fact tiiat the iinrtlitTti tribes, uiicrever this plant is found, 
mi-^Tatcd from the south, (tr ratiicr, |)t'rliaps. from th»' southwest, com- 
nieiiciii<f ill the country of Mexico. 

riie ^r*^at Athapasca family, startinj,' from an op[)osite center of 
mii.jration, did not po.ssess the zea maize. 'J'his plant was raised to 
p(!ri'ection so as to preserve seed, from an early |)eriod. at Red Lake, 
nortli of the sources of the Mississi[)pi. near latitude forty-idne tlej^rees, 
and in the valley of tlie lied Jliver of the Noith. It had been carried 
to remote points in this direction, in thi^ nu^'ration northwi'st of the 
Ojibways, the Kidstenoes. and the As.sinil)oins. and in these latitudes 
it ceases. This plant, it seems, however, was not found by liie early 
explorers in the vicinity of the Columbia riv»*r. 

The (iulf I'f St. iiuwrence is set down as the most northerly lati- 
tude til which the Indians had carried tills <,'raiii at the time of the 
discovery. None of it was found north of this latitude at the time this 
|)art of the cimntry was (list visite<l l)y the whites. In ioilowinf,' up 
the St. Lawrence river, passing' into Lake Ontario, tiience thiou^dithe 
country of the Irocniois. iii Itllo. the <'ultiv!ition of the zea niaiz(> was 
found bv the French in all tiieir cantons; and, it is said, that as an 
article of food was one of the iiniiiistakable causes of the proe;ress to 
political power made by this celebrated <,n()Up of tribes, by means of 
which they couid sustain more heavy po|)ulation ami live in muro 
coiii|vii(t vilhii^es. 

In 17""J. in sustaininj^ the infant colony of Louisiana, the zea 
maize was found so abundant ainonjf the ('hoctaws. who were the 
ori^'inal oc<'Upants of the cuiiiitry. that the soldiers of the colony were 
ftir months (pnirtered on that tribe. 

The track of its spreading among the tribes iiiion the Atlantic 
const is clearly trncetl nh)ng its shores into Mastjachusetts and all New 
Kiiifland. where they raiseil tlm small variety of white and yellow 
tiinl tiorn, and where their mikaliik (pulverized parched corn) con- 

I'ddl) AM) SfltSISTKNCK. 


stituted tlio snstainitif^ ftuxl >>{' their warriors wlien nimblo to iirocuw 

Tilt' [)li\iitiii<;. <'ultivatiii<^'. iiiirvt'stiii<;. aiid <f('iior!il care of tlm corn, 
was ft work allotted to the woiiicii, wliii-li tlicy pcrfoniit'd with tliR 
utmost cheerfulness, jjenerally workiirj,' in parties by niutuftl agreement, 
attending to the fields of eaeh other in conjnnetion. Jiel'ore they 
obtained iniplfinents of the wliite man, tlieir tools for preparinij the 
ground and |)lanting tiie corn were sea shells or sliarpened sticks, or 
iniphMuents made of wood of sundry di'viees, as their inijonuitv wouUl 

As wo have learned of the Indian the mode of planting and culti- 
vating their corn, we must iid'er that their mode of doing tlie same 
thing in their early liistory was tiie same, or similar to our own. except 
ill the imiilements u.sed. They had no plows, as we Imvo, for the pur- 
j)Ose of cultivating the ground, but in tiie place of an implement of 
this kind they used sharpened sticivs or other siniihir implements, l»y 
which they loosened up the soil and kept their ti<>lds clear of weeds 
and grass. The ground was raised up into small hills of about two 
foot in diaraotor, and in height about twelve inches, tlie hills from 
center to center being four or live feet apart. Afli'r the Held Inul once 
been prepared in this manner, the hills were never levi^led down, but 
the field remained in that condition, renewing the removal of the 
;:rass from timt* to time as occasion demanded. The ancient corn 
fields of the Indians were always marked in later times by the appi^ar- 
ance of these snndl hills extending over the siirface. 

\s the ears of corn commenci'd to ripen, great attention was 
recjuired in keeping otV blackbirds and other graminivorous spt-cics 
from destroying the crop. This labor was assigned to the matrons, 
girls and boys, for which purpose stagings were erected in ditV(U'ent 
parts of the field, on which the watchers would sit to frighten away 
these birds by various modes, as by .screaming with loud voices, or 
beating of sticks and the like. As Longfellow has expressed it: 

" .\s till' (liiv (lawin'il. 

Kiiliualiifi't'. tilt' kiiiK'nf r.'ivcMH, 
( iiilliiTi'il III! Iiis liliick iiiaramlcrH, 
('rnws and lilackliinis, jiiys and ravrns, 
(MiiiiiuriniH oil the dusky trcti-topw, 
.Vlid ilcsi'clidcd, fast aii'l fearless, 
On the ticlds of Hiawatha." 

There were also in tiie country various wild fruits, grains and 
vegetable productions that did not re(piire ctdtivation, which were an 
im])ortant source of Indian subsistence. Among the wild fruits were 
jilums. crabap|tles. thorn, cherry. eld(>r and cranberries. Many of the 

27 N 


Hiuall lakt's or strt'iuiis of still water vi<>liU>(l Hupplics of wild rico tliiit 
tilt* Iiiiliaiis ^atliori'd in ;^rn*at aliuiidanct) in tlio autiiniii. and which 
tiioy niadn into h(>ii|i. Tho woods and praiiios ahoundt'd with hlack- 
ht'iTies. hiirklt'lHTi ics, HtrawhiTiit'S. rasplHTiit's, ^^'oosKlicnit's, Idack 
currants, wild ^^rapcs and marsh craiilM'rrios. Tht'm was a root i-oni- 
luonly culled tii« <;ronnd-nut, roHonddin;,' in shapo and tasto tin* West 
India HWft-t potato. This sttrvcd for food and <^ro\\ in ricli l)la<'k soil. 
Tlii're was anothrr plant caiii'd ini-lir-zn-itin, or swan potato, found 
in l)o«;s or marshy soil. Thfso wt'ro hoilcd or roastt'd, Imt wtM'tt not 
very palataldf, and wi-rc eaten only in cases of extreme lumber. 
Another root Honustimes eaten i»y them and calle«l «-(/»-y»///, was a loiijj, 
white. ttMider root, havinj^ a |mn^'ent taste. 

The Indians alonj; the sea coast lived larjielv on clams and other 
shell fish, and tish in «;eneral was everywhere an important artich^ of 
food. The IndiaiiH in the country of the Columhia river and its tril»u- 
taries lived larp'ly upon salmon and various ludlmus roots <jrowinf^ in 
that country in ahundance. The principal of the roots is tin' bniids, 
a white bulb, which, when cooked by roastinj,' in a fire, covered with 
earth, is (juite nutritious and a^'reealile to the taste. They have in 
that country various other roots besiiles the kdiiias. but of tlie roots 
this is tiieir ciiief reliance. 

Tn the country last nn>ntionod. as soon as the snow is off the 
jfround, they be<,'in to search for a little bulbous root which they call 
the /)o///«>/(. which looks like a small onion, and has a dry, spi<'y taste. 
In May they ^et the sixilliini or bitter root, a delicious white root 
which dissolves by boiling' in water, and forms a jelly st)m«>what bitter 
in tastt>. The Mitter IJoot river and mountains derive tlu'ir name from 
this plant. In June conu's tlie little hyacinth bulb, which, when roasted, 
is as nice as a chestnut. The Ldtmin stalk •(rows a foot or over, in 
lenijth. haviiij^ on it pah* blue tlow«'rs. This plant ijrows in beds so pro- 
fuselv that Uie stalks cover the field so closely that at a little distanc«> 
thev somewhat resemlije a sheet of water. Tlie Indians live upon this 
root two or three months in tlm year, and, with the salmon, it is their 
chief article of food. The women stop upon th;i grounds and ^'ather 
the h-diiiiis. while the men ^'o to the fishin<( stations and procure tish. 

The tribes of the Sierra Nevada <'ountry eat what is called the 
muztuirto, or little api)le; these, with |)irie and ^Mass seeds and a little 
cloviM", with, at times, small ipiantities of tish and small •^aine. mostly 
constitute tin* food of these tribes. An early Aiiiericaii resident «if 
('alifornia says he has frecjuently seen tht< natives of tln^ San .loacjuin 
valley entinj; ^'reeii clover with j;reat avidity, ()in^ of the dolicacies 
of the IJlackfeet tribe was berries boiled in bull'alo blood. 



Jdhii U. .It'wKt. four yt^nvH n cHiitivf iiiiioiij; tlio IndiaiiH in the 
vicinity dt" Vaiicouvt'r'H iHliiml, nmrly n liuiitlifd yt'iiis ii<,'(), siivs of 
tlio iii(kI« of living iiiiion^' tlifst> triltt'H, tliat tlit-ir footi consistH almost 
wliolly of fish or tisli spawn, frt'sli or tlrit'd, tin' hladilcr of \viialt>, snal 
or s»*n-f()W, clams and hcrrit's of various kinds, all of which wcroonten 
with a profusion of tiain oil for sancf, not t'xc»'|itin<; cvfii th<^ most 
dt'Iicatn fruit, as strawl)t'i rit's and raspijcrrit's. They had Imt two 
mt'thods of cookin;;. Iioiiing an«l st»'aming. Thtnr cooking, however, 
was mostly l)y Itoiling. 

The nmde of Itoiling fiMxl among tho trihos of the continent, in 
general, before the coming of the white man. was hy putting water 
into a wooden trough or tui>, then jiutting hot stones into the water, 
by which means the water was kept JMiiling until the food was cooked. 
Imlians w(>r(* (piitc fond of broth, and thiM waH u common dish among 
them, both as a matter of choice and economy. Fre(|uently. when 
their store of provisions was reduced to a small animal or small part 
of an animal, or a single bird, which coulil not well be divided 

ng a party of several persons, it was put into a vessel and 


boiled, st> that the substance became as far dissolved in water as pos- 
sible, making it into a soup. In this manner the whole could be 
divided ecpndly between tin* parties, by which each would receive h 
due share. 

Meat was prest'rved l)y cutting into slices and hanging in the suu 
or near the tire, thereby drying or cooking it sutVu-iently for pre.serva- 
tion without salt. ('(U"n, when ripened, was generally secured by 
placing it in what were generally called nii-lii's, being holes dug in dry 
or elevateil spots of ground, in which the corn was placed, anil then 
covered over with earth sutlicientlv to turn olf tht; water. Corn, amouir 
the InKpiois especially, was likewise preserveil by braiding the husks 
of the ears tog<4lier, and then hanging them up on poles, placed aloft 
in their cabins. It seems that the white man learned liiis numner of 
preparing coin of the Indi 


The Indians had no such thing as regular meal times, or periods 

in the (lav for eatin''. Thev simidv ate when hunirrv; 
tliev had anvthing to eat. 


IS, w 


Con;, the staple of their vegetable food, is cooked in various 

ways, and, as w 

*•«' have borrowed this plant from the Imlians, so 


have been instructe<l by them as ti> the various ways of cooking it; all 
of which we have observed to this dav. together with iireservini; tl 


identical names which the Indians gave to the saiuo dishes. One 
mode of cooking corn is by taking it when green, removing the kernels 




lb, ami boiling with beans. The ilish, in the dialect »)f the 




























„ 132 







\A III 1.6 










WFaSTER, NY 14580 

716) 872-4503 









New Eiigiiuul tribes, is called siiccoldi^li, and the mode of cooking, as 
well as the luiine, we have derived from them. 

Another mode is by taking the corn after it becomes ripe, shelling 
the kernels from the cob, and then boiling the corn by putting ashes 
into the water in which it is boiled, the effect of which removes the 
hull from t!ie kernel. After being suificiently boiled, the corn is 
taken out, put into cold water and washed clean, thus entirely remov- 
ing the hull from the corn. This they call liominy, and the mode of 
cooking and the name of it we have also ado[)ted. Another mode is 
by parching the corn in the fire, then separating it from the ashes, and 
pounding it in a mortar until pulverized into meal. This was eaten in 
various Avays; by making it into a pudding, which we commonly call 
liftsti/ jiti(hHn(i (which Ave learned also to, make from the Indians), or 
by making it into cakes baked in the ashes. Hunters carried a quan- 
tity of this pulverized corn in their sacks, eating it dry, a small hand- 
fial at V time, or mixing small quantities in water. Sometimes these 
various dishes would be improved l)y adding sugar or molasses, made 
from the sap of the sugar maple tree. 

Mr. Brooks, in his " Story of the American Indian," says that 
from the Indians came our squashes and pumpkins, beans and melons, 
and that the Indian women were the first to serve the smoking meal 
of baketl beans, and to teach the colonists from over the sea how to 
prepare the hoe-cake and the ash-cake, pone and hominy, samp and 
succotash, gruel for the sick-room, and the toothsome pop corn so dear 
to our childlu)od. 

The mode of pounding or pulverizing dry maize varied considera- 
bly among different tribes. This work, by custom, was left to the 
Avomen, avIio generally exercised their OAvn ingenuity in regard to it. 
AVhere circumstances favored it, mortars and vessels of stone Avere 
used. The mortar Avas sometimes formed by a depression in the face 
of a rock or a detached block of stone. Frequently an orifice Avas 
tVirmed in Avood or a suitable log, by burning into the surface, and 
scraping out the coal. By reneAving the fire on the clean surface, a 
deep excavation Avould soon be made, and, indeed, in this manner 
Avooden boAvls and cj^uite hirge canoes Avere formed out of the logs of 
suitable trees. 

Before obtaining the metal hatchet of the Avhite man, hominy 
blocks, consisting of a movable Avooden mortar, Avere formed fron) a 
solid block of AVood, from tAvo feet to thirty inches in length, by hol- 
loAving out one end by burning. The pestle used consisted of a 
smoothly-wrought piece of hard Avood of about four feet in length, 
rounded otf at each end, being smallest in the middle portion, so us to 



be more conveniently ginsped by the liand. After the introduction 
of the iron ax by the whites, the stump of a tree was excavated, or 
an orifice cut in the body of a fallen tree to serve as a mortar. 

Anion>r other articles of spontaneous production used as food 
among the Indians was that of the wild rice before mentioned, which 
grows in the shallow water of the rivers and lakes in latitudt-s north 
of forty degrees, in what is now the states of Michigan, Wisconsin. 
Iowa, ALiunesota, and the valleys of the upper Mississippi antl Mis- 


souri, and was found in such (juantities as to furnish one of the prin- 
cipal means of Indian subsistence in the country of its j)roduction. 
It usually rij)en8 in September. It is a small cylindrical grain of 
about half an inch in length, covered by a very thin pellicle of a dark 

In preparing wild rice for eating, it is usually boiled in plain 
water to the consistence of hominy, and eaten with a spoon. It con- 



tains more gelatinous matter than the southern rice, and is very 
nutritious. It is sometimes prepared fi.r eating by roasting, when it 
is eaten dry. It grows upon a stalk which r'ses above the surface of 
the water some six feet or more. The labor of gathering this corn, 
is by custom, as in other like work, assigned to the women. The 
places where each family is to gather it are generally selected and 
assigned by mutual consent, which is respected by all as their indi- 
vidual possessions. 

The grain when sufficiently ripe is separated from the stalk by 
thrashing or striking with a canoe paddle or stick prepared for that 
purpose. The harvesting is usually done by two or three women, one 
of whom takes the bow, and the other the stern, of a moderate-sized 
hunting canoe, perfectly water tight, which, being cleaned out for the 
purpose of receiving the grain, they shove into the field of rice, and 
bending the stalk in handfuls over the side of the canoe, they beat at 
the grain with a stick or paddle. When taken from the bottom of the 
canoe, it is full of husks or chaff, and requires to be winnowed. It is 
then put into bags and stored away for winter use. If a surplus is 
obtained, more than is needed for the family's use, it is sold to the 
traders on which to subsist the men engaged in their service. 

Thei chief delicacy among the Indian tribes was wild honey, of the 
common honey bee. Of this they were very fond, and in many local- 
ities they gathered large quantities. 

But the most esteemed article of food in the line of delicacies 
was maple sugar, made from the sap of the sugar maple tree, in all 
those latitudes where the ground becomes materially prepared by freez- 
ing weather in winter, and whereby the course of the sap is favorably 
atfected, as it commences to ascend to the branches in the spring of 
the year. The season of sugar-making, from the beginning to the end, 
is a sort of carnival, or general holiday occasion, from which no Indian 
can be prevailed upon to absent himself under any inducement that 
could be offered him, and since the Indian has assumed the habits of 
the white man in those localities where the sugar maple grows, this 
same Indian carnival is kept up; and even where civilized Indians 
engage in the service of white men for hire, when the sugar-making 
season a^jproaclies they leave their eznployer for the sugar camp, the 
wages he is receiving being no object whatever. He prefers the fes- 
tivities of the sugar camp during its season to the compensation of his 
employer, whatever the amount may be. 

As the spring season approaches, and the sap of the sugar tree 
commences to [)ass upwards, the Indian families repair to their sugar 
camp and commence their favorite work. The mode of drawing the 



sap is thus described by Charlevoix: "When the sap begins to rise, 
they make a jag or notch in the trunk of the maple, and by means of 
a bit of wood which they affix in it, the water runs as by a spout. 
This water is received into a vessel, which they set under it. To make 
it run plentifully there must be much snow upon the ground, the night 
must be frosty, the sky clear, and the wind not too cold." The sap is 
carried in bark vessels to a place where preparation is made to receive 
it, and where a fire is prepared. It is then put into kettles and boiled 
down to sugar, the labor of Avhich devolves chiefly upon the women, 
as in most other occasions of domestic atfairs. 

Before the coming of the white man, since which kettles of iron 
or otlur metallic substances have been obtained, it is doubtful if the 
Indians had any mode of making the sap of the sugar maple into sugar, 
and it is said that the art of making it into sugar was not known to 
them until they were instructed therein by the white man ; and that 
the Indians before that time only made the sap into molasses, or thick- 
ened it to some extent by boiling, which must have been by the u e of 
hot stones, as in the case of cooking their meat; still we have accounts 
of earthen pots being used for boiling purposes to some extent by 
some tribes in their primitive condition. 

Indians of all ages, and es[)ecially the children, eat greedily of 
this article, both while it is in the state of molasses and after it passes 
into the stage of sugar. They also put up large quantities of the latter 
for sale, in boxes made from the white birch bark, inocoks or iiioknks. 
These boxes are in the shape of the lower section of a quadrangular 
pyramid, of a light brown color, and when new, a nankeen yellow. 
The children during the carnival, the same as our white children, 
engage with great delight in boiling down the sap to syrup, and laying 
it out on the snow to cool, making of it a kiiul of candy. Their 
mothers, too, supply them with miniature inoknks filled with sugar 
from the first running of the sap. These little mokiiks are ornamented 
with porcupine quills, skillfully wrought in the shape of flowers and 
figures. The boxes designed for sale are of all sizes, from twenty to 
seventy -five pounds in weight. The number of boxes, of average size, 
made in a single season by an industrious and strong-handed family, 
it is said, is frequently from thirty to forty, in addition to the sugar 
which the family consumes; and seldom less than a dozen to twenty 
boxes to each family. The hey<lay scenes of tiie Sc-fc ^ ')h-kwtij.l-o- 
ka-win or sugar-making, crowns the labors and festivities of the spring. 

< \ 




Marriage lustitution— Simplicity of the Marriage Ceremony — Observations of Kev, 
Isaac McCoy and Others — Pleasure Trips— Tiio Mother had Custody of Children 
— Eights of Property — Marriage and Divorce -Wife's Attention to the Husband 
on Return from Hunting — Testimony of Mary Jemison— Her Experience as an 
Indian Wife— Her Labor not Severe — Continued Sameness in Domestic Duties — 
Her Task not Harder than White Women who are Brought up to Work — 
Polygamy Tolerated — Not much Practiced. 

^S to the marriage customs 


the Imlians, we 
have been liable to the 
same errors and miscon- 
ceptions concerning them as in 
regard to many other things per- 
taining to the Indian subject. 
Among most jjeople or nations of 
the earth, whether civilized or 
otherwise, some kind of ceremony 
exists, in order to render the mar- 
riage of persons binding or com- 
plete. But the American Indian, 
it seems, had no idea of anything 
of this kind. 

Kev. Isaac McCoy refers to 
certain misconceptions or popular 
errors in regard to the Indian 
marriage. He states, that after twenty years' abode among the Indians, 
and an acquaintance with more than twenty tribes, and after inquiry 
of the missionaries and others in the Indian country, and of the Indians 
themselves, he was unable to find information that any kind of cere- 
mony ever took place among the Indians in connection with a marriage 
between the parties, as in any way affecting the same; that the stories 
told b}^ some writers on the Indian subject of the custom that a young 
man who desired a partner was made to whistle on a wooden instru- 




ment prepared for the purpose, as a symbol of communicating his 
desires to some Indian maiden whom he wished to marry, are a fabri- 
cation. He says, that whilst such fancied customs make a very good 
story, it is unfortunate that such stories are altogether fabulous. His 
evidence, in which all the authorities seem to concur, is that in native 
Indian life, unaffected by the intiuences of the white man, the parties 
come together without ceremony, and that when either becomes tired 
of the otlier they separate with e([ual facility. 

Father Hennepin declares that marriage among the Indians is not 
a civil contract; that the man and woman do not intend to bind them- 
selves together for life; and that they live together no longer than they 
agree and love one another. As soon as they are discontented with 
each other they separate without any clamor or noise, and remain per- 
fectly indifferent for each other thereafter. 

But Father Hennepin mistakes the premises entirely when he 
declares that marriage among the Indians is not a civil contract. That 
is precisely what it is, and it is regarded in a no higher ligiit than 
such. But it is not a civil contract with any express covenants, 
according to tJie customs of the white man ; but rather an implied con- 
tract, or contract with implied obligations, like a common law contract, 
so called, in those countries where the English common law is in force, 
liable to be dissolved by mutual consent. Among the tribes in general, 
however, the husband might of his own motion put away or divorce his 
wife without her consent ; but if he did so without cause, in the o})inion 
of his wife's relatives, he incurred their displeasure, and was liable to 
retaliation. Among the Indians no tribunal for the purposes of relief 
of the parties in case of a desire to separate existed, the termination of 
the contract being entirely with the parties themselves. 

Mr. Brickell, spoken of elsewhere in this work, speaking of the 
Indian marriage and divorce, says: "I know of no marriage ceremony 
among them, and never heard of a case of separation and divorce." 

John Tanner, who was taken captive by the Indians when about 
seven years old, and grew to manhood among the Ojibways, in the 
vicinity of Lake Superior, in his narrative states the manner of 
his marriage to an Indian woman, which well illustrates the Indian 
custom. The name of the woman he gives as 3ris-kwn-hiin-o-kwa, 
"Red Sky of the Morning." He was then living with an aged woman, 
Nct-iio-kim, who had adop+ed him oi her con. The parties had met at 
the wigwam of his foster mother on several occasions, and she had 
expressed to Tanner a desire that he should marry this girl, which lie 
was not inclined to favor. One day, on returning home after a short 
absence, he says: 




"When I arrived at our lodge, on the following day, I saw il//s- 
kwd-bun-o-kica sitting in my place. As I stopped nt the door of the 
lodge and hesitated to enter, she hung down her head ; but Nct-uo-ktra 
greeted me in a tone somewhat harsher than was common for her to 
use to me. 'Will you turn back from the door of the lodge, and put 
this young woman to shame, who is in all respects better than you are? 
This affair has been of your seeking and not of mine or hers. You 
have followed her about the village lieretofore; now you v.ould turn 
from her, and make her appear like one who has attempted to thrust 
herself in your way.' I was, in part, conscious of the justness of Xci- 
no-ktvci's reproaches, and, in part, prompted by inclination, I went in 
and sat down by the side of Jitis-kird-hun-o-kwd, and thus we became 
man and wife. Old N('f-)io-kir(i had, while I Avas absent at Red River, 
without my knowledge or consent, made her bargain with the parents 
of the young woman, and brought her home, rightly supposing that it 
would be no difficult matter to reconcile me to the measure. In most 
of the marriages which happen between young persons, the pai'ties 
most interested have less to do than in this case. The amount of 
presents which the parents of a woman expect to receive in exchange 
for her, diminishes in pi'oportion to the number of husbands she may 
have had." 

Mr. Tanner further adds that it commonly happens, even when a 
young man marries a young woman of his own band, that he has previ- 
ously had no personal acquaintance with her. Perhaps they have seen 
each other in the village in passing about, but probably have never 
spoken together. The match is agreed on by the parents, and. when the 
arrangement is made known to the young people, they probably find 
in themselves no objection to it, as they know should it prove disa- 
greeable mutually, or to either party, it can at any time be broken off. 

Peter Jones says that the common practice among his people in 
marriage was for the parents of both parties to make up a match, very 
often without the consent or even the knowledge of the parties to the 
marriage. Sometimes this agreement was entered into when the chil- 
dren were very young, and it generally happened that they yielded to 
the arrangement made by their parents, not only without any court- 
ship, but before they had spoken to each other. When the contract 
was not made by the parents, the Indian youth, having fixed his atten- 
tion on some young woman, Avould make his wish known to his mother, 
or to some particular friend to whose care he had committed the pres- 
ents he had prepared for the occasion. The presents usually con- 
sisted of a fine blanket, and other articles of dress for his intended, 
and a kettle, a sack of t^orn, or some other articles for the parents. If 



tliese presents were received, it was nt once uuderstootl tliat the offor 
was accepted. The period of conitship was not generally prt)tracted 
beyond a few months, and was fi-equontly of short duration. 

According to the same authority, the practice of traveling, or 
going on a pleasure trip, in later times iji our more linislieil society 
called "wedding tours." was a practice also in vogue among the 
Indians. On this subject Mr. Jones says: "The period of their 
courtship is not generally protracted beyond a few inonths, when it is 
terminated by the young man's taking his chosen companion on a 
wedding trip for several days. Wherever night overtakes them, tiiere 
they pitch the wigwam, and spend the day in shooting or fishing, fhe 
hridc siccrhui the canoe. When this excursion is ended, they return 
with the product of the chase, Avhich they present to the parents of 
the bride, laying it at the mother's feet; and with them they continue 
to reside, as the parents consider they have a claim on their industry 
and support till tliey have a family of their own to maintain. On this 
account the parents are always anxious that their daughters should 
marry good hunters. Although no public vov^s nre made, nor any 
particular ceremonies are performed, at the m.'irriages of the Indians, 
it is surprising how seldom their mutuol engagements are violated." 

Mr. Morgan, speaking of the customs of the Inx^uois, says: 
" Marriage was not founded upon the affections, which constitute the 
only legitimate basis of this relation in civilized society, but was reg- 
ulated exclusively as a matter of physical necessity. It was not even 
a contract between the parties to be married, but substantially between 
their mothers, acting oftentimes under the suggestions of the matrons 
and wise men of the tribes to which the parties respectively belonged. 
In a general sense, therefore, the subject of marriage Avas under the 
supervision of the older members of each tribe; but, practically, it 
Avas under maternal control." 

Mr. Morgan says that according to custom among the Iroquois, 
the husband and wife were never of the same tribe, and the children 
were of the tribe of their mother. No right in the father to the 
custody of the children, or their nurture, was recognizeil, and so, after 
separation, the father gave himself no further trouble concerning them, 
nor interested himself in their welfare. They became estranged as 
well as separated. Among some Indian nations, in cases of separa- 
tion, the male children were taken by the father, and the female chil- 
dren by the mother. The care of Indian children in infancy and 
childhood was entrusted to the watchful attention of the mother. 

Among tlie Iroquois, inconsiderable as property was among them, 
it was held subject to distribution under fixed laws. It consisted 



merply of plaiitinj^ lots, orchnrds, housi's, impleinents ot tlio clmse, 
weapons, wefiriiij^ npparel, ilomestic utensils, personnl ornaments, stores 
of corn, skins of animals, and those miscellaneous fabrics which the 
necessities of life led them to invent. The rights of pro[)erty of both 
husband and wife were continued distinct durin<,' the existence of the 
marricre relation, the wife holding and controlling her own the same 
as luu- husband, and, in case of separation, taking it with her. No 
individual could obtain the absolute title to land, as this was vested 
by the laws of tlie Iroquois in all the people; but he could reduce to 
possession unoccupied lands by cultivation to any extent he pleased, 
and so long as he continued to use them, his right to their enjoyment 
was protected and secured. He could also sell his improvements or 
betj^ueath them to his wife or children. 

Whilst the Indians iiad no such thing in their custom, in general, 
as a marriage ceremony, considered necessary to give elt'ect to the con- 
tract of marriage, yet they had customs of ceremonies attending or 
incident to occasions of such a union between the parties, as that of 
giving presents to the parents of the bribe. This was different from 
the white man's custom. Aviiere the presents are given to the bride her- 
self. They also had a custom of a great feast on marriage occasions, 
the same as people of the more civilized nations, Avhere the guests 
Avere sometimes very numerous, at which they danced, sang and entered 
upon other diversions which usually took place on occasions of rejoic- 


On the subject of Indian domestic life, Mr. Heckewelder relates 
the following anecdote of an aged Indian who had spent much time 
among the white people of Pennsylvania and New Jersey: 

One day about the year 1770, he observed that the Indians had a 
much easier Avay of getting a wife than the whites, but were also more 
certain of getting a good one. " For," said he, in his broken En- 
glish, "white man court-court, may be one year! may be two year 
before he marry! Well! may be then got very good Avife, but may 
be not! may be A'ery cross! Well, noAV, suppose cross, scold so soon 
as get awake in morning, scold all day, scold until sleep, — all one; he 
must keep him ( the pronouns in the Indian language ha\'e no femi- 
nine gender). White people have laAV forbidding throAving aAvayAvife, 
be he ever so cross ! must keep him ahvays. Well ! how does Indian 
do? Indian, Avhen he see industrious squaAV, Avhich he like, he go to 
him. p)laco his tAvo forefingers close aside each other, make tAA-o look 
like one, look squaAv in the face — see him smile — which is all one, he 
say yes! so hetake him Inmie — no danger he be cross! no! no! SquaAv 
kuoAv too well Avhat Indian do if he cross! throw him away and take 



(1 a 







another! Sc^uaw love to oat meat! no liU8l>an(l, no meat! Stjuaw do 
everytiiinir to please husband; he do the same to please squaw; live 

The Indian, according to his custom, had specific causes for 
divorce, the same as has the white man under his code of laws. 
Those were, in general, unfaithfulness; and intolerable laziness, on the 
part of the wife, was also cause for divorce. Polygamy or plurality 
of wives prevailed to a very general extent among all the American 
tribes of the continent. It was considered lawful for any man to 
marry as many wives as he could provide for. They generally selected, 
if possible, sisters, from an idea that they would be more likely to live 
together in peace, and that the children of the one would be loved 
and cared for by the other more than if the wives were not related. 
According to Mr. Morgan, polygamy was forbidden by the Iroquois, 
and never became a practice among that people, 

Mr. Hocke welder says the work of the women is not hard or 
difficult, and they perform their tasks with cheerfulness. Within 
their wigwams their labor is trifling, their utensils being few. There 
is uo scrubbing to be done and but little washing, and that little is not 
frequent. Their [uincipal occupation is to cut and fetch in the fire- 
wood, cultivate the ground, sow and reap the grain, and pound 
the corn in their mortars for use, and to make bread, which they bake 
in the ashes. When going on a journey or to hunting camps with 
their husbands, they carry a pack on their backs, which often appears 
heavier than it really is. Mr. Heckewelder says that he never knew 
an Indian woman to com[)lain of the hardship of carrying this burden, 
the contents of which served for her own comfort and support, as 
well as that of her husband. 

Mrs. Jemison, the so-called Captive White Woman of the Gene- 
see, speaks of the cheerfulness with which she performed her task as 
an Indian wife. She says in pursuing their farming, in order to 
expedite their work, and at the same time enjoy each other's company, 
it was a custom among the Indian women to all work together, in one 
field, or at whatever job they may have had on hand. In the spring 
they chose for the ensuing year an old active squaw to be their driver 
and overseer when at labor, which honor she accepted, and whom they 
considered themselves bound to obej\ 

When the time for planting arrived, and the soil was prepared, 
the women assembled in the morning, and were conducted into a field 
where each planted one row; they then went into the next field and 
planted once across, and s ) on till they had gone through all the 
fields of different families iu the vicinity. By this rule they per- 


2! to 


formed their labor of every kind, and every jonlonsy of ouh iiaving' 
done more or lesH than anotiier was effectually avoided. 

The Indian, in general, had no such thing in his household as 
domestic jars or family <|uarrpls. His general character tended to 
harmony. Mr. Heckewelder says umt it seldom hai)[)ened that a man 
would condescend to abuse his wife or ([uarrel, even althougii she was 
inclined to do so, and had given him just cause therefor. In such a 
case tlie man, without replying, would take his gun or bov% and go off 
at a distance into the woods and remain there perhaps for several days, 
subsisting on the game lie might kill, well knowing timt he could not 
inflict a greater punishment on liis wife for her conduct than by tlius 
absenting himself for a time from the wigwam. She is not only thus 
kept in suspense, uncertain when he will return, but she would be 
reported as a bad and quarrelsome wife. On siach occasions the man 
does not tell his wife on what day he will be back, which, otherwise, 
when on good terms, lie never neglects to do. She is thus put to 
shame by he;- ghbors, who soon suspect something, anil do not fail 
to put such quv.tions to her as she either cannot answer or is ashamed 
to own But whe- he returns she endeavors to show him by her atten- 
tions that slie ha:: repented, though j)erhaps neither speaks to the other 
a t»' igle word on the subject of what has passed, and as his ciiik. . n, 
if they have any, will hang about him and soothe him with their 
caresses, he is, on their account, ready to forgive, or, at least, to say 
nothing unpleasant to their mf)ther. 

According to Indian custom, on return of an Indian from a long 
journey or long absence, on entering his wigwam, the meeting with 
his wife and family is unattended by outward demonstrations of any 
kind. He simply says to his wife, "I am returned;" to which his wife 
will answer, "I rejoice." and, having cast his eyes around, he will ask 
if all the children are well, when, being answered in the affirmative, he 
replies, "I am glao " which for the present is all the conversation that 
passes between them, nor does he relate anything that occurred on his 
journey until he has partakon of nourishment, which his wife speedily 
prepares for him. After awhile, when he has refreshed himself, if the 
family are alone, or when the men of the village have assembled at 
his wigwam, his wife, with his family and others who may come in, 
hear his story at length. 

Baron La Hontan, in his book entitled " New Voyages to North 
America," written in 1689, gives an account of some rather singular 
customs among the Indians of New France at that time, which is the 
starting point for writers of Indian manners and customs, on the sub- 
ject of marriage and relation of the sexes, down to the present time. 



Even Mr. Armstrong, i„ his w(,rk ,.n tl.o -Sauks and tlio Blaekhnwk 
War," repeats the substance of tliis story of La Hontan, as anplicl 
to tlie tribe of whicl, he speaks. T],ese stories of La Hontan. hovv- 
ever, are liehevtul to l,o incorrect, and tlmt no such customs as i,e 
relates existed among any tribes of the North American Lidiaus. 


1 -: 


Uufonndod Prejudices agiiinst the Indiau — Redeemi'jg Characteristics in bis Parental 
and Filial Affection— Striking' lucidouts fvoiated — A Daughter's Attachment to 
her Aged Father— Pathetic Anecdote — A Father's Affection Manifested for his 
Son— Remarkable Instance— A Father's Cheerful Death to Follow the Spirit of 
his Child to the Land of Souls— Respect for Old Age— Fond of their Children- 
A Mother's Attention. 

WWfl ^^ prejudice instilled into our minds 
Wifi-^ nijainst the Indian has led us to believe 
> j Ij. j i" I'll® depravity of his nature, from which 
'W springs no redeeming features. There is 
much in this idea that is erroneous, for whilst the 
Indian presents an anomaly in human character 
differing in many respects from other races of 
the earth, he possesses many redeeming charac- 
teristics of marked excellence, especially in regard 
to parental and filial affection. 

On this subject Mr. Catlin, after his many 
years' experience among the Indians, well remarks, 
that from the enslaved condition in which Indian 
women are held, the world would naturally think 
that theirs must be a community formed of incon- 
irruous and inharmonious materials, and conse- 
quently destitute of those fine, recij)rocal feelings 
and attachments which naturally flow from the 
domestic relations in the civilized world. Yet, he 
declares, it would be untrue, and doing injustice 
to the Indians, to say that they are, in the least, 
behind in conjugal, filial and parental affection; 
that there is no trait in tlie human character which is more universal 
than the attachments which flow from these relations; no i)art of the 
human species who have a stronger affection and a higher regard for 
them than the NorMi American Indians, and there is no subject in the 
Indian character of more importance to be rightly understood than this. 












A very striking instance under this head is given by Mr. School- 
craft, showing the devotion of a daughter for her aged father. The 
case occur-ed in the vicinity of Mackinaw. He says: ^'(iHchic Nai- 
(joir (Great Sand Dune) was a Chippewa chief, wlio, during a long 
life, maintained a reputation for bravery, vigorous exertion, and policy 
in Indian life, in the region of tlie Upper Lakes. He was a warm 
friend of the French during their suin-emacy in the Canailas; and an 
actor in the scenes of peril that preceded and followed the fall of Que- 
bec iu 1759. He had been one of the assailants at the memorable 
capture of old Fort Michilimackinac, in 17(53, and is mentioned by the 
name of Le Orand S(il)I<\ as one of the aiost sanguinary actors on that 
occasion. He lived many years afterwards, shifting his tent, as the 
seasons changed, from the open shores of Lake Huron and Michigan 
to the thick woods which are the shelter of the natives irom the wintry 
winds. Eighty years and upwards have now whitened the locks of the 
aged chief, and he felt that his continuance iu these scenes must be 
short, when he accompanied his relatives for the last time, dining the 
month of March, from the borders of the water to <hose forests which 
yield the (iccr ii(tccli(iri'iiit))i, or sugar-m-iple. This is a season of 
enjoyment with the Indians, and they usually remain at their sugar- 
camps until the sap assumes too much acidity to be longer capable of 
being made into sugar syrup, and the trees begin to put forth leaves. 
In the meantime, the days of the enfeebled [tatriarch, who had pitched 
his tent in a hundred forests, a[)[)roached their close. It was found 
that, when they had packed up their effects to return to the open lake, 
he was unable to sustain the journey. His daughter, Xo-do-ica-qna, 
the wife of Sa-jja-ixisli, determined to carry him on her shoulders, 
that he might, for the last time, be permitted to Avitness those refresh- 
ing shores. For this purpose, as soon as the carriers were ready to 
move, she took her long and stout deer-skin a pe-cnii, or head-strap, 
and fastening it around his body bent herself strongly forwartl under 
the load, then rose und<r the pious burden, and took the path for the 
lake. It is usual to put down the burdens at set places, and to proceed 
by rests [ou-n-ai-be by oii-U'((i-bc) on their way. These she obeyed, 
and brought him safely to the open shores of Lake Michigan. The 
distance was about ten miles. I obtained these particulars from the 
woman herself at Michilinmckinac, in 1833, when she was aged. The 
feat of iEneas in carrying Anchises, when infirm, on his shoulders 
through the flames of Troy, has long been celebrated, but is rivalled 
here by an Alg()n(piiu woman. Poetry has embalmed the one act, lot 
history da the same for the other." 

Another instance in the same direction is given by Mr. William 






Warren, whose father was uu Indian trader in the early days in the 
vicinity of Lake Superior, and whose mother was an Ojibway woman, 
and who gi-ew to manhood among that people. The instance arose out 
of the following circumstances: 

A large paity of ()~(hi-<jaiun-('<'(j Indians, otherwise called Foxes, 
floated down the Ontonagon river in their small inland bark canoes. 
They landed in the night on the island of their foes, the Ojibways, and 
early in the morning captured four women that had gone to gather 
wood. The revenge of the Ojibways was quick and complete; and as 
the Foxes, by their exultant yells, disclosed to their enemies the course 
of their flight, hundreds of Ojibway warriors embarked hastily in their 
large lake canoes in pursuit. A dense fog covered the lake, and de- 
pending on this for an eventual escape and confident of their superior 
numbers, the Foxes, elated with their success, kept up a continual 
yelling and singing. Thus guided, the Ojibways silently and swiftly 
pursued them, keeping purposely in their wake till they arrived oppo- 
site a line of steep, rocky course, a mile above the mouth of the Mont- 
real river, and some twenty miles or more from the point. Here they 
fell upon the Foxes in great fury, fighting in large canoes, which sat 
firmly in the water. They nearly destroyed to a man the party of four 
Imndred Foxes, who, being in small canoes, were upset, and most of 
them dispatched in tlie Avater. 

Soon after the ab(jve occurrence, a party of Foxes fell upon a 
camp of Ojibways at K(tli-piih-wa-ka, while the men were out hunting. 
They captured two youths, having driven them into boggy ground. 
One of these youths was the son of a principal Ojibway chief named 
Bi-(uis-u(ili. At the time the capture was made, tiie father of the 
youi g man was out on a hunt. Returning home, he heard the heart- 
rending news, and, knowing that his son's fate would be at stake, he 
immediately pursued the returning captors singly and alone. Follow- 
ing in their trail, he arrived at one of their principal villages, where 
the Foxes were preparing for burning his son. He stepped boldly 
into the midst of his enemies, and offered to take the place of his son. 
"My son," said he, "has seen but few winters; his feet have never 
trod the war-path; but the hairs of my head are white, and over the 
graves of my relatives I have hung many scalps that I have taken 
from the heads of your warriors." The old chief's ofiPer was accepted 
by the Foxes, his son released and himself burned at the stake, with 
all the tortures that savage ingenuity could invent. The son returned 
to his people, and was afterwards known by his father's name. He 
became a noted man in his tribe. 

The act above related was terribly avenged by the Ojibway tribe. 



A large war party was collected, and marched against the town of the 
Foxes, on the Chii)p(iwa river, and they returned not till six villages 
of their enemies had been laid waste, and their inhabitants destroyed. 
After this the Fox tribe retired from the country borderint; on Lake 
Superior, and fell back on the Mississip[)i. 

Another instance of parental affection, illustrating the peculiar 
belief and confidence of the American Indian in a future existence, is 
given by Jonathan Carver, in his travels among the S'dit-dc-iris-HOUs, 
or Dakota nation. He says: 

" ^yhilst 1 remained amongst them, a couple whose tent was 
adiacent to mine lost a son of about four years of ajje. The ))arents 
were so much affected at the death of their favorite child that they 
pursued the usual testimonies of grief witli such uncommon rigor, as 
through the weight of sorrow and loss of blood, to occasion the death 
of the father. The woumn, who had hitherto been inconsolable, no 
sooner saw her husband expire than she dried up her tears and 
appeared cheerful and resigned. 

"As I knew not how to account for so extraordinary a transition, 
I took an opportunity to ask her the reason of it, telling her, at the 
same time, that I should have imagined the loss of her husband would 
I'ather have occasioned an increase of grief, than such a sudden dimi- 
nution of it. 

"She informed me that as the child was so young when it died, 
and unable to support itself in the country of spirits, both she and her 
husband had been apprehensive that its situation would be far from 
happy ; but no sooner did she behold its father depart for the same 
place, who not only loved the child with the tenderest affection, but was 
a good hunter, and would be able to provide plentifully for its support, 
that she ceased to mourn. She added tliat she now saw no reason to 
continue her tears, as the child on whom she doted was happy under 
the care ami protection of a fond father, and she had only one wish 
that remained ungratified, whicli was that of being herself with them." 

Mr. Hockewelder, the devoted Moravian missionary, says there is 
no nation in the world who pay greater respect to old age than the 
American Indians. From their infancy they are taught to be kind 
and attentive to aged pf -sons, and to never let them suffer for want of 
necessaries or comforts. The parents s[)are no pains to ira[)ress upon 
the minds of their children the conviction that they would draw uown 
upon themselves the anger of the Great Spirit were they to neglect 
those whom, in His goodness, He had permitted to attain such an 
advanced age, and whom He had protected by His Almighty power 
through all the perils and dangers of life. 



" It is a sacreil principle among the Indians," he says, " and one 
of those moral and religious truths which they have always before 
their eyes, that the Great Spirit who createtl them, and provided them 
so abundantly with the means of subsistence, made it the duty of 
parents to maintain and take care of their children until they should 
be able to provide for themselves." 

An established trait in Indian character is that they are fond of 
their children, and treat them Avith the greatest respect and considera- 
tion. They raiely punish them in any way, and no children seem 
happier than those of Indian families. 

Some Indian tribes have among them regular story tellers, who 
have devoted a great deal of time to learning the myths and stories of 
their people. The Indian mother sometimes sends for one of these, 
and, having prepared for him a feast, she and her little ones, Avho are 
huddled up near her, listen to the stories of this dreamer, who thus 
entertains them for hours. 

Orphan children are usually supported by their nearest relatives. 
"When they have no relatives able to support them, they are main- 
tained by individual parties, and this is done Avith the same cheerful- 
ness and apparently with the same parental affection as if they Avere 
the children of the persons contributing to their support. Even in 
war between tribes and nations, captive children are adopted into 
families Avilling to receive them, and are treated in the same Avay as 
their oAvn children. 



Simplieity of the Incliau Habitation or Wigwum— Term Wigwam, from whence 
Derived— Mode of Constructing Habitations among Different Nations— Among 
the Algonquin Tribes— Among Tribes of the Sioux Stock— Among the 
Mandans— Among the Indians of the Plains in General— Among the Tribes of 
the Shoshonee Stock— Among the Nootkaus- Among the Tribes of the Iroquois 
Ktock— Inside Arrangement and Construction. 

HE IiiiUnn habitation is 
sometimes styled by our 
English speaking peo- 
ple (t loiUje; probably 
deriveil from the house of the 
gate-keeper on a gentleman's 
estate in England, which was 
called the gate-keeper's lodge; 
or from the same term fre- 
quently applied in England to 
a small house in a park or 
forest, thus referred to by 


bhakespeare : 

" He and his lady are both at the lodge, 
Upon the north side of this pleasant chase." 

These habitations were at first known to Europeans as irifiwams, 
a word in the Algonquin language from irifjiras, "birch bark,*" in'uiram, 
something made or constructed of birch bark; such habitations being 
generally covered with the bark of the birch tree. But latterly, since 
the white man's invasion has reached the great western plains, where 
the language of the Dakotas largely prevails, these Indian habitations 
have been more generally called by our English s[)eaking people 
tepees, a word in the Dakota language signifying tlie same as irif/iram 
in the Algonquin language. The word in the Iroquois language, to 
signify the Indian liabitation, is ga-no-sofc. 

The aborigines of the Island of St. Domingo called a bonae l)()hio. 
This refers to their common dwellings, made of light wood work, cov- 





ered with branches aud shrubs interwoven. Others they called bohar- 
qiicSi composed of piles of wood, driven into the earth, and joined at 
the top in a conical form, or shape of a tent. This last word the 

Spanish took from the natives 
as hnhcqiK'j from this, it is 
8U[)posod, comes the word 

The Piljjriin's Journal 
thns describes the Indian 
wigwam of New England at 
that day: " The houses were 
made with long, young sa})- 
lings, bended, and both ends 
stuck in the ground. They 
were round like unto an 
arbor, and covered down to the ground with thick and well-wrought 
nets, and the door was not over a yard high, made of a mat to 
open. The chimney was a wide hole in the top, for which they 
had a mat to cover it close, when they pleased. One might stand 
and go upright in them. In the midst of them were four little 
trundles (truncheons) knocked into the ground, and small sticks laid 
over, on which they hung their pots and what they had to seethe. 
Round about the fire they lay on mats, which are their beds. The 
houses were double-matted, for, as they were matted Avithout, so were 
they within, with newer and fairer mats." 

Another authority of like early date, speaking of Indian habita- 
tions, referring also to the fact of the protection of their villages by 
fortifications, says: 

" Their houses are most of them built of one fashion, only differ- 
ing in length, all of tliem ao^ree in breadth of twenty feet. They 
build after this manner: they set peeled boughs of nut trees in the 
ground, according to the bigness of the place which they intend to 
build, then, joining the tops of the boughs together, they cover the 
walls and top with the bark of cypress, ashen and chestnut trees, 
which are laid one upon another, the smallest side being turned 
inwards, according to the bigness of the houses. Several families, to 
the number of fifteen, dwell together, '^very one having his own apart- 
ment. Their fortifications are most of them built on steep hills, near 
rivers ; the access to them is only at one place. They are built after 
this manner: They set great poles in the ground, with oaken pallisa- 
(locs on each side, crossways, one amongst another; between the 
crosses, they set other trees, to strengthen the work. Within this 



enclosure they generally build twenty or thirty houses, o£ which some 
are ii hundred and eighty feet long, and some less, all of them full of 
j)eople. In the summer they pitch tents along by the river side to 
fish. Against winter they remove into the woods, to be near their 
game of hunting and also fuel." 

The mode of constructing habitations among the tribes of the 
Algonquin stock was quite uniform. Their temporary habitations, 
those designed for moving about from place to place in hunting and 
fishing, were constructed of pole frames and covered with matting or 
skins; but their more permanent dwellings, usually found in their 
villages, were constructed of bark. Light was usually admitted 
through an aperture at the top of the 1 xlge, through which also the 
smoke escaped. 

In their hunting or war expeditions, which often led them through 
desolate forests long dis- 
tances from home, the In- 
dians had the art of rearing 
temporary lodg' s Avith much 
readiness and facility. On 
arriving at their evening sta- 
tion, they gathered r few 
poles, placed them in the 
proper position, meeting at 
the top, and covered them 
with their matting or bark, 
completing the construction 
in perhaps half an hour's time. Among tribes of the snow latitudes, 
like the Esquimaux, tliey also understood how to convert snow into 
material for a wigwam, and in the depth of winter made them quite 

Mr. Morgan thus describes the habitation of the Iroquois people: 
"The Ga-no'-sofr, or Bark house, was a simple structure. When 
single, it was about twenty feet by fifteen upon the ground, and from 
fifteen to twenty feet high. The frames consisted of upright poles, 
firmly set in the ground, usually five upon the sides and four at the 
ends, including those at the corners. Upon the forks of these poles, 
about ten feet from the ground, cross poles were secured horizontally, 
to which the rafters, also poles, but more numerous and slender, were 
adjusted. The rafters were strengthened with transverse poles, and 
the whole were usually so arranged as to form an arching roof. After 
the frame was thus completed, it was sided up and shingled with red- 
elm or ash bark, the rough side out. The bark was flattened and 




dried, and then cut in the form of boards. To hohl these bnrk l)onrd8 
firruly in their places, another set of poles, corresponding with those 
in the frame, were placed on the outside; and, by means of si)lints and 
bark rope fastenings, the boards were secured horizontally between 

,-j them. It usually re- 

quired four lengths of 
boards and four courses 
from the ground to the 
rafters to cover a side 
as they were lapped at 
the ends, as Avell as 
clap-})oarded ; and also 
in the same proportion 
for the ends. In like 
manner the roof was 
covered w i t h b a r k 
boards, smaller in size, 

OA-NO-SOTE, OK IUO(iU01S BAKK HOUSE. Wltll the roUgll SUlc Out, 

and the grain running 
up and down; the boards being stitched through and tlirough with 
fastenings, and thus held between the frames of poles, as on the 
sides. In the center of the room Avas an opening for the smoke, the 
fire being upon the gi'ound in the center of the house, and the 
smoke ascending without the guidance of a cliimney. At the two 
ends of the house were doors, either of bark hung upon hinges of 
wood, or of deer or bearskin suspended before the opening; and, how- 
ever long the house, or whatever the number of fires, these were the 
only entrances. 

"Over one of these doors was cut the tribal device of the head of 
the family. Within, upon two sides, Avere arranged Avide seats, also of 
bark boards, about two feet from the ground, Avell supported under- 
neath, and reaching the entire length of the house. Upon these they 
spread their mats of skins, and also their blankets, using them as seats 
by day and couches at night. Similar berths were constructed on each 
side, about five feet above these, and secured to the frame of the 
house, thus furnishing accommodations for the family. Upon cross- 
poles near the roof was hung in bunches, braided together by the husks, 
their winter supply of corn. Charred and dried corn and beans Avere 
generally stored in bark barrels and laid away in corners. Their 
implements for the cliase, domestic utensils, Aveapons, articles of 
apparel, and miscellaneous notions, were stowed away and hung up 
wherever an unoccupied place was discovered. A house of this 



clesfiiption woulil accommodate a family of eight, with the limited 
wants of the Indian, and afford shelter for their neceHsary stores, 
making a not uncomfortable residence. After they had learned the 
use of the ax, they began to substitute houses of hewn logs, but they 
ccmstructed them after the ancient model. Many of the houses in 
their modern villages in the valley of the Genesee were of this descrip- 

The style of lodges among the tribes of the Dakota stock dilfored 
somewhat in their api)earance and construction fi'om those of the 
Algon(i[uin. Their lodges were generally constructed by setting up 
poles, meeting and fastened at the top, making a lodge from eight to 
fifteen feet in diameter, the poles being from ten to fifteen feet high 
and covered with tanned 
buffalo skins; elk skins were 
also used for this purpose. 
They make summer houses, 
in size from twenty to thirty 
feet long and about fifteen or 
twenty feet wide, of wood or 
perches set upright. These 
perches were set in the 
ground about one foot, and 
were about six feet out of the 
ground, and over this was put 
a ro(jf of elm bark. These 
habitations were very favor- 
able for summer use. A lodge of skins would last three or four years 
The skin lodge they carried about on their backs, or on horses, through 
all their winter hunts. These, in general, would accommodate five or 
six persons. In some lodges, the Sioux of the Plains say they have 
feasted fifty warriors without inconvenience. About four feet is what 
one person would occupy. The women constructed ami removed the 

Among the Winnebagoes, a branch of the Dakota stock, the cus- 
tom in constructing their lodges was much the same as with the tribes 
of the Algoncj^uin stock. With them a lodge forty feet in length and 
sixteen in width would accommodate three families of ten persons each. 

Among many tribes, of the Dakota and Shoshonee stock, their per- 
manent habitations were constructed in more substantial style, and 
covered with earth. Of this class were the habitations of the Omahas, 
which are thus described by Alice C. Fletcher, for some time a resi- 
dent among them : 




"These (l\vellin>^8 nre built by setting carefully niiil pre- 
pared posts closely together in a circle and binding them Hriuly with 
willows, then backing thein with dried grass and covering the entire 
structure with closely [lacked sods. The roof is made in the samn 
manner, having an additional supin)rt of an inner circle of posts, with 
crotches to hold the cross logs which act as beams to the dome-sliaped 
roof. A circular opening in the center serves as a chimney and also 
to give liglit to the interior of the dwelling; a sort of sail is rigged 
and fastened imtside of this opening to guide the smoke and prevent it 
from annoying the inmates of the lodge. The entrance passage way 
usually faces the east, is from six to ten feet long, and is built in the 
same manner as the lodge. A skin or blanket is hung at the outer 


opening, and another at the inner entrance, thus affording a double 
protection against wind and cold. The fire is kindled in a hollowed 
place in the center of the floor, and around the walls are arranged 
platforms made of reeds, on which robes are spread for use as seats by 
day and as beds by night." 

Such also, as before described, were the style of habitations 
among the Kansas, Mandans, Hidatsa, Osages and many other cognate 
tribes of the great American plains. 

The Caddoes, lonies, Ah-mau-dah-kas, Wacos and To-wac-o-nies, 
who dwelt in the country of the Brazos, had houses built of a frame- 
work of poles, in a conical shape, thatched with long prairie grass, 
with low doors ; the fires built in the center of the lodge ; the lodge 
circular, about twenty-five feet in diameter and twenty high. 

In La Clercq's " Establishment of the Faith," Vol. 2, p. 170, is 




tlio followinjj (Ipscription of tlip Imbitntioiis of a triho cnllod tlio Titriisa. 
ill wliiit irt now tht< state of Ti'Iiuchscc: "Tht> vxills of their Iiousoh aro 
mado of earth, mixed with straw, the rouf is of cuiies which forms a 
dome that is adorned with paintings." 

Major Backus, of the United States nrmy, says of the Navajoe 
h)dge that it is an oxceedin<^ly I'ude structure, and is usually built of 
piiion or cedar sticks, which are covered on the exterior with flat stones 
and earth. It is in the form of a cone, seldom exceedinjjf five feet in 
lieight, and has a triangular opening in front. The fire is nnuh' in 
front of the lodge. The Navajoes are nomadic in their liahits. often- 
changing their residences, frequently siieltering themselves in caves or 
fissures of the rocks. They have no permanent residences. 

The Nootka Indians, a branch of the Shoshonee slock. l)uilt (|uite 
substantial habitations of planks and hewn timber, thus described by 
John II. Jewett, who was four years a captive among tli«Mn: "They 
erect in the ground two very large {)osts, at such a ilistance apart as is 
intended for tlie length of the house. On these, whicii are of equal 
height, and hollowed out at the uj>per end, they lay a large spar foi- 
the ridge pole of the building, or if the length of the house requires it. 
two or more, supporting their ends by similar upright posts; these 
spars are sometimes of an almost incredible size, having myself meas- 
ured one in Maquina's house, wliich I found to be one hundred feet 
long, and eight feet four inches in circumference. At equal distances 
from these two posts, two otliers are placed on each side, to form the 
Avidth of the building; these are rather shorter than tiie first, and on 
them are laid in like manner spars, but of a smaller size, having the 
upper part hewed flat, with a narrow ridge on the outer side t«) support 
the ends of the planks. Tlie roof is formed of pine planks, with a 
broad feather edge, so as to lap well over each other, which are laid 
lengthwise from the ridge pole in the center to the beams at the sides, 
after which the top is covered with planks eight feet broad, wh'-h form 
a kind of covering, projecting so far over the ends of the planks that 
form the roof as completely to exclude the rain. On these they lay 
large stones to prevent their being displaced by the wind." 

The mats heretofore spoken of, used for lodge covering, were 
made from rushes in a manner somewhat like that by which the 
Chinese make similar fabrics, not unlike the mode in which the house- 
wives in early times made rag carpet, the rushes serving as the warp 
of the fabric. They were about four feet wide, and of various lengths, 
as the occasion for which they were used demanded, and when carried 
from place to [)lace were rolled up like a scroll. 

It has been suggested that the Indian, in constructing his lodge 





or wigwam of cone Blinpe, or aH Mr. Schook-raft Ims oxpreHsed it, in the 
siiapo of an inverted bird'n nost, haH borrowed liin idea from the habi- 
tation of the i)eaver, wiiieh la, in form, Hive tiie eone HhapCMl wigwam 
of the Ojihway.s and many otiier tribes iuiiabiting tiie beaver coiintrieH. 
Many travelers liave noted the faet that tliere were some trii)eH of 
IndiaiiH, even in their native condition, who built <}uite Hubstantial 
habitations. This class of habitations was somewhat common among 
tlie Dakotas, also the ChickaHaws, and more southern tribes towards 
tlie Gulf of Mexico. Ca[)t. Carver notes the fact that when he visited 
the tribe of Sauks, or O-sau-kics, on the Wisconsin river near the 
portage of the Fox river, they had, at that place, a village containing 
ninety houses, each largo enough for several families. They were 
built of hewn planks, neatly jointed and covered with l)ark, so as to 
keep out the most penetrating rains, and before the doors were placed 
comfortable shades. The streets were regular and spacious, so that it 
appeared more like a civilized town than the abode of savages. 



The Wonl Cnnoe— From wlienco Derived— Anioii>r what Twplo Firflt Sppii by 
EtirDpoans— How ]Miuli>— Beciimo ii UnivtTHal Wonl aiii<)ii>,' tlio WhitoH— IiuIIh- 
IK'Usahlo to tho Imlian— IjHftl by War ParticH— DilTciviil, StylcH of Caiiot-H— 
Anionic DiffiTt'iit Triboa find XatioiiH— Caiioo of tlm Maiulaiis and Wt'Htcra 
Tribes— Cauoes of the CnrrlViboefl—Bark Canoefi— Canoew of I,ii,'ht ^Nlntcrial for 
Convenience of TortaKe Mode of Constructing' Canoes— Various Sizes— 
Helectiii),' Trees for ii Cunoe— Time of StripiiiiH,' Bark for Canoe— Quotation 
from Longfellow. 

cASoi-: I'oBTAt.K. 

"/'p^y HE word m //or- is one 

J . •* cominj' t'l'oin tho laii- 

■ ." '.f gi^"o'- ^*f tliG Carrih- 

'^ ''"'' beos, a Dative people 

toiiiid l)y C'olumbus iiiliabit- 

iii^ the eastern portion of the 

"W.'st Indies. They caHed 

tliemselves, in their own lan- 

;,Miage, C(iri)i(ijj(), C<iIIi'jhiii<iii, 

Cdliiiafjo, and, abljreviated, 

Cah'iKi, signifying, it is said, a brave and valiant man. The original 

word for canoe in the language of tliis pcoph; was Caiutoa. 

It is here, among this people, that this kind of boat was first seen 
by Europeans. It was formed from the truidj of a tree, dug out or ex- 
cavated by cutting or burning into a suitable shai)e. The natives not 
being possessed of iron or metallic tools, tiad having the use of only 
such as could be shaped out of hard stone, made but slow progress in 
the process of cutting into wood, hence, in work of this kind, they were 
aided by the application of fire, through which means, by care in con- 
nection with their rude implements, they were enablec^. to shape boats 
of tills kind, so as to make tiiem (piite perfect, although the process 
was very slow and tedious. 

This kind of boat being something entirely new to Europeans, and 
unlike anything of their ov.n, in its structure, attracted attention, and 







became a marked object in their subsequent (lescri[)tions of the 
manners and customs of tiiis people; hence, among all people of the 
various languages, subsequently visiting tlie American continent, tlie 
wonl rdiioc became the general ti'rm for a boat of this kind. Wliilst 
the pojmlar idea has been that it was an Indian word, in the language 
of the tribes of the American continent, the fact is, that it comes from 
the language or dialect of a tribe of minor inqjortance, inhabiting t\w 
islands of the sea, and having no connection or communication, so far 
as known, with the natives of the continent or main-land. 

The word for canoe in the language of the great Algontjuin 
group is Cltc('-)ii(iiiii ; in that of the Iroquois, (id-o-ira : in tiic Dakota, 
117/-/^. In the Nootka dialect the wtu'd for canoe is Cliap-alz. 

Mr. Ellis, in his work entitled the " Red Man and the White 
Man," very justly remarks tlifit, '•what the horse is to the Arab, the 
dog to the Esquimaux, and the camel to tiie traveler across the desert, 
the canoe was to the Indian; that it served the purpose for trans[)orta- 
tion of himself from place to place, across and along the rivers and 
streams, over the small lakes or still bodies of inland waters, and 
across the bay and arms of the sea, and otliur great waters of the con- 
tinent; and that it served for the Indian's transport with his furs and 
commoditi(is, which wm-e rendered articles of commerce after the com- 
ing of the white man, the pro[)ortion which the waterways l)ore to land 
tcavel for the routes which the Indian traversed being estimated 
at least at nine parts out of ten. The lake shore was skirted, the 
swanq) was cunningly threaded, the river channel was boldly 
followed, the rapids were shot and leaped, and the mazy streams of 
shallows and sand-bars were [)atiently traced in all their sinuosities by 
the frail skiff." 

Canoes were also used by war [)arties, in fleets of large numbers, 
in proceeding to attack an enemy, and sometimes battles were fought 
by oj)posing forces in tiuMi' canov^s on some broad ex[)aiise of warci'. A 
noted instance of ':his kind is related where a {)arty of Ojibways. to 
avenge an injury ccnnmilted upon them, [>ursued a [)arty of Fox Indians 
on Lake Superitu', whom they overtook some distance east of La Poiide, 
and near the mouth of Montreal river, and, in their large canttes, which 
sat firndy on the water, attacked ^\ ith great fury, and nearly destroyed 
the whole party of Foxes, some 400 in number, who, being in small 
canoes, were U[)set. and most of them drowned or dispatched in the 

As the cities of the white man are. for the convenience of trans- 
portation and commerce, situated upon navigable waters, or arms and 
bays of great seas, so the Indian selected for his habitation, or 



collection of habitations, called villages, some eligible spot upon a 
stream, lake or arm of some great body of water, for convenience in 
traversing the country by water, for various purposes suited to his 
mode of life. 

The different tribes and nations had different styles in which 
canoes were made, and there was a diversity in the material, marked 
by the locality or other circumstances. One kind of canoe was con- 
structed of wood from the section of a large tree in the manner here- 
tofore described among the Carribbees; another was constructed of 
bark, generally of the birch tree; when this was not to be had, the 
bark of the red elm was used, especially among the Iroquois nation. 


The Mandans, living on the upi)er Missouri river, and some tril)es 
in the vicinity, made canoes of the skins of l)uffaloos, Avhich wcu'e 
made almost round like a tub, by straining a buffalo skin over a form 
of wicker work made of willow or other bough... These were moved 
by means of a [)addle in the hands of a person standing at the bow, 
the person reacliing tlio paddle forvard and drawing it towards him, 
by which means he pulUnl t!ie canoe along with considerable speed. 

Mr. Catlin says that these very curious and rudely constructed 
canoes were made in the form of the "Welch '•oracle, which he under- 
stands wore propelled in the same manner as the Mandan canoe, and 
whicli lie regards as a very curious circumstance, inasmuch as the 
Mauilaiih are founil in the heart of the great wilderness of America, 
while all the otlier surrounding trilies construct their canoes in 
decidedly different forms and of ilifferent materials. There were also 
difft^rent styles of canoes that were made of the same material; among 
many tribes the general st>lo of the canoe, whether made of wood or 
bark, was, however, essentially the same. 

As the ships or great water crafts for navigating the st^as would 
vary in form or style among the different imtions constructing them, 
so, among the different tribes and nations of Indians, the style of their 
canoes would be marked by a method of construction or ornament 
peculiar to each tribe oi' nation, which, in some res[)ect8, would nt/te 
their ingenui'.^ or degree of intelligence. 

The canoe of the Carribbees was simple and rude in its form and 
construction, being what would be called in common s])eech a mere 



dug-out, as straight in for n as the log of Avhich it was constructed, 
being, however, brought to a point at the bow and stern; but tho 
tribes of the continent were very generally able to make the canoe 
more ornameiital in style of construction, the bow and stern not only 
being brought to a sharp point, as a means to serve in guiding through 
the waters, whereby it would be propelled more easily, but also pro- 
jecting iipward, somewhat in the form of a scroll, and artistically 
carved so as to present a very fine appearance. In this regard the 
natives of the Pacific coast, in Oregon and Washington territories, were 
particularly ingenious, and showed remarkable skill and intelligence 
in constructing their canoes of wooden logs, making them sometimes 
of enorraovis size, so that they would stand very heavy seas on the 
ocean, upon which they sometimes ventured at considerable distance 
from the land. 

Bark canoes were seldom found among the natives south of thirty- 
five degrees north latitude, which was from the fact, as is understood, 
that there Avas no suitable kinil of bark found in that region from 
which to construct canoes; but among the tribes further north canoes 
were made of wood as well as bark, but to a more limited extent, from 
the fact that to make them of wood required more labor, and th(>y 
could not be made so light as if constructed of bark. 

In countries where tribi^s traveled over long distances in their 
canoes, v hich necessarily required that portages should be made on 
tlie route of long journeys, it was important that the canoes should 
be made of as liglit weight as possible, and ranong such tribes tiie 
bark canoe was (piite universally in use. The Winnebagoes used 
chiefly canoes niaile of wood, which they finished with great skill. 
The Sioux or Dakotas made canoes of both wood and bark; but made 
few in proportion of the latter material, and even these, it is said, 
were poor and ill-constructed. They were more skillful in making 
canoes of wood. 

It is remarked by travelers in early days tliat no bark canoes were 
found among tho tribes in the country of the northwest coast. 

It seems that some of the American tribes, altlumgh in the midst 
of streams, did not possess the ingenuity of making canoes of the 
ordinary style, but used instead a kind of raft. Mr. Wyeth, a tradtn- 
forty years ago in the country of tho Bhoshonoes, says that the 
navigation of that region appears to have l)een c<infined to the cross- 
ing of streams Avhen the water was too cold for comfortable swimming, 
and that the only convenience used for that purpose was something 
that was little more than a good raft, made of reeds, which were found 
in many of the streams. These rafts were about eight faet long, and 



were formed by placing small bundles of reeds, with the butt ends lasheil 
together, with their small ends outwards. Several of these bundles 
were lashed together opposite each other, end m sucli a manner as to 
form a cavity on the upper side of the rrit. There was no attempt to 
make them water-tight, the dependence lor floating being on the buoy- 
ancy of the materials used. The raft was propelled with a stick, and 
almost entirely by pushii. :. This rude form of navigation Avas, 
a[>parently, tlie only one ever used in that i)art of the country, in 
which, in fact, there was hardly enough tindjer to encourage the more 
improved foi'ui of boat. 

Tlie tribes of the Algt)n(j^uin group, and those of the Iroquois 
stock, north ot the latitude before mentit)ned, as a general thing con- 
structed their canoes of bark. Canoes of this material were seldom 
found among tribes of other nations save the Dakotas. The ^reat 
Ojibway nation, who were of tlit; Algoncpiin stock, used bark canoes. 
It is said they were the most skillful canoe builder 5 in this country, 
and ])r()bal)ly the most skillful in this regard of any people in the 

The frame of the work was made of pine or some other light 
wood, which was sheathed over Avith birch bark, or, where it could not 
be had, that of the red elm tree. The edges of the sheathing Avei'e 
lapped and then, sewed together Avith thin lilaments of elm bark, or 
Avith the delicate strong roots of the tamarack, called in the Algonc^uin 
language Wahtp. Then the seams Avero covered over thorougldy 
Avith the gum from the fir tree, or other like substance, and thereby 
made perfectly tight, so that it Avould riile upon the Avater as light as a 
cork. As the bottcnu Avas perfectly round, having no keel, it recpiired 
great skill in riding it, to keep it balanced so as not to iipset; but the 
experienced Indian found no inccmveiuence Avhatever in this regard. 
Under his consummate skill, his can<^e Avould glide over the Avater Avith 
such unerring balance that scarcely any tleviation Avhatever could be 
perceived from its natural position in the Avater Avhen not under 

These canoes Avere of various sizes, the most common being about 
tAvelve feet in length. Tlu)se of this length Avere intended for carrying 
tAvo persons. The largest Ave re from thirty-six to f(U'ty feet in length. 
The carrying capacity of a canoe of tAventy-five feet long, it is said, 
Avas estimated at about tAvo tons, but the Indians of the Pacific ct)ast, 
before referred to, made much larger canoes Avith nmch greater carry- 
ing capacity, (extending frequently to one hundred feet in length, and 
having a Avidth in proper proportion. 

In selecting trees from AAduch to obtain bark for a canoe, the 



object is to obtain such trees ns will att'ord strips of bark us long as 
the canoo is designed to be, so tliat the bottom of the bout will be, if 
possible, all of one piece, thus affording greater strength. The sides 
of canoo may be of several pieces, proj)erly joined as before described. 
Barou La Hontan, in describing the mo(hj of construction of birch 
bark canoes, says they aie trimmed and strengthened with Avicker 
Avrenths, and ribs of cedar Avood, Avhich are almost as light as a cork. 
On the two sides of the boat there run, from t)ne end to the other, two 
principal liead-bars, in which the ends of the ribs are encased, and in 
Aviiich the spars that run across the boat and keep it compact are made 

The time for olitaining bark from the birch-tree, in the order of 
nature, is during or about the month of August, when the sap is 
passing from the branches doAA-nwards. so that the bark is sufficiently 
loosened to be stripped from the tree Avithout difficulty. Whenever the 
sap is Avanting, at other seasons, during Avhich it adheres tightly to 
the tree, it Avas loosened by the Indians by the means of hot Avater 
applied to the tree, so it could be easily taken off. This mechanical 
process, however, Avas not ailequate to admit of taking off the bark in 
very large pieces. 

The mode of proceeding in manufacturing the bircli bark canoe 
is tlius graphically described by the poet LongfelloAv, in his "Song of 

" Givo mo of your hiirk. () Birch-Tree! 
Of your yellow bark, O Birch-Tree! 

I a light cauoe will huilil mo, 
BuiUl a swift Cheemaiui for sailing, 

That shall float upou the river." 

* # * » 

Thus alot'.il "riod Hiawathii. 

« « # ■» 

With his kuife the tree he tjirdleil; 
Just beneath its lowest branches, 
Jiist above the roots, he cut it, 
Till the sap came ooziufj oiUwards; 
Down the trunk, from top to bottom. 
Sheer he deft the bark asunder. 
With a wooden wedye he raised it, 
Stripped it from the trunk unbroken. 
"Give me of your bouj,'hs, () Cedar! 
Of your stront,' and pliant branches. 
My canoe to make more steady, 
Make more stronjj and tirni beneath me!" 

Down he hewed the bou^jhs of cedar, 
Shaped them straiKhtway to a frnuie-work, 




Like two bows be formed and shaped them, 
Like two bended bows together. 
' Give me of your roots, O Tamarack ! 
Of your fibrous roots, O Lareh-Treel 
My eanoo to bind together, 
So to bind the ends together 
That the water may not enter. 
That the river may not wet me!" 

•r T* •I* "p 

From the earth he tore the fibers, 
Tore the tough roots of the Larch-Tree, 
Closely sewed the bark together, 
Bound it closely to the frame-work. 
"Give me of your ])alm, O Fir-Tree! 
Of your balsam and your resin. 
So to close the seams together 
That the water may not enter. 
That the river may not wet me! " 

*F SjC 3|C ^ 

And he took the tears of Balsam. 
Took the resin of the Fir-Trec, 
Smeared therewith each seam and fissure, 
Made each crevice safe from water. 

n"" I* 1* n* 

Thus the birch canoe was builded. 



Weapons of the Primitive Indian— The Bow and Arrow— War CInb— Spear— Hatchet 
— Flint Arrow Heads— Stone Hateliets Utensils for Various Purposes — Flint 
Knives Graiuiiif,' Tools — Awls — Fish Spears — Nets— Implements for Produci'ifj 
Fire — Utensils for CookiuK— Clay Pots. 

/,^'W'.\T the time Avhen the American 
V / \ Imliaiis Avere tirst encountered 
ll:/\i l>y Europeans they had ainonj^r 
-^vs,-^ thoni no weajions or utensils 
made of iron or any other kind of 
metal, although it is incidentally noted 
in New England history that Avhile a 
party of Pilgrims, who came over in the 
Mayflower, were out exploring the 
country soon after lauding, on going 
back into the country a short distance, 
ft vt)lley of arrows was shot at them by 
the natives, without damage, however. 
These arrows they took pains to gather up and examine, and found 
among them one that Avas pointed with brass, the others being with 
flint, and the tips of deer's liorns; but this brass pointed arrow head, 
as noted, must have come from European sources in some way, and 
not from any manufacture of the Indians. 

The evidence of history is that their weapons and utensils were 
originally made of wood, shells and stone, or the bones of animals. 
Along the Atlantic coast, and far back into the interior, tlui hoe with 
which the Indian women cultivated the field, it is said, was a clamsliell 
or something of that kind. Their common ax was of stone, having a 
withe fastened in the form of a noose or hiop around the head part for 
a handle. Their mortars, in which they pounded or pulverized their 
corn, pestles for pounding, and chisels for various purposes, were also 
of stone or wood. They also had implements of stone Avhich served for 
knives for various purposes, which, it is said, Avere sharpened to so 




keen an etlji^e that they coiikl easily cut their hair with tliem. They 
also hail pots and vessels of miiuerous styles made of clay, some of 
which were made in that manner and of such kind of clay as to with- 
stand the heat of fire for cooking. 

In catching fish they made nets from the fibre of the bark of trees, 
or from a kind of weed in the nature of hemp. They also canglit fish 
by means of a hook made of bones, fastened to a line in the same 
manner as practiced among our own people. When fish were found in 
shallow water, they were taken by shooting with a bow and sharp 
pointed arrow, in the use of which the Indians were very skillful. 
They also made a kind of spear pointed with deer's horn or sharj) stone, 
with which they also took fish from the water. 

Their weapons of war were the bow and arrow, spear, war club, 
and stone ax. The arrow was headed with a sharp stone or fiint, 
sometimes with the horn of the deer or the claw of the eagle. They 
also had a kind of spear which they used as a weapon of war, and 
which Avas nothing more than a small pole sharpened at the end and 
hardened by means of fire, or by thrusting into hot ashes. As for the 
tomahawk, that common implement in both war and peace, with the 
Indian in later times, it was not the im|)lement of such general use 
originally, when made of stone. The tomahawk of metal came into 
common use among the Indians in consequence of its being furnished 
them by the Avhites. After the introduction of the metallic hatchet or 
tomahawk, it superseded the use of many other implements; as did 
also the metallic scalping-knife, furnished them by the white man in 
later times. 

Metallic scalping-knives and tomahawks of civilized manufacture 
for Indian use, were carried into the Indian country by thousands and 
ten thousands, and sold at enormous jirices. In his rude, untutored 
condition, the Indian was a stranger to weapons of this kind, and, as 
Mr. Catlin remarks, "he works not in the metals, and his untutored 
mind has not been ingenious enough to design or execute anything so 
savage or destructive as these civilized rcjincmcnis on the Iiididii bar- 
Ixiritij. In his native simplicity he shapes his rude hatchets from a 
piece of stone, heads his arrows and spears with flint, and his knife is 
a shar[)ened boije or the edge of a broken silex." 

The war cluli of modern times, with a blade of steel eight or ten 
inches in length, and set in a club studded around and. ornamented pro- 
fusely with brass nails, since the coming of the white man, is also 
another civilized refinement among later Indian weapons. The primi- 
tive war club of the Indian, curiously wrought of wood, and fashioned 
with considerable ingenuity of form and grace with a spike of bone or 



j)ohit of (leer's horn, wliioli was iinbeilded in tlio Ixill or 1)1111) nt the 
head, was admirably fitted to the hand, and cak'ulated to deal a ileadly 
blow. The head of the war club is about three and one-half inches in 
<lianieter, with an edge of tlint or some other hard substance that may 
be sharpened on one side. 

'Before the Indians acouired motallir htilcheis tiioA' had •jreat diffi- 
culty in cutting down trees and s[)litting u[) the wood for use. The 
mode of felling them was by burning at the roots, when they would cut 
off the branches and split uj) the tree with their stone hatchets to the 
best advantage these implements would a(bnit of. Their hatchets were 
usually made of such hard substances as to withstand the stroke for 
this purpose; but to sharpen the edges of them it took a great deal of 
time and patience. 

Another mode which the Indian had of putting a handle i:pon his 
stone hatchet was by splitting a thrifty growing branch of a young tree 
sufficiently to admit of crowding the ax into the same, so as to have 
each side of the branch fit into the groove around the head of the ax. 
Here it would be left until the branch had grown completely around 
the stone, sufficiently firm to form a handle, when the branch was cut 
off of even length. This made a very substantial implement for the 
purposes for which the ax was ilesigned. 

One of the Pilgrim writers, in giving an account of the exploration 
of a party of that people after landing from the Mayflower, gives the 
following information as to utensils of the Indians, found at that time 
on visiting some of the wigwams, whose occupants, it seems, were 
temporarily al)sent: 

" In the houses we found wooden bowls, trays and dishes, earthen 
pots, hand-baskets nuule of crab-shells wrought together, also an En- 
glish pail or bucket ; it wanted a bail, but it had two iron ears. There 
were also buckets of sundry sorts, bigger and some lesser, finer and 
some coarser; some were curiously wrought with black and white, in 
pretty works, and sundry other of their householil stuff. We found, 
also, two or three deer's heads, one whereof had been newly killed, for 
it was fresh. There was also a company of deer's feet, stuck up in the 
horns, hart's horns and eagle's claws, and sundry such like things 
there were ; also two or three baskets full of [)arched acorns, pieces of 
fish, and a piece of broiled herring. We found, also, a little silk grass, 
and little tobpcco seed, with some other seeds, which we knew not. 
Without were sundry bundles of flags, sudledge, bulrushes and other 
stuffs to make nuits. Some of the best things we took away with us, 
and left the houses standing still as they were." 

(The Indians no doubt considered themselves fortunate upon fur- 



ther iu'(iuaintnnco with the white lunn, thiit their houses on the occasion 

referreil to were left stimdin^f, luul tliat they escaped by having only 

some of their best things taken away). 

To aci'oinpany the l)ow and arrow, the Indian had wiiat is called a 

quiver, in which he carried his arrows. It was variously constructed 

and ornamented, generally made of the skins of animals, or some kind 

of bark suitable to the purinise. It was suspended from the shoulders 

by H strap around the breast. Tiie Indian's efliciency in war and 

hunting depended largely on the nunil)er of arrows he Avas able to 

])rocuro. As n general thing each Indian possessed the ingenuity to 

manufacture his own arrows as well as most other weapons and 

utensils; but there woi;ld be among all tribes, ns a rule, one or more 

pers(ms skilled in the art of arrow-making, which was [)ursued as 

a calling. A character made so prominent in Longfellow's celebrated 

"Song of Hiawatha," wherein the arrow-maker is thus referred to: 

"There tlu> iiiicieut nrrow-makor, 
Miulo his iirrow heads ol' saud stone, 
Arrow hi-ails of Chalcedony, 
Arrow heads of Hint and jasper 
Smoothed and sharpeiicd at tlio edges. 
Hard aud pohshed, keeu and costly." 

It seems that the shield, that means of [u-otection in battle so im- 
portant among the ancient warriors of the Old "World, was fountl 
amon<r the native tribes of America at an earlv dav. but mostlv amoui' 
those of the groat American plains on the west of the ]Mi.ssissij)[)i ; but 
it is not well settled whether this implement was known to thein before 
the discovery, or whether it was introduced among them by the 
Spaniards upon their invasion of New ^Mexico. The better opinion, 
however, wotild seem to be. that the Indian adopted the use of this im- 
plement after he ac(piired the ttse of horses, iii which he imitated the 
Spanish warrior by use of a shield. The Indian shield was generally 
com[)Osed of the thickest pieces of buffalo skins, painted and decorated 
in the highest style of their art. They appended to it orimments of 
easfle's feathers and the like. 

Early travelers state that some of the tribes in the country of the 
northwest ct)ast, wore for their dress a jacket of mail, which covered 
them in front, and afforded protection against arrows, to the most 
vital portion of their bodies, and was composed of thin battens of 
very tough wood, woven together by a small cord, with armholes and 
strings at the bottom corners to fasten it around the waist. 

Bttt among the catalogue of Indian titensils or implements, that of 
his pipe was the most important and indispensable. This was 
constantly at hand, and from it he drew consolation equally in hunger, 






wnnt or inisfortuiit'. To tliis lie apiit'iilcd iis ix ini'diiuii of (•oniiimiiioii 
with tln' (ircfit Spirit, tiic smoko ot' wliicli. as it iisct'iidod ii|iWMi'ds, ho 
iiiui;,'iiitiil wiiH iitHM>ptid)iti to Him iih aa otVciin^ ot iiis giatitiuh* and 

A tnivoler. spoaUiii^ of liousehold utonsils in the priiuitivo litV of 
tho Indian. «(iys: 

•• Tlin furniture in tiiewe native iiuts is t>xootHlin<;iy simplf. 'I'hc 
chiof artic'lt's nro two or tiiruo potn or ketth's for boiling' their food, 
witli u few wooden jjhites and Hpoous. Tho former, in tho absence of 
metal, witii which tho inhabitantH were unac(juainted, were nnide of 
eoarso eartJienwaro tliat resisted the tire ; and sometimes of n species 
of soft Btono, wliicli could be exeavattnl with tlieir rude juitelu'ts. Nay, 
in sonui eases, tlieir kitclion utensils were of wood, and water nuido to 
boil by throwing in heated stiuu^s. Since their acijuaintance with the 
Europeans, the superiority of iron vessels has been found so decided 
that they are now universally preferrtnl. The ^n'eut kettle or caldron, 
employed oidy on higii festivals associated with relii^ion. huntin<;' (U- 
war, attracts even a kind of veneration, and potent chiefs have assumed 
its name as tiioir title of honor." 

Mr. Wyeth. s[)eaking of the Shoshonee Indians, says that the 
utensils orii^inally in use amonjj this people were wholly of stone, 
clay, bone or Avood. Their imphMuents Avere the pots, bow and arrow. 
knives, graining tools, awls, root-diggers (implements for digging roots 
used for food), spears, nets, a kind of boat or raft, the pipe, mats for 
shelter, and imi)Iement8 to produce fire. 

The pot. in most common use, Avas formed of some kind of long, 
tough root, Avound in plies around the center, shortening the circum- 
ference of tho outer plies so as to form a vessel in tho inverted shape 
of H bee-hive, properly securing the same, so as to make the A'ossel 
Avater-tight. This A'essel, among other things, is used for boiling 
food, Avhich is done by heating stones, and imnier?ing them in the 
Avater contained in it, until the required heat is attained for cooking. 

The boAvs of this people Avere made of the horns of the mountain 
8hee[) and elk. p;u1 < ' Avood. When made of horn, they AAore about 
tAvo feet ton inch' s long. They Avere of two parts. si)liced in the 
center by stu!.;ei a glue and deer sinews Avound around a splice. The 
horn is brought into shape by heating and Avetting, and is AA-orked 
smooth by scraping Avith sharp stones, and being drawn between tAvo 
rough stones, thus making au efficient and beautiful boAV. 

Their knives Avore rude instruments produced by breaking pieces 
of obsidian, Avhich had a tendency to form sharp edges, like glass, and 
was common in that country. 

wi'.Aru.Ns AM) irr.Nsii.s. 


Gmiiiiiij; tools for |)r(>|)iiriii<,' skins wert' uri<^in(vlly nuulo ot' bono; 
8oiiiotiiiit>s ()l)si(liaii, st'ciircd to II stiitl'. was usi'd for this purpose. Awls 
WITH iimilo of 1)0110 mill liir^'n lioriis ruiihi'il to m sharp point. 

Root-di'T^'crs wi'i'o frooki'il siicks, tlinoml usnl in tlio oarth lioin'r 
curved nnd Blinr[)oiu>d by pnttiM<,' it in tlin llro and ndthing against a 
ron^h stoiio. Tlicy wen* also made* of elk and di'cr horn, attaclu'd to 
n stick. Tluiy wero used to obtain small roots which tho country pro- 
duced, such ns hdiiKis, soiilx, i/diiip'is, t)ni()ns, tobacco root, etc. 

Tho woi'd l<iiiiiili(iirk is from tho Al^onnniii lanj;na<^e. pronoiuiced 
differently in tho «lialoct of the various eastoru tribes. The sij^niitica- 
tion of tho word by some authorities is said to be to strike. 

Says La Hontan: ••Uofore the Europeans arrived in North 
America, the sava^'o of the north and soutii made use of pots of earth. 
Instead of hatchets and knives, they nuide use of sharp stones, which 
tliey tie with thonj^s of leather, in tho end of a cleft stick. Instead 
of awls they make use of a certain sharp bone, wiiich is above the 
lioel of the elk. They have no fire-arms, but only make use of lii'W>» 
and arrows. 

" \Vhe- they would make platters or Avooden spoons, or porrin<;ej> 
they drill their wood with their stone hatchets, and liollow it with lire, 
and do after scrape it, and polish it with a beaver's tooth. 

"To |)lant their Indian corn they make use of pick axes of wood, 
for want of those of iron. They have hirge gourds in whicli they put 
the fat of bears, Avild cats, etc. There is none but has his leather bag 
for liis pipe and tobacco. The women make bags oi t!ie rind of linden 
trees, or of rushes, to put their corn in. Tliey make thread of nettles, 
and of tho bark of the linden tree, and of certain roots, whose names 
I know not. To sew their savage shoes, they make use of very snuiU 
thongs. They make likewise mats of bulrushes to lie upon, and, 
when they have none, they make use of the barks of trees. They 
make use of the l)ranches of trees to hang their earthen pots upon to 
boil their victuals." 

Implements used for procuring fire have been already mentioned 
in Chap. XIII of this work, concerning "Manners and Customs." 


'i; :. 


Applicatiou of Names lo Desiguato Persous— Imitation of Jewish Custom — Names 
have Sitruitioatiou— Mal(> ami Feiualo Names — No Snruaiiies — Dnplieato Names 
— From 'vlii'iu'i' Names of IVi'sons are ]1erived — Baby Names — Namiuj,' Children 
— "There is Komethin^' in a Name"— Custom of the Dakotas— Custom in 
Chaugiuy Name— Niekijiimes — Objeetion to Speaking tht^ir Own Name— Ilusbaiu] 
iuid Wife do not Menticm Eaeh Other's Names — Examples of Tndian Names. 

W^^^^ custom of the 
^ k fipplicntiou of 

/f! yf namos f o (lesi>^iinte 
^ iiulividiials ain(in<; 
the race of inaiikiml is. 
a})pareiitly, as old as lan- 
guage itsolf, and the sys- 
tem a[>pears to havoexisted 
amongst all nations ami 
peoplo; ol)serving the cus- 
tom in general, in niuuing 
individuals, to give sucli 
as wore descriptive of the 
person, or as referred to 
some circumstance witli 
which the indiviiUial was 
in some whv connected, 
and the like. This -wa!-- 
especially so with the 
ancient Jews. 

The North American 
Indians had no otlior rule 
or ith^i than this In giving 
names to persons. They 
have faithfnllv imitated the Jewish custom in this reirard. Tlinniirh- 
out , 11 Christendom, at least, the custom of the Jews has been 

foUowfd, by simply adopting, to a great extent, the names in use by 

I ; 120 1 


Nnmc of :iii Ojilnvny iliii'l' u'ul fiivmlti' iiiiiiio for persons 
anions hiiliiui liilii's 



tbat poo[)lo; as, for instanro, the word Aaron, which is a Hebrew 
name, signifying "h)fty," "inspired." The only difference between 
Christian people and the Hebrews is, that we here adopted this and 
other like names arbitrarily or without reference to their original 

Mr. Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary, referring to this 
subject, says: Indians who have particularly distinguished themselves 
by their conduct or by some meritorious act, or who have been the 
subject of some remarkable occurrence, have names given to them in 
allusion to those circumstances. Thus, lie says, he knew a great war- 
rior who had been im[)atiently waiting for daylight to engage the 
enemy, who was afterwards called ('(tiisc da i/ii(jli I, or 3f(i}{(' daijliiihi 
appear. So, one who had come in with a heavy load of tuikeys on his 
back, was called Titc carrier of larke/jx, and another, whose shoes or 
moccasins were generally torn or patched, was called Bad shoes ; all of 
whicii n-imes wM-e generally expressed in a single word, in compound 
form, or in the manner of t)ur own compound wortls. 

The custom in regard to names of persons, both male and female, 
seems to have been the same throughout all the native tribes of the 
continent, with all the attendant superstitions, which were faithfully 
imitated and reproduced in like manner among them, down to the 
minutest circun.stances. 

The custom of surnami^s, existing among our own race, Avas some- 
thing unkhown among the Indians. Indeed, there seems to have been 
no occasion or demand for a custom of this kind among them. The 
requirement or convenience which suggested among us the application 
of surnames to distinguish one person from another, as of one John 
from another John, by surnaming these persons Jones or Smith, was 
entirely obviated in the principle upon which Indian names of persons 
were a^jplied; that is, by the application of a name whicli woulil lie 
descriptive of the person, or which would, in some way, indicate the 
person. In this custom the re)>etition <u' du[)lication of namt>s, or the 
same name among several persons, by which confusion Avould arise, 
wouhl rarely, if ever, occur. 

Among our ow!i race, hislor^ nforms us that each person originallv 
had but one name. The custom of distinguishing persons by surnnm'^s, 
it is said, first originated in (.iretn-e and Egypt, not so much from 
design as from circumsta;iccs; as in the case of Aristides, who was 
called thii Just, whicli latter word became his surname. So Phocitm 
was called the Good; Plato, the Athenian Hee. Surnames were intro- 
duced into England bv the Normans, and were adopted bvthe nobility 
A. D. 1100. The old Normans used /'V/^, signifying son, as FUzheybert. 




The Irish used O' for grandson, as O'Xcih The Scottish Highlanders 
used Mac, as Mactloiidld, sou oi Donald. The Saxons added the 
word son to the fatlier's name, as JVilliamson. 

Phito recommended that parents give happy names to thoir 
children; and the Pythagoreans taught th.i*; the ir.mds, actions, and 
successes of men were according to their u; mes, ^-enius and fate. 

The Indians, howr er, according to a cuKtvjni among them, fre- 
quently acquired duplicate names, and like a ciiHtom amonjf our own 
people, were sometimes known as well by one name as another; as in 
the case of Zachary Taylor, the hero of the Mexican war, was given the 
appellation of ''Rough and Eeady;'' so Gon. Jackson was called ''Old 
Hickory;" which were peculiar names by which these distinguished 
persons were known as well as by their true names; and so in the case 
of the great Seneca chief, Sa-gi-you-ind-ha, or "Keeper Awake,"' 
kiiOA^n also by the name of lied Jacket. 

In general, Indian names for persons are derived from Ihe terms 
for sky. chmd, sun, moon, stars, mist, wind, sound, thunder, ii-'liiuing, 
lakes, rivers, trees, animals, birds, and the like. The lii(liaii^> did not 
in their names of persons, strictly speaking, classify them as masculine 
and feminine, dividing them into classes for male and female. 
Amongst the Ojibways, however, in their names, the gender, or ames 
for females, were marked by the terminal syllable qua, as in the name 
An-zhc-hdx-o-qua, "Woman of the rock." Names for women were fre- 
quently otherwise marked, by being taken from different sources from 
that of males; as from the skies, the forest, the stream, or the field of 
flowers, and the like. 

The Indians also had amongst them a similar custom to our own, 
in regard to a class of names, which we call baby names, or names of 
childhood, such as Little Bii"d, Bad Boy, and other like names. They 
also had for thoir children their regular original, or what we call baj^- 
tismal names, which were frequently given, as with us, in ceremoiiiid 
style, concerning which Peter Jones says, that Avhen a child is to ()<i 
named, the parents make a feast and invite all the old people to come 
and eat at their wigwam ; a portion of the meat is offered as a burnt 
sacrifice; and, during the time this is burning, the giver of the name 
makes a jn-ayer to the God to whom lie is about to dedicate the child, 
and towards the close proclaiming what the mime is to be. 

In some cases they had their children named when a few davs old, 
in others iiot till they had attained the age of two or three years. 
Almost every young person received a nickname, either cliaracter' 'ic 
lU" arising from some peculiarity, which they often retained li'tor 
arriving at maturity; but, in such cases, these names were considered 



only in the light in whieh they were given, and not treated seriously 
or as permanent. 

According to Cnpt. Clark, among the Shien or Cheyenne Indians, 
when a child is first born, whether a boy or n girl, it is called baby 
(a girl baby or a boy baby), afterwards by any childish natne, until, it' 
a boy, lie goes to war. Then he will be named from something that 
has happened on the journey, from some incident, some animal kill id, 
or seme bird that is supposed to have helped liim to success. Capt. 
Clark says that an old Chej'enne Indian gave him the following inci- 
dent in his life cuncerniiig Ids own name. He said; 

■ "When I was bmall I w;is called Little Bint. "When I first went 
to war and returned to camp, tha name of Loiiij Horn was givo" me 
by an old man of the camp. Then the traders gave me the name of 
Tall-White-Man; and now, since I have become old, they (the Indi- 
ans) call mo Black Pipe. This name was given me from a ])ipe I 
used to carry when I Avont to Avar. I used to blacken the stem and 
bowl just the same as I did my face after these trips, and was es[)e- 
cially careful to do so Avhen I had been successful." 

The Indians, like our white people, believe that frequently there 
is something in a name, and under this notion they sometimes take 
the name of some successful, distinguished Indian warrior, who lias 
passed away from his own band or totem, believing that there is some 
special luck or medicine in this name. 

Among some of the Dakota tribes, the custom of naming their 
children in the order in which they were born prevailed; thus the 
first b(n-n son would be called ClKtsln', the second Jlarjidiii, the tliird 
Ihipc'da, the fourth Cluttiim. and the fifth ILtrtca. The first born 
daughter would be calleil Winona, the second Horpcn, the third Harp- 
stina, the fourth J)^<ixt:a, the fifth IVclKtrka. 

The Sauks or Osaukies, a tribe of the Algoiifiuiii stock, had a 
custom of naming their children in the order of tlieir birth, marked 
by the different colors with which the child was at first painted. The 
first in order, being painted Avhite, Avould bo called Wanpclto, meaning 
"he that is painttMl white." There was a cel(>bratf'd chief of that 
tribe by this name, Avho fiourished in the forepart of the ])resent cen- 
tury. The second would be painted yellow, and his name would be 
Os(nin-(t. i)r Osonirdli-cc, meaning "In; that is painted yellow." 

The Indians hat' a custom of a regular change of nanus which 
was made, at times, Avitli ceremony approj)riate to tlie occasion. In 
such cases, the name adopted became permanent, and Avas not consid- 
ered a duplicate of the former name, but as a substitute for that and 
all other names by AvLich the party hail bef<u'o that time been known. 



This custom finds its counterpnrt in tlie nations of the Ohl Workl, from 
the earliest time. For instance, Marcus Aurelius Antonius, Roman 
Emperor, A. D. 121, was first called Marcns and Annius Yerus, the 
two latter names bein<^ those of his father. Being afterwards adopted 
into the Aurelian family by Antonius Pius, he to>'k the name of M<iv- 
cns Aurelius. On his accession to the throne, he took the name of 

The popes changetl their names at tiieir exaltation to the Pontifi- 
cate, and history informs us that this was " a custom introduced by 
Pope Su'-gGus, whose name, till then, was Swine-Snout, A. 1). (JST." 
The custom was drawn originally, it is said, from the precedent fur- 
nished in the New Testament in the cases of Peter, who was formerly 
called Simon, and Paul, whose original name Avas Saul. 

In France it was usual to change the nan)e given at baptism, as 
^vaa done in the case of two sons of Henry II.. who were christened 
'.l^r "ider and Hercules, but whose names at their confirmation were 
ol fill', i respectively to Henry and Francis. And it was usual for 
thosL ,^ the Iiomisli church, at their entrance into monasteries, to 
assume new names, to show that they were about to lead a new life, 
and that they had renounced the world, their family and themselves. 

According to a very general custom among the Indians, after 
performing any special exj)loits, an Indian had a right to change his 
name if he so desired, and the new name he assumed might be 
changed several times during his lifetime. The first occasion of 
^hnvi^e was ijenerallv a i^reat event with an Indian brave. It was not 
necessary that the new name should l)e commemorative of the exploit 
occasioning the event of change, although this was, in general, sug- 
gestive of such new name. 

According to cu.stom among many of the western tribes, when the 
new name to be given a person was decided upon, in order to give it 
prominence by a kind of official sanction, a crier was employed, for 
some pecuniary consideration, to proclaim tliroughout the land that 
the person in (juestiou, giving his former name, had taken upon him- 
self a new name, ')y which he should henceforth be known; at tlie 
same time anium oing the new name. This corresponds to a like 
manner of changing names among the people of our more civilized 
governments, Avliich is done by petition and sanction of the law making 
power, or by decrees in courts of justice untler some general enact- 

Mr. Adair, who contends for affinity of the Indians witli the Jews, 
nmiarks that when the Israelites gave names to tiieir cliildnm (U* 
others, they chose such appellatives as best suited their circumstances 



and the time, aud this custom Wcas as early as the patriarclial age, for 
we find Abrara was clianged into Abraliani, the former meaning, 
" Fatlier of elevation," and the latter, " Father of a multitude." 
Jacob was changed into Israel; the former meainng "a supplanter," 
and the latter, "a soldier of God." Such changes were made, it is 
unilerstood, to correspond with changing circumstances and events in 
after life. Savs Mr. Adair: "This custom is a standing rule with the 
Indians, and I never observed the least deviation from it. Tiiey give 
their children names expressive of their tempers, outward appearaiu'es, 
and other various circumstances; a male cliild they would call ('lioold, 
'tiie fox,' and a female, Pakohlr, 'the blossom, or flower.' The 
father and mother of the former are calleil ( 'hooUiKfc and ClioulislilxC, 
'tlie father and m^dierof the fox;' in like manner, those of tlie latter, 
Pdkdbliiuij/c and Pakabliskc: for litm/t' signifies •the father,' and 
Islikc 'tlie mother.' " 

Peter Jones says that nicknames given to children are often 
retained after they have arrived at maturity. The character of this 
class of niunes can be judged from tlie following: Citf Xosc, a 
notorious Indian of the (Sioux nation, noted i'(U' his barl)arity in the 
great Sioux massacre in Minnesota in ISd'i. Loon Foot. ( Maung-zid l, 
generally known among tlie whites as Big Foot, a noted chief of the 
Pottawattamie tribe in the early part of the present century ; Winkiiuj 
Ei/(\ ( Che-che-bing-way ), a leading chief of the Pottawattamie ti'ibe, 
jn'omoted to tliat position by a great council at Prairie Du C'liien in 

The following is mentioned by Peter Jones among others, as an 
occasion for change of Indian names: If a sick person or his friends 
su[){,ose that the grim i) ouster Death has received a commission to 
come after an Indian bearing a certain name, they immediately make 
a feast, offer sacrifices, and alter the name. By this maneuver tliev 
think to cheat Death, when he comes, of the soul of the Indian of such 
a name, not being able to find the person bearing it. 

According to Charlevoix, one Indian, when talking to another in 
common discourse, never called him by h:s propin- }iame. This would 
bo considered impolite; but they always gave him the (juality he had 
with respect to the person that s[)oko to him. but when there was 
between them no relation or affinity, they used the term brother, uncle, 
nephew or cousin, according to each other's age, or according to the 
estimation in which they hehl the i)er.son they addressed. 

A very peculiar custom, it seems, prevailed very generally through- 
out all the tribes, in regard to persons telling their names. When 
asked to do so, an Indian would decline to give it himself, but such 




person as might be in company with him would give the name for him. 
The Arrapahoes say that this lias been a custom with them from their 
earliest traditions, of which they give no other explanation than that 
they were bo raised or educated, and they firmly adhere to this accepted 

According to Peter Jones, the same custom prevailed among the 
Ojibways, of which he says, when an Indian is asked his name he will 
look at some bystander and request him to answer. This reluctance 
arises from an impression they receive when young, that when they 
re[)eat their own name it will prevent their growth and they will be 
small in stature. Husbr.nds and wives, he says, never mention eacli 
other's names, it not being in accordance with Indians' notions of 

The Indian is not alone in notions of this kind; a very common 
custom prevails in domestic life among our white jieople, especially iu 
the middle and lower walks, wherein the wife, in referring to her 
husband, uses the personal pronoun, ai)d the husband frequently 
returns the compliment in the same manner. And it is indeed quite 
common, after the charms of early married life have passed away, 
a aJ have given place to the frosts of fading years, for the wife, instead 
of referring to her husband by name, to mention him as the "old 
man," and he, again, to return the compliment, speaks of her as the 
'"oUl woman." 

The Indian was tenacious of his custom iu giving names, so much 
so, indeed, that he was reluctant to recognize white men, as he became 
compelled to mingle with thom, by any names but those which he 
himself applied to them. Mr. Heckewelder notices this ptjuliar Indian 
trait, and says they will give names to white men derived from some 
remarkable quality which they have observed in them, or from some 
circumstance which renrrbably impresses them. Thus when they 
were told the meaning of the name of William Penn, and that the 
word " pen " meant an instrument for writing made of a quill, they trans- 
lated it into their language Mcquon, meaning " a feather or quill." 
Tiie Iroquois called him Oiuis, which in their idiom means the same 

The characteristic features in Indian names of persons are thus 
given by Em. Domenech, iu his M-ork entitled "Seven Years' Resi- 
dence in the Great Deserts of North America:" 


The Four Beiirs. 
Tho Deceitful Wolf. 
The Whito Buffalo. 
The Rod Beiir. 


The Rose BuJ. 

The Reclining} Flower. 

The Weepiiu; Willow. 

The Sweet Scented Herbatje. 



men's names. 

The Elk's Head. 

The Horses' Tramp. 

The Senbible Man. 

The Smoke. 

The Bloody Hnud. 

The Shell. 

He who Ties His Hair in Front. 


The White Cloud. 
The Swimming Hind. 
The Polar Star. 
The Pure Fountain. 
'I'he Woman Who Strikes Many. 
The Woman that Dwells in the Bear's 

Tlie following e.-camples of names of persons (males) in the Ojib- 
way dialect, with translations, are given by Peter Jones, the erlucateil 

XdivnlijcficzlK'nirahc, the sloping sky. 

Fcpoonahlxiij, the God of the north, who makes the winter. 

Mdnnonooding, the pleasant wind, 

Kczlictjoowineiic, sky man, or man of the sky. 

P(ttncfjahit'a>j<ihsiii</, the blown down. 

Sdhsicayaliscfioij, the scattering light, by the sun or moon. 

M(ihijalnvr(jrzli('(/rr(ihij. the upright sky. 

Kaiudncahbalnnind, he who is looked upon. 

Oomintcahjcwun, the pleasant stream. 

Na)iiii(](thsc(i(i, the sparkling light. 

P((/iooi)ihiC(iiriii(liin(/, the approaching roaring thunder. 

Ahzhahw( iDiaJujudlidirahi/, the cloud that rolls beyond. 

Madirayahshe, the whistling wind. 

Oozhahn'(dishk()0('zlii(i, the blue sky. 

Shidiifundais, the God of the south, who makes the summer. 

WaJd)('<jwHlni(i, white feathers. 

W(ar((nos)i, the beautiful sailor. 

W(dd>(dinoosay, morning walker. 

Ncdur(diqii(iij(di)^('ga, the noon day, or shining sun. 

KcchcfidlniicivliK'nc, man of the lake. 

The female names are distinguished from the males by the femi- 
nine termination, qiKiy, or fioo<]U<(i/, or qua. Masculine names can be 
rendered feminine by adding the foregoing termination; for example: 

Xaiu)i(i(iliS('(i(tqiicti/. the sparkling light woman. 

Ouzli(ilnr(iJisJd:(H)iiczliiii()()(jii((i/. tin; Idue sky woman. 

0()(jcm'hnh<i(H)(iu<i!i, the wild rose woman. 

Mcsqi(ali(iii(di(l<>()qiiaij, the red sky woman. 

The following are examples from Indian names of persons fv.-m 
Schoolcraft, drawn from the stock words Stvy, thunder, sun, storm, wind, 
clouds, earth, stars, etc. : 

Au-bc-fuh-gcc-zJiifj, center of the sky. 

Ba-bica-me-au-shc, low pealing thunder 

Kau-chc-daiis, the cloud in contact with the sun. 



Ka„.fja-au.,hc, tlie pqnin,..ti„I Avi.ul or storm 

Mo-kai,.<je.zhi,j, the sun bursting, from a cloud. 

trmib-im-nmu,, the momijig star. 
The following are drawn from terrene objects- 
Kctn-(/ira-<hra, the questioner. 
yrczh-c-pc-nais, the coupled l)irds. 

Wau-(io„i,h.f,hwr, the little fox. 

The following are examples of "the na.nes of women in the Oiih 

Aii.sJte-btl'.r-qiu,, woman of the rock.,.qua, woman of the pebbly bottom water 
^^ni.a',.e.qtu,, wonian of the thunder cloud ' 
Kr.m'cmrr.r.q„a, little rose bud woman 

thesut"''"'"™""""'"''^"'-'^"^'' "'^'"""^^ t'- --muring of 


Indian Names Applied to Localities— Popular Idea— SiKuiticatiou— Classilicatioii of 
(}r()Ui)S iu DetermiuiuK NameH— Traciii>,' Ori^iu of NiiiueH— Al^oiniuiu Niinics 
Prevail— Phrases Reduced to One Word— Coiitractiim of Words— Ignorance of 
OrifjTin and Meaning— Indian Names of States and Territories -Names Coming 
from the French and Other Languages— Same Word in Different Languages 
and Dialects, Differing in Meaning— Names Coming Through Illiterate Persons 
—The Word Penobscot- Rendered liy the French iu Sixty Different Ways— The 
Word Calumet— Not an Indian Woril as Supposed— Words of French Orthog- 
raphy— Corruption of Indian Names— Examples of Corruption of Indian Words 
—Inappropriate Significatiou of Words. 

race of this 
l~^-^^l country 
whom Ave call Indians is 
fast (lisappearinjjf before 
i^ the march of civilization, 
ag they have left to us a 
constant remincler of 
their former existence 
ill the land, through the 
multitude of local names 
which have been ap[)lied 
to rivers, lakes, towns, 
counties, states, and lo- 
calities of various de- 
scriptions, the oriifin and meaning of which are becoming a suliject of 
interesting inquiry. 

As Mr. Lo.ssing well observes, in speaking of the destiny of this 
fading race, they will leave behind them myriads of memories of their 
existence here, in their beautiful and significant names of our moun- 
tains and valleys, our lakes and rivers, our states, counties, villages and 
ttities; but we may say to our people: 


"Water whitened liy riipid descent over rocks." 



" That mid thti forosf.H where tliey •^ arr'il, 
ThtTe riujfs no hunter's slioiit; 
lint tlieir tmme ia ou your waters — 
Ye may not wash it oijt." 

The popular idea is that these Iiulian local name. , or those taken 
to be such, are genuine names and possess some appropriate signiti(!a- 
tion ; but whoever will take the trouble to investigate in this regard 
will find much in this notion that is erroneous. The language of this 
peo[)le not being a written one, there is wanting a permanent standard 
of pronunciidion ; hence, in transferring Indian names into our litera- 
ture they have been ;liable to material changes in their sounds, so 
much so, in a large proportion of instances, that the original intention 
can scarcely be arrived at with any degree of certainty. 

In pursuing this subject intelligently, it is proper first to classify 
the various groups of native inhabitants, as nearly as may be, so far as 
they are marked by a common or generic language; and in this con- 
nection a brief reference to the Indian languages in general would also 
seem proper. Indian geogra[)hical names, or names applied to locali- 
ties, are supposed to mark the fact that the tribe or nation from whose 
language the same are derived once iidiabited the country in which 
such names are found. This, in general, is found to be the case; 
therefore, the classification of these inhabitants and designation of the 
country which each nation or group inhabited, becomes material in 
pursuing an investigation in regard to the origin and meaning of these 

In a preceding chapter entitled "Linguistic Groups," information 
on this subject is given, showing as definitely as can well be shown, 
the country inhabited by the various linguistic groups according to the 
most convenient classification. 

Thus, in tracing the origin or arriving at the meaning of Indian 
geographical names, we have first to determine from which language 
of the several groups they are derived, and through what particular 
dialect they are produced. 

Among the tribes east of the Rocky Mountains, the Algonquin 
language, as spoken by the Ojibway nation, was, in general, regarded 
as the court language, so that when a person fell among a strange 
tribe whose language he did not understand, if he spoke this language, 
they were bound, as a rule, to furnish some one who could communicate 
with him in tiiis language. It was through this medium that Mar- 
quette, on his route from Montreal to the Des Moines, spoke with the 
various tribes; and so it was with all those early French travelers, 
including La Hontan, who proceeded, as we may believe from his nar- 

rative, far 


the western tribes. Thus, the language of the 



Algonquins bocamo, in ouo hgiisg, tho univorsal laiif^uiigo of tlie ooiiti- 
nent, whereby it happens that a hirj^o projujrtioii of our Indian geo- 
graphical names are derived from that source. 

Indian K)cal names, as well as names of persons, when expressed 
in our language, are, in general, comprised i '' "veral words, but when 
expressed in the Indian language art* composed of a single word, com- 
pounded in the manner of their accustonuvl ingenuity in tlio use of 
their language. As an illustration of tliis, Mr. Heckewelder cites the 
instance of the name given by the Indians to the place where Phila- 
delphia now stands, which tliey preserved to the latest time, notwitli- 
standing the great change which had taken place. The name was 
Kiif-qi(c-}i(i-l:ii, pronounced Koo-ck-ircn-aw-koo, and which means 
'• the grove of the long pine trees." 

The same authority further remarks that the Indians have proper 
names not only for towns, villages, mountains, valleys, rivers and 
streams, but for all remarkable spots, as, for instance, those which are 
particularly infested with gnats and moscj[uitoes, places where animals 
have their dens, and the like. 

In regard to Indian names, not only are the people wlio have 
succeeded the native tril)es of this country in complete ignorance of 
the origin and meaning of those they have loft to us to designate rivers, 
lakes, and other localities, but they are unaware of the fact that very 
many of the local names which we ai'e now using and which we su[)pose 
to come from other sources are also Indian names, or are derived 
therefrom. Of the thirty-eighl. states of the Union eighteen have 
Indian names: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Alabama, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, 
Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Nebraska, Kansas, and, as is supposed, 
Oregon; which, in general, are derived from great rivers or other 
watin's. Of the nine organized territories of the United States five have 
Indian names: Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho and Alaska; and it is 
to be noted also that the principal rivers of North America, especially 
those in the United States, with but a few exceptions, have Indian 
names, or those which are intended to be such. 

Our Indian local nam* i, i ( general, with the exception of tliose 
east of the Alleghany Mouui.tuis, have come to us througli tlie early 
French adventurers or their descendants; and, in general, as haK been 
before mentioned, from the language of the Algonquin group. In the 
for' -^oing assertion an exception has to be made in regard to some few 
1< oal Indian names in the southern states which have come throuirh 
the Spanish, who had invaded that country before the French had 
reached the valley of the Mississippi ; so that our Indian local names 



liiivc (MHiio to urt tlimni^li, or iiccoi'diii^ tn, tlm ortlioj^riipliy <>(' tlifeo 
btivenil liiMguuj:ft's, viz.: S[)(iiiisli, J'^nglish aiitl Frtiiicli. 

Ill jmrsniiif^ the subji'ct of Iiuliim geogmphionl immos. tliero in 
one thing with wliicli wo liiivo to iIkhI, wherein, nt this time, wo om 
olttiiiii little or no Hiitisfiu-tory ni<l in case of (l()nl)t or unoertiiinty. 
Wo fro(|nontly fin<l the sniiie Indiiin word, or ono having thti likt^ 
Houiid, in ditlVront liingmigos or ili'docts, with an (Mitiroly ditroront 
ineaning; so, what may have been the original intention in applying 
such name to any given locality, or from wli : guago or dialect 

the word is derived, will be a matter ditVicult to .miermine. As a gen- 
eral rule, in such cases, conjecture oidy can \w given. For instance, 
the word (ItlnKjo, or that wliich is essentially the sani(>, is fouml in 
several languages and dialects with entirely different meanings. 

"Whilst those to whom Ave ai'e imlebted for our Indian local names 
were in some instances, as in the case of Manjuette, Hennepin and La 
Hontan, men of learning, and are supposed to have written -witii some 
degree of accuracy wlu^n referring to them, yet a large proportion of 
those to wliom we are indebted therefor were illiterate persons and 
relied exclusively upon sounds ndcb'essed to the ear, and wein unable 
to aid their memoiy by reducing them to writing; so that vc^ry few of 
these Indian geographical names have come to us in correct form. 
They are almost universally a corruption, to agreate ■■>v less extent, and 
their meaning has to be arrived at either from tri 'i or by patient 

investigation into the language of the group c. . ect of the tribe 
from which the name is derived. Tiiis has been done, to a consider- 
able extent, and tlie world is much indebted to those patient students 
who have iindertakeu this task, ami given their time towards accom- 
plishing a result so much desired. 

Take as an exam[tlo the word Poiohsrof, the name of a river in the 
state of Maine. This name, which passes for an Indian word, and 
which is brought to us by the French, is said to have been reported 
by thsm in sixty different ways during their occupancy of the country 
in tiie viciinty of this river, about 10()4. The name most generally 
used by them, however, was P(in-(iu-(ui-sh('k. The English, the new 
Plymouth colonists, caught the word of the Indians, Poioltscof, by 
which it was known as early as 1020. The true Indian name, it is 
said, was Pcii-nb-scc'(i(i or Pan-oh-scoofe, suggested by the rocky falls 
just above Bangor, from Pcuohfij/, "rocky" and Uiteral, "a place,'' 
that is "the rocky place.'' 

The learned Dr. Trumbull, of Hartford, Connecticut, Avho is prob- 
ably the best autiiority on Indian languages now living, in referring 
to this subject, says: "Remembering how unsettled and capricious 



wnw tli<^ Enj^Iisli spt'lliii^' tii tlio sovtMitt'PJith owiittiry, Iii>\\ )il)soIutoIy 
every cli'ik ami lecunliT wiis ii law uulo limi^ilf. mul how otti ii \vi' 
fiml II coiuiuoii Kiij^'lisli word Hpt'llfil in tliloo or four (liir»M'»'iit way« l>y 
the saiiK* writiT and pfrliaps oil tho Haiiin pai^'o, in early coloiiial ree- 
onls, iiiiifunuity in tlio HpoUiii;^ of Imltiin ihhih-h was not to Im 
expected. TIk^ vai'ialioiirt wlncli ;;oint> of tliese names |)i'eseiit ai'e 
almost iiiiiniiieiahli^ Others have uiider<^oiio comj)h'te transl'uniiatiuii, 
rotuiiiiiig Hcareely ii H\i<,'geKtioii of their orij,final sounds." 

Dr. Trumbull, amongst otlnsrs, has given the followinf; examples 
of the mel,'>iiior[)h()sis or change of Indian local names or '•place- 
names," as he c<irs them, transforming them not only into a corrupted 
form of Indian nai.ies, but also into English words and terms. Thus, 
he sayg: ^' Knitjnuikc''^ has become '"Capo P«)ge," and its e(|uivalent 
in another dialect is "(Quebec;" ^Vamcfie/,- is "May Luck;" (hiniiHKc- 
paniiHiivk is shortened t«) "Oxyboxy;" XfiishMjiifdiccajainichin "East- 
cvig;" T(>iiilif<iiiii()iiij}xK-iit to ■•Higganum;" M'oiiococoiiiiiiij/ to "Coii- 
ganiuck:" \\'(li(iiiii)sL<it to "Obscob;" ^I<i>tlt('itii})SHck to ••Snipsic" 
IVcyiuiixniiisct to ''Boxet." 

"So, in ]Maine, 3I(ilclic-h(i;ii((iliis has b(>en identified with '^Lajor 
Biguyduce;' in Maryland Pofojutco survives as 'Port Tobacco;' in 
lihodo Island Wnnnoiiclotionni is reduced to ' Toramony,' or 'Tam- 
many' hill; r(ip(i!:iiiiiask becomes 'Papoose >S([uaw ' point, and Mna- 
(pKildiKj passes through Musqui'fohuug to the more familiar ' Mus- 
queto-hawk' brook. Of Quenevhoiian (or Qiiinnifchitnit ), the designa- 
tion of a 'long rapid' near the entrance of the Ottawa river, the 
French of Canada first made ■ fifteen dogs' ((iiuiizc c///<'(/s), and then 
invented a story to account for the name. 

" The signification of many pbice-naraes is obscured by the loss 
of one or more syllables or an initial consonant, as iu 'Toket' for 
Toldkci, 'Quaddic' for PdHaquolhtck, 'Catumb' for Kt'1it}iij)sciif, 
*Paug' for Pisli(tiip(iK<i or l't\^)tck((p(n<g, and for Xccsliajxaif/ '"\Vas- 
suc,' iciv ^lsii((inisKii<' or XdshcdiKSKck, 'Nunkertunk' for WaniiiiUdliicL-, 
and'Titicut' (on Taunton river, iu Massachusetts j, for Kehfciktuk- 
<pil, or Kcttcfiikitf. The sound of in or p before a sibilant or mute 
was often lost to English ears; thus for 3rsqii(i))iiciik we have ' 8(pio- 
macuk,' for j\f(isli(ip(tii<j 'Shepaug,' for Pcsrahik 'Scanlic' and 'Scit- 
tico,' for Pisliiidcltligok ' Scatac.ook,' etc. Nearly as often an initial 
n lias been dro^jped, e. g., ' Ashawog,' 'Assawaug,' ' Shetucket,' ' Shau- 
uock' and 'Shunock.' " 

To show the misconception we have as to Indian names, the word 
Calumet will serve as an illustration. This is the name of a river 
putting iu at the southern extremity of Lake Michigan. In early 




times frequent incjuiry was made as to why this river was so called. 
The answer, in general, was that it was an Indian word signifying "pipe 
of peace," which the Indians smoked at their councils, and that in tlie 
vicinity of this river was a place of holding Indian councils. 

This is correct with three exceptions. First, the word Calumet is 
not an Indian word; second, it does not of itself signify jiipe of peace; 
third, Indian councils were never held in the vicinity of this river. 
The word Calunet, says Charlevoix, in his book of travels in North 
America, is a Norman word, which signifies a reed, forming a natural 
tube with which I'forraan smoking implemen+s were constructed. The 
word Calumci originally referred only to the tube, afterwards used ti> 
designate the whole implement, the same as in our language we call 
the same thing a }}'ipo. The Indian name of this river was CotKiiiiic, 
and signifies " snow beaver," which, it would seem, our English speak- 
ing people mistook for Ccdumci, which is not an appropriate significa- 
tion applicable to this river as intended. 

One source of confusion or uncertainty with our English speak- 
ing people in regard to these Indian local names, is in reference to 
those that come to us through the French, which have generally 
remained as originally fixed and are designated on our maps, and in 
our histories in the French orthogiaphy, in pronouncing which we 
are in the habit of giving to the letters iised the soimds they have 
according to our own orthography; of this class are the words 
Michilimaoinac, Ohio, Miami, Illinois, Chicago, Iroquois, Quebec, etc. 

Few people understand i!:<it the vford Miami and iI/rj«/H/rY', which 
are generally understood to be Indian words, are both the same wonl ; 
that the only ditference in them is that the former is given in French 
ortliography, whilst the latter is rei dered according to English orthog- 
raphy Tlie word given, according to French orthography, when prop- 
erly pronounced, as they pronounce it, and as the Indians would speak 
it, is M('-(iH-mc(\ hastily pronounced in common speech Mdumec. 

It is not altogether the fact of these various ways of rendering 
Indian words that has createcl so much confusion in our Indian local 
names, but tlie tlitference in the orthography of words or mode of 
spelling them has been also a source of great perplexity, as before 
illustrated. This has occurred sometimes through misapprehension, 
and sometimes through sheer carelessness. 

There is a post-village in ^^ iscom-jin called Wci/duin </(,, which is 
a namo passing for au Iiulian word, but in that form is not. The 
word intended, according to the late Gov. Doty of that state, from 
whom the writer obtained this iiiformation, is M'l'ii-dii-irc-f/d, which, 
while he was a member of cosigress from that state, he gave to the 


i:;dian local names. 


ptistoffice department at Washington, as the name lie recommended 
for a postoffite then about to be established at that place. The depart- 
ment, he says, mistook the // in the last syllable as written by him for 
g, and recorded the name accordingly, rendering the same as it now 
is as the name of that village. The word intended is an Algonquin 
word of the Menominee dialect, and signifies "whirling wind." It 
was the name of a faithful Menominee Indian guide, long in the 
service of Gov. Doty in early days, whose name after his death he 
sought to peri)etuate by applying it to this town, in which it seems, 
however, he was unsuccessful. 

There is a class of local names which are understood to have the 
sound of Indian words, and, therefore, are taken to be such, which in 
fact are not really Indian names. Of this class, as an example, mny 
be mentioned the word Moiicc, the name of a town in Illimis on the 
Illinois Central railroad. This was the accepted name of the wife of 
an Indian trader, Joseph Bailes, a French-Canadian of considerable 
influence and note among the Indians, in the early days of the North- 
west Territory. 

His wife was an Indian woman of the Fottawatamie iribe, with 
whom she was a great favorite. Her baptismal name was M'tvij, which 
her husband pronounced Maurce, according to the French pronuncia- 
tion. In the Fottawatamie dialect, like that of most all other tribes 
of the Algonquin group, a.^ before raentionotl, there i^ no sound of r, 
the sounil of n being used instead. The Indians, tlierefore, pronounced 
her name Mcitoice or Moua: In a treaty between the United States 
Government and the Pottawatamies a tract of land was reserved to this 
woman by the name of Monet; in the vicinity of the town before men- 

The word Kalamazoo, the name of a river in Michigan, and which 
passes for an Indian word, may be cited as one among the numerous 
instances as an e.^araple where an Indian word has been corrupted 
from inattention in catching sounds in Indian words. The proper 
word is said to be Xc-fiik-dn-a-nia zit, which is stated to be a contrac- 
tion of an Indian phrase descriptive oi the stones seen through the 
water in the river bed, which, from a refractive power in the current, 
resembled an otter swimming under the water. Th\ terra having its 
root forms in Xnjih, an otter, the verb Katia. to hide, and Ozoo. a 
quadrujjed's tail. The letter 1 is a mere transposition of n in native 
words passing from Indian to the Frencli language. 

But the French are not alone tliargealde with the confusion 
before referred to, from their manner of rendering Indian names in cio 
many different Avays; the English were alike heedless or inattentive in 



this regard. For instance, the word that we generally })ronounce Mo- 
/i('(jan, which i.s accepted as the name of a ti'ibe of Indians once 
dwelling on the east bank of the Hudson river, the English have, at 
different periods, referred to as Moliiccoii, Molaiccdii, Molictjaiis, 
Muhhcckdiicir, MaliiiKjitn; the Dutcii called thein Moliikamlcrs; and 
the French referred to them as Moiivi(j(tiis. It would seem that the 
proper term is MdliiiK/aii, signifying wolf. 

Among the striking instances of the numerous ways of rendering 
Indian words by the English is that of the word accepted as Pokano- 
kH, the nan.e given l)y historians to the locality at which Avas the seat 
of the noted chief, called by the English "King Phillip." The English 
rendered this word in the foUov ■ ^ various different ways: Fditka- 
iidkctl, PocdiKikci, PockaiiorkctI, Pokanoki'-: Pokanockett, Pdicunnoiv- 
kiifl, Piickanukik, Pockdiidckcf. 

As to the signification of Indian local names, to which reference 
has been made, as a rule they always possess some appropriate mean- 
ing, but which when translated into our language are frequently want- 
ing in that elegance of signification which we suppose them to possess, 
especially from their magnificent or euphonious sounds. As an illus- 
tration of this, a few examples will suffice: 

The word Xokomis, the name of a town of some importance in 
Illinois, sui)posed to be taken from Longfellow's poem of "Hiawatha," 
when translated into our language, means simply "grandmother," or 
"my grandmother." The word OiifoiidHdii, the name of a river in 
the upper peninsula of Michigan, rather a bold-sounding word, whit> 
is supposed to signify someihing grand, means in our language, " there 
goes my dish," or "lost my dish," from the circumstance, it is said, of 
an Indian girl attempting to dij) up some water from the stream, when 
the current swe[)t tiie dish out of her hand, whereupon she exclaimed, 
"there goes my dish."" MiiskiiujiDii (properly Moos-gig-am), a river 
in Ohio, signifies "Moose Eye." loirti. one of the states of the Union, 
from a tribe of the Indians of that name, signifies "sleepy," or 
"drowsy ones." Cliciidinio. tlie name oi a river in New York, is an 
Iroquois name, meaning ••bull thistles." 



Simplicity iu Style— SupKestivo of Couvenieueo— General Uniformity simont,' Hie 
Tribes — DitTereut Styles — Dress Aceordint,' to Weiitlier and Seawou — Description 
of the Indiiiu Dress— Materiiil -Skins of Animals — Mocassins for the Feet — 
Dress of the Indian Woman— Its (lonveidenre— Accordiiii,' to Ncjtions of Strict 
Propriety— Indians of the Pacitic Coast — Criticism of the White Man on Fantas- 
tic Indian Dress— The White Woman's Fantasti*! Dress Compared — The Indian 
Paints his Face, so does the Wliite Wotnan— The Indian War Pouuet — Not a 
Fantastic Display, hut a Superstitious Notion Butl'alo Horns as a Badye of 
Bravery — The Indian Dress is Symbolic, rather than one of Fantastic Display — 
The Indian Dude- Indian Dress of the ^lountains and the Plains. 



^HE (In^ss ot' the Aincrioan 
>4 Indian, in his native condi- 
tion, Mas one of siinplifity in 
'W stylo and snjfift'stive of con- 
venience, in wliicli there \vf!s very 
general uniformity among the tribes 
and nations of the continent. There 
were different styles or grades of 
dri'ss, but these were, in general, 
everywhere nearly or suiistantially 
the same; commencing witli a simple 
article of ajjjiarel or excuse for a[)- 
[larel, and |)assing tlirough various 
styles and grades to the com])letely 
clothed body, as the inclemency of 
the weather or otiuM' cii cuiiistances 
might demand. 

On this subject Charlevoix 
I'lMuarks that the men, when it is 
liot. have often only sonu^thing of an 
apron to cover a particular part of 
th(^ body. In the winter they clothe 
themselves more or less according to 
the climate. 





One of the most prominent (irticles of Indian apparel was tlie kilt, 
secured around the waist by a belt, and descendii;^ midway or more to 
tlie knees. This, with the addition of moccasins for tlie feet, was, in 
general, the complete dress of the Indian when on the war path or 
engaged in the hunt. The object was to free himself from all encum- 
brances, as far as possible, so as to admit of greater activity, and to 
avoid fatigue that might be induced from restraint of mucli clothing. 
The dress further consisted in clothing the waist and arms with a kind 
of loose garment, somewhat in the style of what we call a hunting 
shirt, and a blanket or robe thrown over the shoulders. This was the 
complete dress of an Indian. 

Before the invasion of the white man the Indian dress was manu- 
factured from the skins of animals; since which event, the fabrics of 
art, or [)roductions of tlie white man's skill, have been adopted, except 
as to moccasins for the feet, usually made of dressed deer skin and 
other animals affording like substantial material ; but it is noted that 
the Indian parts with this traditional article of apparel with extreme 
reluctance. On this subject Mr. Schoolcraft says, moccasins have 
stood their ground as a part of the Indian costume with more entire 
success against European innovation than perhaps any other part of 
the original dress. 

Another style of Indian costume, very generally adapted in warmer 
weather or warmer climates, instead of the kilt, was tliat called in the 
language of the Algonquins, Azian or Unseaun; in English, loin-cloth, 
and, in common speech, breech-cloth; the body being otherAvise nudo 
with the exception of moccasins. 

The dress of the Indian woman was one of like convenience, in a 
style marking her native modesty and strict notions of propriety, orna- 
mented in a manner peculiar to Indian ideality and taste, being the 
costume of their mothers from all time. There were no ever cliansrinir 
Paris fashions in those days to upset feminine minds and impoverish 
masculine pockets. 

Peter Jones, in speaking of the Indian woman's dress, says the 
native Indian women wore "short gowns and petticoats, made of 
dressed deer skin, and a mantle thrown over the shoulders. They also 
wore leggins and moccasins neatly worked." As a mark of neatness 
and modesty in the charii>-'tp»; ui the native Indian woman, her garment, 
called a sliort gown, completely covered her arms, and was closely 
fitted about tlie neck. 

An early writer thus describes the Indian woman's dress at the 
time the English first came among this people on the Atlantic coast: 

"Their garments are a pair of sleeves of Deer or Moose-skin drest, 



and (li'fuvu with lines of several Colonrs into Asiiitic works, wit.i Buskins 
of the same, a short Mantle of Trading Cloath, either Blew or Beil, 
fastened with a Knot under the Chin, and girt about tlie middle with 
a Zone, wrought with white and blew Beads into Pretty Works. Of 
these Beads they have Bracelets for tiieir Neck and Arms, and Links 
to hang in their Ears, and a fair Table, ci;riously made up with Beads 
likewise, to wear before their IJreast. Their Hair they Com])o back- 
wards, and tye it ixp short with a Border, about two haudf'ulls broad, 
wrouirht in Works as the others with their Beads." 

The dress of the Indian man in his native simplicity, is described 
by the same authority as simply a waist cloth, and a mantle of skin or 
cloth, which was commonly laid aside. Yet, nakedness, it is said, did 
not result in indelicacy. In this regard Rogt?r "Williams says, "I have 
never seen that wantonness among them, as with grief I have heard of 
iu Europe." The same author further says that the Indians were fond 
of dress, as all uncivilized and most civilized people are, i; , matter of 
course, and cheap ornaments of glass or metal could buy from them 
their choicest furs. 

The dress of the Indians of the Pacitic coast, in what is now Ore- 
gon and Washington Territory, according to John K. Jewett, for 
several ye<\rs a captive among the Indians of that country, usually 
consisted of but a single garment, which was a loose cloak or mantle 
called kidsuck, iu one piece, reaching nearly to the feet. This was 
tied hwsely over the right ov left shoulder, so as to leave the arms at 
full libei'ty. In winter, however, they sometimes made use of an 
additional garment, which was a kind of hood, with a hole iu it, for 
the purpose of admitting the head, the garment falling over the breast 
and back as low as the shoulders. This was bordered at the top and 
bottom with fur, aud only worn when going out in the cold. The gar- 
ments of the women did not vary essentially from those of the men, 
tl)e mantle having holes in it for the purpose of admitting the arms 
and being tied closely under the chin, instead of over the shoulders. 
The chiefs dressed in more costly apparel, and in a nuiuuer to dis- 
tinguish them from the common people of the tribe. 

There has been much criticism among civilized people on the 
fantastic dress of the native Indian; that ho paints his face; that he 
Avears qudls of birds stuck in his hair; that he wears strung about his 
neck the claws of birds and ferocious animals as valued ornaments. 
Whilst the dress of the white man, it is true, is not ojjcu to criticisms 
of this kind, and is, perhaps, as consistent in its make-up as the com- 
pulsion of fashion will admit, the case of our white woman, under 
the guidance of fashion, is not so easily disposeil of. Whilst the 



white man, under our custom, does not paint liis fiice likt^ the untu- 
tored Indian, this much cannot be said of the white woman. 

AVhilst the Indiiin, it is ad- 
) ; mitted, woars bird's claws, sus- 
-■^ {lended about liis nock, which he 
does as a symbol for some pur- 
pose ; the white woman i)utsupon 
her bonnet the whoh; l)ird, chiws 
included, with no signification 
whatever, except that the fash- 
ion director informs her that it 
^=^^ adds a charm to her pers >n.d 
ap[)earance. The Avhite man, 
it is true, does hot wear the 
(juills of birds stuck in his hair, 
nor in the hat covering his head, 
but leaves this to tiie taste of 
the white woman, who sends 

BLACKFOOT CHIEF-FANTASTIC DHESS. .^^.^.^gg the SCa to obtaiu pluniCS 

from the great bird of the desert, purely as a matter of ornament, 
prescribed by the rules of fashion. The Indian, in putting on plumes, 
.selects them from his own great native 
bird of the air, and this he does, not as an 
ornament, but as a symbol to signify his 
courage and bravery. 

The Indian, in his dress, is in the 
habit of wearing many things which 
appear to us as fantastic, and a mark of 
his 1 ight character and folly. For instance, 
there is a style of head-dress called the 
war-bonnet, compcjsed of (piills or IV-athers 
taken from particular kimls of birds, 
that we frequently see painted in fancy 
sketches of Indian figures, Avhich is gen- 
erally taken among us to be Morn [mrely 
ns an ornament, the fact being (jiiite other- 
wise. This war-l)onnet is thus describinl 
l)y Ca])t. Clark, in his work im " Indian 
Sign Language:" 

"The tail feathers of the golden eagle 
are used for making these gorgeous lu'ad- 
divsses. There are twelve feathers in the 







tiiil, iiii;l MS many as sixty or seventy are used in making the bonnet. 
The feathers for the cap proper are fastened to clotli or skin, made to 
fit the head in the shape of a brimless and crownless hat. The feathers 
are phiced side by side, touching, and. when the bonnet is put on tlie 
head, assume a nearly vertical position, the whole forming a cylinder- 
shaped head-gear. Fastened to the liead-piece behind is a long strip 
of skin or clotli ( red cloth is now generally \ised t which, when the 
person is standing, reaches to and sometimes trails on the ground. 
The feathers are fastened on one sid(! of this cloth. This head-dress 
is also fre(piently decorated with real or iniitatitni butfahi horns, and 
some tribes have, besides, masses of ermine skin fastened on near the 
base of the feathers. Some bird, or the special motlicine, which 
belongs to the owner of the bonnet, is also fastened on these in front. 
At the tips of the feathers a few horse hairs are fastened to the tail 

Many Indians placed the most implicit confidence in this av;iv- 
bonnet, thus aided l)y this special uicdicine, which nniy l>e only a dirty 
little bag given tlu^m by tiieir magician or medicine man; and are 
firm in the belief tliiit it turns aside all the missiles of their enemies. 

As an example, an instance is related of a once famous chief of 
the southern Cheyennes, showing the confidence the Indians have in 
the war-bonnet for protecting them against harm. He was engaged 
in a fight between the Cheyennes and Foxes, who were Viehind cover, 
dismounted. He charged cm them and was met Avith such a storm of 
bullets that the feathers in his bonnet were entirely cut away. On 
being asked how it was that he was not hit in the engagement, li'' 
replied that his medicine was on his head, regarding this as a full, 
complete and perfect ex[)lanation. His story was corroborated by 
Marriors who were engaged with him in the action. Instances of this 
kin.d tended to confirm Indian C(Uifitlence in the war-bonnet, like the 
helmets of the ancients, as a [jrotection from harm in hostile engage- 

Courage and skill in war, or special deeds of braveiy and daring, 
obtain for the favorite brave in all tribes distinguished features in 
dress, lender this rule the Indian warrior, who by his bravery had 
become entitled to this favor, was permitted t(} wear as an ornament 
upon his head the horns of a buffalo, which was added to his head- 
dress as a synd)ol of bravery. This could bo worn only by consent of 
the council. A chief coald not wear this symbol of courage unless it 
was bravely won ami accorded him by the council of his tribe. As 
tiie white soldier rejoices in his stars and stri[)es, so did the Indian in 
his buffalo horns or other symbolizing features. 



Tlio Indian woman took great pride in lior black, luxuriant growth 
of hair, which she allowed to grow at full length, never trimming nor 
catting it in the least degree, and which she parted in front and 
combed down upon her back, usually braided or tied with a band to 
keep it iu plac(>. "With the Indian woman there were no wigs, false 

curls or frizzes. The Indian man 
was in like manner proud of his 
fine growth of hair, and would 
have considered himself disgraced 
to have it shorn otf. 

However, among some tribes 
a custom prevailed of plucking out 
the hair of the head by the roots, 
with the exception of a small lock 
or tuft on the crown, which was 
left as a bravado, that in case they 
should fall into the hands of their 
enemies, there is left remaining a 
scalp, which, it is conceded, the 
conquering party is entitled to. 
This custom i)revailed among the 
Mohawks of the Iroquois nation, 
and some of the other tribes of 
that people, but not among the 
Senecas. It prevailed also among 
the Pawnees, Sacs and Foxes, 
lowas, Kansas, Otoes, Shawnees, 
and s(mie of the Dakota tribes. 

It is said that notwithstanding 
the stern character of the Indian, 
and his utter detestation of effem- 
inacy in man, scarcely a tribe was 
exenq)t from the humiliation of 
occasionally producing specimens 
of that abnormal human growth, 
particularly mentionetl by Mr. Catliii and known among our own race 
as the (kiiidij; in modern times, the ihnlc. The characteristics of the 
Indian specimen were similar to those of the same species in the white 
race, and Avere held in as much contempt in the sensible Indian mind. 
This class despised war or danger of any kind, and were avers(> 
to engaging in the fatigues or perils of the hunt. Their robes were 
never adorned with scalp locks, nor their necks Avith the claws of the 







bear. Tliey could not wear red paint, as this symbol i/eil success in 
itattle. For the daitdij to attempt to wear these emblems of n brave 
career might im[)oril his life. His dress was usually made from the 
skin of the mountain goat or rod deer; and the trinimiiigs were of 
ermine, swan's down, i)orcupino (|uills and wami)um. He usually spent 
hours every day in making his toilet, the minutest details of which 
received his greatest care. He 
would languidly watch the athletic 
games engaged in by the young 
braves of the tribe, but took uo 
part in their sports himself. 

If coincidences, in the re- 
semblance of character, may be 
taken as evidence in the claim for 
race unity, then the resemblance 
of characteristics in the Indian 
(Idiidy and the white diidc would 
avail much as proof in support of 
this claim. 

In dress, while comfort and 
convenience seemed to be the one 
essential sought for by the Indian, 
yet there were those among them 
who were likillful in arranirinjr, 
ornamenting and adorning their 
native costumes with pleasing aud 
picturesque effect. 

It is said of the Crow Indians, 
and of their hereditary enemies, 
the Blackfeet, that they paid more 
attention to dress than other North 
American tribes. The native dress 
of the Crow was oi white skins, 
which travelers and traders tell 
us they excelled in dressing. Tiie 
marked feature of the warrior's 
uniform was Avar-eagle fnathers, wampum, ermine and s('al[) locks. 
The dress of the women was less showily trimmed, yet very attractive, 
as worn by the handsome belles of the Crow tribes. 

The dress of the Blackfeet tribe was similar to that of the Crow 
Indians, except that it was black or brown skins instead of white. The 
trimmings or general manner or fashion of garmeiits were the same. 




Not Ipss intcvostiiig than tlmt of the Crow and JJhickl'pet, was tlie 
dress of tlio Comaiiches or Navajoes of tlu3 southwest, who are said 
to have worn eh)th garments, and surprised the invading white men 
with tlie In-auty and harmony of colors in their hhmiiets or shawls, 
the thice primitive colors, red, blue and yellow, blending with 
brown and other neutral colors with very pleasing otfect. The decided 
colors were obtained from the mountain tlowers, and the shav' ,-; and 
tints from the roots and barks of trees, well known for their coloring 
qualities by these students of tlie native weeds. 

A favorite robe among all classes of natives was the skin of the 
lu'ar or bison dressed carefully and painted on tiie insidiMvith synii)olic 

The Inilian's love oi dis[)lay is prominent only on days of fes- 
tivity or occasions of note. "In holiday attire " the native dress is 
profusely onuuuentetl. The raven's or eagle's feather is one of the 
valued ornaments, and is worn as jiroudly by tiie Indian l)rave as a 
soldier wears his epaulets or the dude his silk hut and matchless swal- 
low-tail coat. The reader has, no doubt, learned that the men among 
the natives of America display more love for dress, ornament an<l 
stylo than the women, and noticed that with the wiiite race this is 
reversed. The Indian women, in (lr(>ss, bini[)ly ignored paint, pomatum 
and feathers, while the men delighted in the contrast of ilecided 
colors, painted their faces, and in "full dress"' were as elaborate as a 
city belle, and sometimes quite as decollete. The head-dress of a 
chief is plumed and garnished according to his merit or bravery and 
skill ill war or hunting. A war eagle's feather is added to the head- 
dress of a chief for every enemy slain by his own hand. 

It ' s been recorded that among certain tribes the war chiefs 
went about among their people dressed in poorer garments than any 
member of the tribe, unless upon " state occasions,"' when their dress 
is adorned and made jforireous in the extreme. The plain stA'le of 
garments worn by the chiefs in every -day life can be accounted for in 
no other way than that these high officials desire to be an example of 
patience and eccmomy to their people, or it may be that the Indian 
mind places the power of leadership far beyond and above oi;twaid 
show. Whatever the cause of their [)lainness of attire in their chiefs, 
it is true that no people were more loyal or devoted to their rules than 
the native red men of America. 


Man Naturally a Roligious BeiuK— A Characteristic Proniinont aiiioii^,' tlio Indians— 
Rfli«ii)U Similar to Iho Jews— IJclicf in One Oreat Spirit— Hi-lict in a Bail 
Spirit— Subonlinato Gooil Spirits Like tlio Jcwt. they had Fasts and Feasts- 
Observed with U<'lit,'iuus Devotion Traditionsof llie Flood Houses of \Vorshi|) 
of Civilized People— Indian Ali'dicine Ijod-,'e— Ahidini: Faith in a Future Exist, 
euee— Ijand of the IJlessed, or Country of Souls— The Passable of the Soul to the 
Everlasting Abode- -Helief iu Dillienlties on tho Way— Belief that the Soul 
Tarries a Time Near the Hody— Passage Over a Stream on tl»> Way to the Land 
of Souls — Like the River Styx of the (ireeks— Perils in Passing Over tliis Myth- 
ical River — Ueseription of the Lanil of the Blessed — Indian Religion a Subject 
of Criticism— What tho Indian Tiiinks of the Religion of the White ]Man— The 
Indian Priest The Indian Highly Devotional— Smoking, a Devotional Act- 
Believed in Souls of Animals — Helit>f of the Iroiiuois and other TribeSi 

-^TT^^: AN, it is said, is uat- 
/V/\' mully a religious 
^/. ; ' l',\^ being, mid that no 
^ci^X~~^~-" people have heeii 
t'oimd 1)11 earth witliout fnme 
kind of religions belief. Tliis 
clifirncteristic was especially 
? proiiiiiioiit with the aborigines 
of this country. Thinr relig- 
ion Avas similar to that of the 
Jews, as coining to ns through 
the inspired writings of that 
peo[)le. They believed in one 
great Creator and KU[)renie, 
overrnl ing power ;tlieybelieved 
in a bad spirit, to whom Avas assigned, in general, the evil doings of 
earth; and they believed insubordinate good spirits, Avho administered 
to the happiness of mankind within their sphere. 

Like the Jews they had their fasts and feasts, wliich they observed 
with like religious devf)tion. The tribe of Maiidans, who dwelt in the 
upper country of the Missouri river, had a tradition that at some time 
there was a great flood over the face of the earth, destroying the race 





of iimiikiiid with the exception of one porHon, who was sftved by the 
iiit'miH of u gv'mi cniioe constructtHl by the lulvico of tho Grout Spirit. 
Miiiiy otlitT tribcH wore known to hiivo n Kiinihir tnulition. 

Civili/.t'd ptM)[>lt< hiivt» their housesof worship, orphicoof religious 
devotion; tlie Indimi had his medicine hjdf,'e, or Mt'(l(iin'<iauiiji,v,'\nn'oin 
were hekl ceremonies of mystery, under c'har>j;o of their hijjfh priests or 
bif^ niedii'ine men. 

The Indian had an ai)iilin^' faith in a future existence, "in !i hind 
of tlio blessed or country of souls, upon a n(nv earth or terrene alxxhs 
which is to be re[)lete with aninnil life, disjRjrting its varied creations 
ninidst beautiful j^roves or along the banks of smooth streams and 
lakes, whore there are no tempests, no pinching and chilling vicissi- 
tudes «)f weather, and no broken formations of rough mountains, cata- 
racts or volcanoes; but where the avocations of life are ao delightful 
and varied, find so com[)ietoly exempt from the power of evil, that their 
happiness is complete. Death, it is fancied, opens the door to this 
sweet land, and death is, therefore, viewed with complacency. The 
great Manito is hoard of, and presides there, but he is not a God of 
judgments or punishments: his voice is exclusively that of a father 
welcoming home his wandering children from the land of sufferings, 
trials, and death." 

Many Indians Ijclieved that their souls, after death, were many 
months in traveling to the regions of the everlasting abode; and that 
in reachin<f itthev had great difficulties to surmount and i^reat thuiirers 
to encounter, especially of a river, which they would have to pass, and 
where many had been wrecked. They speak of n dog against which 
they have to defend themselves; of a place of torments, where they 
expiate their faults; and of another place where the souls uf the pris- 
oneis of war who had been burned are tormented. This notion 
accounts for one reason why, after the death of such persons, they fear 
their souls Avill stay about their abodes to revenge their sufferinj;. 
They viU'y carefully visit all places, striking continually with a c^tick, 
aud sending forth hideous cries to drive away these souls. 

Mr. Catlin sa\s that the Dakotas believe that after death the soul, 
in reaching the [ilace of eternal abode, lia'- a great distance to travel to 
the west, and has to cross a dreadful deep and apid am. which is 

hemmed in cm both sides by high and ri' h ,s, over which, from hill 
to hill, there lies a long and slipper ,t>g, over w' h the dead 

have to pass to the delightful hunting unds. On the other side of 
this stream, there are six persons of the good hunting-grounds with 
stones in their hands, which they throw at thos who attempt to cross, 
when they reacli about the middle of the stream. The good walk < 



Bnfely ti> the end of tlioir journoy, whoro there is one continunl day; 
wliore the trees nro alwayH j^retMi; wlicre the nky has no cIoiidH; where 
there are continually fine and coolin;,' hreezes; Mhero there is one con- 
tinual scene of feasting, dancin>,' and rejoicing; where there is no paiu 
or trouble; luid where the people never grow (»ld, but live ever young, 
and enjoy the youthful pleasures. 

In crossinj; over this log the wicked see the stones coming and 
try to avoid them, by which they fall from the log and go down 
thousands of feet to the water which is dashing over the rocks, and 
which is polluted with dead fish and animals, where they are carried 
around and continually brought back to the same place, in whirlpools, 
whore the trees are all dead, and the waters are full of toads and the 
like, and the dead are always hungry and have nothing to eat, are 
always sick and never die, whore the sun never shines, and where the 
wicked are continually climbing uj) by thousands on the sides of a 
high rock, from which they can overlook the beautiful counti'y of the 
good hunting-grounds, the place of the happy, but can never reach it. 

This mythical river of the Indians corresponds to the river Styx, 
of the ancient Greeks, in the lower world, which, in their belief, was 
to be crossed in passing to the region of the dead. 

But it must be noted that these beliefs, as to temporary or pro- 
longed punisliments, mentioned, did not extend to all the American 
Indians, but were entertained oidy by some particular tribes. In 
general, the Indian held to the belief that Gczltc-Mdiii'lo, the Great 
Merciful Spirit, would not, in after life, inflict upon them imnishinents 
or torments of this kind. 

The Indians hold,, that there are spirits of a lesser degree, who 
have their particular de[)artmonts, and \,hom they sui)j)ose preside over 
all the extraordinary pro(hictions of nature, such as lakes, rivers, cata- 
racts or mountains that are of an uncommon magnitude, and likewise 
over the beasts, birds, fishes, and even vegetables and stones that 
exceed the rest of their spei ies in size and regularity. To all of these 
they pay some kinil of adoration. Thus, v/hen arriving at a great 
cataract, on the borders of a great lake, the banks of a great river, or 
other great body of water, they present to the spirit that presides 
there, some kind of offering. 

It was a general l)elief among the Algonquin tribes, and indeed 
the like principle of belief pervaded the whole American race, with some 
variations or minor exceptions, that there were two great beings that 
ruled and governed the universe, who Avere at war with each other, or, 
in other words, whose purposes were antagonistic. One was got)d, the 
other bad. The good spirit, called by the Algonquins Giiclw-Mduilu, 



"Great Spirit," or GczJic-Mdniio, "Merciful Spirit," was nil kindness 
and luve, Tlie bad spirit, called by tlieni Mdclic-Manito, was the 
8[iirit of all evil, who delighted iu doing mischief. Some thought 
that these two spirits were equal in power, and therefore ther wor- 
Blii))ped the evil spirit on a principle of fenr. Others doubted which 
was tiie more powerful, and therefore endeavored to keep in favor Avith 
both, by giving each of them some kind of v-'orshij); adoring the one, 
through u spirit of gratitude for his goodness, and Kpi)easing the 
other, through a spirit of fear. 

On this subject !Mr. Schoolcraft pertinently remarks, that one of 
the strongest, and at the rsame time one of the most ancient points of 
Indian belief is. that of the duality of God; in otiier woj'ds, the se[)a- 
ration of that great overruling power into two antiponent spirits, (jooil 
and criJ. This, up he remarks, was the leading doctrine in the zcnda- 
Visfa of Zoroaster; and was a common oriental notion long before tlie 
son of Terah was called from the pinins of Persia to cross the 
Euphrates. Everywhere our lndia)is have upheld this idea of duality 
of gods, ascribing to one (/(xxl and to the other evil powers, with its 
ancient deveh^pments of subordinate polytheism. 

The religion of the native Iiidia]i has been the subject of some 
ridicule by persons of the C^iiristian faith; but there has l)een. in this 
res})ect. a s[)irit of mutixal retaliation, to some extent, between the 
untutored savage and tlie enligiitened Christian. Aji example of this 
is given by IJarcni La Honta'i. in his book of travels among the North 
American Indians, two hundred years ago, showing how this people 
ridicule the scriptural account of the creation and the fall of Adam, 
entailing ui>on his posterity per[)etual sin. The death of Christ for 
the redemption of mankind, they declare, according to Ciiristian 
showing, has failed of its intended purpose^ ; tliat tills Christian 
reliirion is divided and subdivided into so manv sects that it can be no 
other than a human artitice. leaving them in doubt as to Avhich ol' 
tiiesc! various sects they must join in order to conform to the true 

The minister or priest of the Indian religion was a person whose 
calling, in general, was comprised in a tiireefold capacity, minister, 
piivsician and prophet. According to the ideas of many, tlie jireten- 
sions of the Indian medicine-man did not diifer essenti/illy. in some 
respects, from that of the con'esponding individual of the white man 
of the present day, called our physician or doctor of medicine, who 
[)i"escribes metlicine for the sick in an unknown tongue, and diagnoses 
the disease of his patient in mysterious terms, beyond his ])atient''s 



The Indians, like Cliristian wliito men, concurred on one gcnerfil 
point in their religion — that of a future existence; but like Christiaii 
white men they differed among tlunuselves upon many other phases of 
their religious beliefs. Many believed in a resurrection of the body, 
the same as somoChristian Avhite men. AVhilst some believed in per- 
{)etual h(ip[)ines8 for all, vi the eternal hunting-grounds, others 
believed, like the Christian white man, in future rewards and punish- 
ments. They thought that those who lived virtuously would be trans- 
ported to a i)lace ai)oundijig with every luxury, and wliei'e the earth 
produces to the greatest perfection all her sweetest fruits; and, on the 
other hand, some believed that those Avho have spurned the duties of lite 
^^ill be removal to a barren soil, where they will wander up ami down 
among rocks and through barren j)la('es, where they vvill be stung by 
gnats of enormous size. 

One of the earliest Mritfi's on tlie subject of the Amciican Indian, 
in referei'.ce to his religion and ideas of a future existence, says: -Yet 
do they hold the immortality of the soul, in which their Indijin faith 
jumps, much with the Turkish Alkoran, dreaming of a certain paradise 
or southwest elvt ium, wherein tlnn' shall everlastin>rlv a])ide, Bolaciuir 
themselves in odoriferous gardens, fruitful corn fields, green meadows, 
bathing their tawny hides in the cool streams of pleasanf rivers, and 
sheltering themselves from heat and cold in the sumptuous palaces 
framed by liature, concluding that neither pain nor care shall molest 
them, but that nature's bounty Viill voluntarily contril)ute from the 
storehiuise of their elysium, at the portal.-: whereof, they t-.iy, lies a 
great dog, wliose churl isli snarliiigs deny admission to unworthy intrud- 
ers; wherefore it is their custom to bury with them their bows iuul 
arrows, and good store of their irdnipunicduc and iiiowluick.^, the one to 
affright that affronting cerberus, and the other to purchase more 
immense prerogatives in their pariulise. For their enemies nnd loose 
livt>rs, whom they account unworthy of this iiappiness, they sjiy that 
tliey pas;4 to the infernal dwelling of Ahoiiiot'lio. to lie tortuicd accord- 
inj; to the fictions of the ancient heathen.'' 

The Indinn wns highly devotional in his nature and exceedingly 
devout. He attributed to the Great 8i)irit all the blessings lie enjoyed 
in life, for which ho wms continually returning thanks. The evils of 
life wliicli ovcrtiK k him he did not rect)gnl/e as judgments from the 
Great, Good Hjiirit, whom he designated as iiczlic-Mdiiild; but in his 
o[)inion they were tlie workings of the Evil or l?!id Spirit, designated 
by him as MdcJic-Mdnilo; and whilst ho returned thanks to the Great, 
Merciful (Spirit, from whom all these blessings were d(>rived, on the 
other hand i'3 was constantly endeavoring to appease the Evil Si)irit, 



that he might forbenr inflicting those evils and disasters which he had 
the power to visit upon Jiim. 

It is remarked by those best acquainted with Indian manners and 
customs, that in regard to their religious devotion, as a rule, in taking 
up their pipe to indulge in smoking, or in setting down to their simple 
rejmst, they rendered some homage, or in some way acknowledged 
their gratitude to the Great Spirit for his goodness in supplying them 
with the needs and comforts of life, which tLey enjoyed at his hands. 

They believed tiiat the Evil Spirit entered into and took the form 
of venomous reptiles or species of furious animals, which they always 
refrained from killing or injuring, lest they might increase the wrath 
of the Evil Spirit, who, in return, they believed, Avould visit them with 
evil conse(juences. 

The Indians believed that the si J of the dead lingers about the 
wigwam, or place of the departed, for several days, and that it hovers 
about the body after it has been laid in the grave or place of burial for 
some time, before it finally departs to the world of si)irits, in conse- 
quence of which belief a custom prevailed of leaving a small opening 
in the grave, when the body was buried in the ground, through which 
the soul might enter to its former tenement. 

In general, the Indians not only believed in the immortality of 
the souls of the human family, but they believed that all animals are 
endowed with immortal spirits, and that, after death, they possess 
supernatxiral power to punish any one who has daretl to despise them 
or make imnecessary waste of their race. So that when they deified 
any of these animals they imagined that they had the aid of their souls, 
imparting to them the power or destructive quality the animal in life 

Peter Jones says that the Indians ha(1 an idea that living trees 
possessed the sense of feeling, and that to cut them down put them in 
pain, and that some of their pow-wows or medicine-men pretended to 
hear tlio wailing of tiie forest trees when suffering under the operation 
of the hatchet or ax. They were, therefore, Fuperstitious on the subject 
of cutting down green or living trees, fearing the consequences that 
might follow from the spirits of the forest in retaliation for such act 
of destruction. 

Among the Iroquois, sajn Mr. Morgan, heaven was the abode of 
the Great Spirit, the final home of the faithful. They believed that 
there was a road down from heaven to every man's habitation. On 
this invisible way the soul ascended in its heaverly flight, until it 
reached its celestial habitation. After taking its filial departure the 
soul was supposed to ascend higher and higher on its Jicivenly mmv. 



gradually moving towards the westward, iiiitil it came out upon the 
plains of heaven. The same authority informs us that with the Iro- 
quois people heaven was not regarded as a hunting-ground, as among 
other native tribes. Subsistence in after life, in their opinion, had 
ceased to be necessary; that when the faithful partook of the sponta- 
neous fruits around them it was for the gratification of taste and not 
for the sufiport of life. 

The Creeks believed in a good and bad spirit, and a future state 
of rewards and punishments. They believed that the Good Spirit 
inhabits some distant, unknown region, Avhere game is i)lonty and goods 
very cheap, where corn grows all the year round, and the springs of 
pure water are never dried up. 

They believed also that the bad spirit lives a great way off, in 
some dismal swamp, which is frU of galling briers, and that he is com- 
monly half-starved, having no game or bear's oil in all his territories. 
They had an opinion that droughts, floods, famines, and their miscar- 
riages in war, were produced by the agency of the bad spirit. But of 
all these things they seem to have had only confused and irregular 
ideas and some special opinions. 

The Chickasaws believed in a Great Spirit, by whom they were 
created ; but they did not believe in any punishment after death. They 
believed that the spirit leaves the body as soon as it dies, and that it 
assumes the shape of the body, and moves about among the Chickasaws 
in great joy. They believed that the spirits of all the Chickasavs go 
back to Mississippi, in the country in which they took up their abode 
at the ead of their journey from the west, and join the spirits of those 
who have died there; and then all the spirits will return to the west 
before the world is destroyed by fire. 

A part of the Winnebago Indians believed that the paradise of 
souls is above, but did not define its particular location in the heavens. 
Some said that good Indians go, after death, to the paradise nbove^ 
and that bad Indians go to the west; others believe that this paradise 
is located in the west, and that all go there. Those who believed in 
the latter theory generally located their land of souls on an island far 
in the west. 

There seems to have been a general belief, among all the Indian 
nations, that the country of the haj)py future was seated somewhere to 
the westward, and was reached by a journey in that direction, the same 
as civilized or christian peo[)Ie, in speaking of heaven, locate it above. 

Col. Dodge, in his book entitleil "Plains of the West," speaking 
of the religion among the numerous tribes of Indians of the Plains, or 
what was then the great wild west, says their religious creed was a 



wide one; that nil persons of all ages, colors or beliefs, who died 
uuscalped or uustrangleil, will meet in that tinal heaven of bliss; that 
each goes there just as he was here; with the same passicms, feelings, 
wishes and needs; his favorite pony is killed at his burying ])lace, to 
eujoy an eternity of beautiful pasture, or to bear tiie master in war or 
in chase; that he will need arms to defend himself against enemies, 
therefore his bow and (juiver, or other weapons of defense, are l)uried 
with him. He will need fire, so flint and steel, or a box of matches, 
are included in the outfit for his final journey. 

The personal misfortunes and jjeculiarities which an Indian has in 
tiiis life, they believe follow him beyond the grave. A one-legged 
man in this life is one legged through all eternity; one who loses his 
sight here goes blind thnmgli all tlie eternal life. There is no such 
tiling us growing older there, consequently they believe every one 
remains forever at exactly the age at whicli he entered the new life. 
The puling infant, the decrepit hag, the young girl or stalwart warrior, 
as each dies, so remains through all eternity. A body emaciated or 
distracted by pain or disease, sends on the long journey a soul wliicii 
suffers in tiie same way. This affords another reason or explanation 
why an Indian warrior, overtaken by his enemies, so cheerfully meets 
his fate of death. 

According to John 1{. Jewitt, who was several years a captive 
(soinething over eighty years ago) among the Indians, in what is now 
"Washington Territm'y, on the nortiiwestern coast, those Indians 
believed in the existence of a supreme, Great Good Si^irit. wlio Mas one 
great '/'//cc, or chief in the sky, wlio gave them their fish and all other 
means of subsistence; tiiey also, like other Indians, believed that there 
was an evil s[)irit who was the aiithm' of all evil. Their usual place 
of worship of the Great Spirit appeared to be the water. When- 
ever they bathed they addressed soint! wcn'dsof prayer to him, entreat- 
ing tliat he would preserve tliein in health and give them good success 
in fishing and other undertakings. The sanui authority, however, 
says that those Indians had no i)elief in a future existence; that in his 
etVort to instill such belief into their miiuls. they could comprehend 
nothing of what was said, and pointing to the ground <ni the occasion 

if th- 

)ui'ial 111 one < 

)f their number, ti 

le en 

ief remarked that that \\as 

thi'cnd of him. and lu^ was like that. Tliif people, it a[)pears. liad no 
su[K>rstitions wliatevor about ghosts or subordinate spirits, like most 
of the Indian tribes of thn continent 

Th(! Senecas, one of the IrotjooisSix Nations, believed in a Great 
Good Spirit, whom they called Mun-trnh-itc-u, who was the creator of 

the world and every good thing. Thov also believed in 





whom tliey calle<l Ha-nr-i/o-ai-ni'li, the " Evil Miiuled," whom they 
believed to be the brother of the Great, Good Spirit, but was less pow- 
erful than he, and v;ho was opposed to him and everyone that wished 
to be good. Tii'3y believed that this evil spirit made all the evil 
things of earth, such as snakes, wolves and all other boisterous or 
noxious animals of that kind. 

Ciiarlevoix says that some Indians are of opinion that all human 
bodies have two souls; that one never leaves the b(xly but to go into 
another. The Indians thought that the soul, which so faithfully 
remained to keeji company Avith the body, must be fed, and it was to 
fulfill this duty that tiiey carried provisions to the tombs or graves of 
the dead; a practice so well marked in Indian custom. 

According to Mr. Catlin, the Mandans believed in the existence of 
a Great or Good Spirit, and also an evil spirit; the latter of whom 
they said existed long before the Good Spirit, and is far superior in 
power. They all believed in a future state of existence and future 
rewards and punishments. But they believed that those punishments 
were not eternal, but commensurate with their sins. As this people 
lived in a country where they suffered from cold in the severity of 
winter, they very naturally reversed our ideas of heaven and hell; the 
latter they describe as a country very far to the north, of barren and 
hideous aspects, antl covoreil with eternal snows and ice. The terrors 
of this freezing place tl-ey described as most excrutiating; whilst 
heaven they believed to be in a milder and more congenial latitude, 
where nothing was felt but the purest enjoyment, and where the 
country abounded in buffaloes and all the luxuries of life. Those who 
went to the regions t)f punishment, they believed, were tortured for a 
time in proportion to their transgressions, and tlien transferrinl to th<> 
lanil of tlie happy, where they were again liable to the temptations of 
the evil spirit, and again answerable for other new offenses. 

The primitive Indians offered sacrifices or burnt offerings to the 
Great Spirit or (rHi'lii-Mdiiilo; but they \\ere not sacrifices of living 
creatures, but, as La Honton infoiins us, were sacrifices of goods or 
articles of property. He says that in one day the Indians burnt, as a 
sacrifice to the Great Spirit, at Missiliiiiiikiii<i<; 50,000 crowns worth 
of troods, which Avere received of the French in exchaniie for beaver 
skins. Tliese religious ceremonies, he informs us, are re(juired to be 
at a time when the air is clear and serene, and the weather fair and 
calm; everyone brought his offering, which was laid upon a pile of 
wooil, of which the fire was to be kindled. When the sun mounted 
higher, a ring was made around tiie pile, each with a piece of bark 
lighted in order to set the pile on fire, and the warriors danced around 




nntl snug until the whole was burnt, when the old men made their 
havrangues or invocations addressed to GUchc-MduHo, and presented 
him, from time to time, with jnpes of tobacco lighted, at the sun. 
This ceremony generally lasted till sunset, allowing s<mie intervals of 
rest, at which they sat down and smoked leisurely. Of their praises 
or invocations to GiUJw-Miinifo or the Great Spirit on such occasions, 
tiie following example, which is given by La Hontan, sums up in a 
degree the essential points in the native Indian theology, and well 
illustrates their devotional spirit: 

"Great !5[)irit, Mastev of our Lives; Great 8[)irit, Master of ;ill 
Things, both Visible and Invisible; Great Spirit, Master of «ither 
Sjiirits, Avhetlier Good or Evil, command the Good Spirits to favor tliy 
Children, the 0»/ao/ff(,s, etc. Command tiie Evil Spirits to keep at a 
distance from 'em. O Crreat S[)irit, keep iip the Strength and Cour- 
age of our Warriors, tliat they may be able to stem the fury of our 
Enemies; Preservti the Old Persons whose Bodies are not yet quite 
wasted, that they may give Counsel to the Young. Preserve cmr 
Ciiildren, enlarge their Number, deliver 'era from evil 8[)irits, to the 
end that in our old Age, they may jmive our Support and Comfort: 
preserve our Harvest and our Beasts, if thou meanest that they siiould 
not die from Hunger; Take care of our Villages, and guard our 
Huntsmen in thi v Hunting Adventures. Deliver us from all Fatal 
surprizes, when thou ceasest to vouchsafe us the Light of tlie Sun. 
which speaks thy Grandeur and Power. Ac(piaint us by the Spirit of 
Dreams, with what thy Pleasure requires of us, or prohibits us to do. 
AVhen it pleases tliee to put a Period to our Lives, send us to the great 
Country of Souls, where wo may meet with those of our Fathers, 
our Mothers and out V/ives. our Chiklren and our Relations. O Great 
Spirit, Great Spirit, hear the Voice of the Nation, give ear to thy 
Children, and remend)er them at all times." 

Rev. Isaac McCoy says that the religious opiniims of Inilians 
who have received no impressions from other people are remarkalily 
uniform, excluding the absurdity of idol worship, and embracing the 
fundamental truths of the existence of God and his overruling provi- 
dence, man's accountability, the immortality of the soul, future rewards 
and punishments, a consciousness of guilt for offenses against God. 
etc. Their external ceremonies embrace sacrifices for the purpose of 
propitiating the Deity, and festivals, accompanied with music, dancing, 
8j)eeches, unmeaning nt)ises, etc. INIr. McCoy, in this connection, 
advances the opinion that the ancient mounds found in this country 
were erected as places of worship from high places, according' to 
custom spoken of in scripture among the ancients. 




Multitnilo of Spirits— MiiuifosU'il in ^MysU'rious Wnys— Omens nnionj? the Stars nnd 
Cloiuls— FliK'lit of Birds— Superstition iil)oiit the Hol)in— Thunder (iod of tho 
Ojibways— Superstition of tho Ojibways— Creek Indians had Sacred Phmts— 
Buffalo Blood— Maj,MC Properties -Su[)er8tition8 of the War Bonnet— Larjje 
Animals Objects of Sui)erstition White Animals Objects of Worship— Lartre 
Animals ]5elieved to Possess Powerful Si)irits— Spiritualism an Old Story amon;u' 
the Dakotas- Tendency to Believe Everything is Inhiihited by Spirits— Le;;eud 
of a Mythical Bird Sinj,'iu>,' at Eveninf,'s— Sacred Character of Fire- Dreams 
Believed in— Superstitions of the Indian and the White ^lan do not Essentially 

?\ISTOI{Y lias no record <it' 
N, niiy people not possessin<;- 
:! ic\',y' some degree of supersti- 
..'i' tion. The American In- 
dians had n system of sn[)er- 
stition that can be accounted 
for in no other way than by their 
faith in a multitude of spirits, 
manifested to them in various 
and mysterious ways. The 
significance which Indian super- 
stition gives, as omens, to signs 
in the heavens among the stars 
and clouds, or to aspects, inci- 
dents or olijects around them, which attract their attention, will either 
quicken their minds to joy, or strike their souls with terror. 

Tliey are close observers of the tiight of birds. Their motions 
in the " up|)ei' deep"' are studied as a page of revelation. The gyra- 
tions of birds of prey are most intently watched, as they are believed 
to presage events of peace or war. " Where the carcass is, there are 
tiie eagles gathered together," is the image strongly thrown forward 
in their war songs and chants. 

The birds of the carnivorous sjiecies are familiar with the upper 
currents of the atmos[)here, where the gods of the air are supposed to 






dwell; hence liieir nssOijii'.iOiis in the Iniliim miml with the deities of 
battle, as messengers to carry intelligence. 

Minute attention is also given to the meteorology of the clouds. 
Their size, their shape, their color, their motions, with their relative 
position to the sun, and the horizon, form the subject of a branch of 
Indian knowledge which is in tiie hands of tlieir iiinlas and prophets. 
Important events are often decided by predictions founded on sucii 
observations. The imagery of this exalted view of the celestial 
atmosphere, with its starry background, and its warfare of thunder, 
lightning, electricity and storm, is very much employed in their per- 
sonal names, either from superstition or taste. This imagery is 
capable of the grandest construction and is highly poetic. 

While the eagle and the vulture are known to be held in high 
esteem by varitnis Indian tribes, we find, by research, that birds are 
generally regarded as the especial messengers of '* Oilclii-.Vdiiilo.'''' 
A page or two relating to the Indian folk lore, telling us of the wonder- 
ful power with which birds are endowed, will be read with interest. 

VcJil, the Crow, is looked upon by the ThUnkrcts as their Cre- 
atoi". It is believed to have beaten back the dark waters of chaos 
with its wings. 

Indian tradition tells us that the wind is produced either by a 
bird or a serpent. The owl produces the north wind, the buttertiy 
the south wind. 

A very pretty Indian tradition is, that the robin was once an 
Indian wcmian, who fasted a long time, and just before she was turned 
into a bird she painted her breast, and, as siie flew away, sh> laughed 
for joy, but left the promise that she would return to her friends early 
in each spring-time through all the coming yeai's. If there was to be 
peace and plenty, she declared she would come laughing; but if war 
or trouble, her voice should convey the prophecy of evil tidings. 

Among some of the far westinMi tribes, we are told that the belief 
exists that animals were created before tlie light. Many accidents 
wei'e the result of this condition, one of which resulted in light being 
produced. A hawk, happening to Hy into the face of a coyote, mutual 
apologies and a long discussion on the emergency of the situation, 
followed. The result of the discussion was that the coyote got ready 
a ball of in(lammai)le material and some pieces of tlint. These the 
hawk took and flew with them into the sky, where he struck fire and 
lighted his ball, and sent it onward, as it continues to move with its 
bright and shining light, for it was the sun. In the Cliihcha histoi v 
of creation, the blackbird is a prominent actor in carrying light over 
the world. 



Tliti Ojibways c-onsidcr tlio timiuler to Ixi a "rod in tlic sliii|i(' of ii 
Inrge eiigle, that feeds on serponts; nnd tliat it lias its abode on the 
top of a high mountain in the west, where it lays its eggs nnd hatches 
its young. Hence, "young tliunder" is something more than a figure 
of speecli to tlio chihlren of the forests. 

llev. Peter Jones, an Ojihway Indian, gives tlm following tradi- 
tional instances current among his people, on the aforesaid subject: 
An Indian who was said to have ventured, at the risk of liis life, to 
visit the abode of the thunders, after fasting and offering devotion to 
the thunder, with much difReulty ascended the mountain, tlio top of 
which reached to the clouds. To his great astonisliment he there 
saw the thunder's nest, where a brood of young thunders had been 
hatched. He saw liere, also, all sorts of curious bones of st;rpents, 
on the flesh of which tiie t)ld thunders had been feeding their young, 
and the bark of the young cedar treses peeled and stripped, on which 
the young thunders liad been trying their skill in shooting their 
arrows before going abroad to hunt serpejits. 

Of another tradition, he says that a party of Indians were travel- 
ing on an extensive plain, when they carm^ upon two young thunders 
lying in their nest in tiuMr downy fi^athers, the old thunders being 
absent. Some of the pai'ty took tluiir arrows, and, with the ]>oint, 
touched the eyes of the young thunders. The moment they did so 
tlieir arrows were shivered to pieces. One of the [)arty, more cautious 
than his companions, entreated them not to meddle with them; but 
tlie foolish young men would not listen, but continued to tease and 
finally killed them. Soon after, a black cloud a[)[)eared, advancing 
towards them with great fury. Presently th(i thunder began to roar 
nnd send forth volumes of its fii'ry indignation. It was evident that 
the old thunders were enrfxrinl on account of the destruction of their 
young. Soon, with a tremendous crush, the arrows of the mighty 
thunder-god fell on the foolish young men and destroyed them; but 
the more cautious nnd good Indian escaped unhurt. 

John Tanner, in his narrative of his thirty years' captivity among 
the Ojibway Indians, sj)eaks of the occasion of a severe thunder storm 
one night, when one of the Indians of their camp, becoming much 
alarmed at the violence of the storm, got up and offered some tobacco 
to the thunder, entreating it to stop. 

He says that in the moruing, after the storm, they found an elm 
tree near by, which had been struck nnd set on fire by lightning and 
was still burning; nnd that the Indians had n superstitiems drend of 
this fire, and none of them would go to get st)me of it to replace theirs, 
which had been extinguished by rain. He at last went nnd brought 



Hoini' of tilt' lilt' hiinsi.'U', tli()Uf,'li, In? sfiitl, not without (i|)|iitilu)ii.sioii. 
W'liilst ho had fowor finals tliaii i]w liitliaiis. yot, ht^ (umft'sst's, Im^ was 
not entirely free fioin tlu' sann* uiifoundotl approhenHions wliioh ho 
constantly pursuo tliem. 

St>nit3 Indians bidieve, as befon* nientioned in a proeoilin<^ (diaptor, 
that the Great Spirit specially presiiles ttver the oxtraortlinary works 
of natiin^, such as lakes, rivers, cataracts or iut)untains that are of an 
unconiiiion si/c, and to whom they pay snecial adoration when visitin*,' 
places or objects of this character, and there present to him some kind 
of otfeiiiiiT in token of tlieir adoration. An instance, of this kind is 
given by Ca[)t. Jonathan Carver, in the case of u young pnnce (as he 
styles him I of the AVinnebago Indians, whom he fell in witii in his 
travels, and wiio accompanied jiini to the Falls of St. Antht):iy. He 
says : 

"The ]jrince had no sooner gainetl the jxiint that overlooks this 
wonderful cascade, than he began with an autlible voice to address the 
(ir«;at Spirit, one of Avliose places of residence he imagined this to be. 
He told him he had come a long way to pay his adoration to him, and 
now woulti make him the best offering in his power. Ho accordingly 
first threw his pipe into the stream; then the roll that contained his 
tobacco; after thi'se, the bracelets he wore on his arms and wrists; 
next, an ornament that encircled his neck, composed of beads and wires ; 
and at last, the ear rings from Ins ears; in short, he presented to his 
God every part of his dress that Avas valuable; during this ho fre- 
quently smote his breast with great violence, threw his arms about, 
and ap[)eared to be niucli agitated. 

"AH this while he continued his adorations, and at length con- 
cludetl them with fervent petitions that the Great Spirit would 
constantly afford us his protection on our travels, giving us a bright sun, 
a blue sky, and clear, untroubletl waters; nor would ho leave the ]>lace 
until we had smoked together, with my pi[)e. in honor of the Great 

Tlio Indians of southern California always hunt in pairs, through 
the suiH'rstitious fear of the spirit of animals. They believe that good 
luck will forsake them if they eat of the game that tlieir own hands 
havt* killed. Hence, they exchange game with each other at the close 
of the day's hunt. 

An Ojibway can rarely be induced to speak his own name, being 
early taught that speaking it will lessen hia stature. The Jsew 
England tribes never mention the name of quo who is dead, for fear of 
some evil that would follow. 

A cruel superstition existed among some of the tribes of the 



wpstoin plains, tlmt of Hiicrificing a foinnle slave on various suspicious 
notions, as tiiat of avortinj; tiie displeasure of the spirits. 

Till) Cri't(k Indians had sevtMi sacrwl plants which they re<jfardi'd 
with superstitious observance. 

It was a belief anioiiji^ some of the ()jil)ways that butl'aio bUxtd liad 
magic properties, and that bathing in it would keep tlimi from harm 
in battle. 

A superstition prevailed among the tribes of the great western 
plains, and some tribes in the mountains beyond, that a warrior in 
battle who wore upon liis head a war bonnet, so called, a kind of head- 
dress extending down xipon the back, ornamented with a certain kind 
of quills, will e8CM[ie danger from the arrows or bullets of liis enemies. 

With most Indians a strange animal was an objoctof superstitious 
fears, and wiiite animals were always objects of their superstition to a 
greater or less extent. 

The A{)aclie3 regard wiiito birds as possiissing souls. Tlie Inilians 
of the plains worship the white butfalo. This animal is very rare. 

Among all the American tribes large aidmals were believed to 
])ossess ])owerful spirits, and were objects of worship or adoration. 

What in modcM'U times is termed sjn'ritiKilisni, was, with the 
Dakota Indians, an old story. They practiced sumnwning s[)irits of 
the dead, and questioned them concerning friends and rt;latives at a 
distance, or of their own ventures or future success; all this with light 
extinguished, as is the present custom of spiritualism. Usually, the 
presence of the 8i)irits was invoked while the mediums were sitting 
covered Avitli blankets and singing in a low tone. 

The tendency of the Indian mind is to the belief that everything 
is iidiabited by spirits. On this subject, we may add that science 
no longer puts aside, as beneath its notice, new facts that do not fit old 
theories; and the mind is less disturbed by the thought of sjtirits 
assuming various forms and taking on material shapes than in any other 
period of the world's history. There is, at this day, a large class of 
our own race who assert tliat they can make the spirits of the dead 
answer them at will, and who claim to hold communion with friends 
from the s[)irit world. 

The American Indians have a beautiful legend of a mystical bird 
that comes only in summer evenings, when the moon is full, and sings 
in the grove, beside their wigwams, songs of the spirit land, that give 
tidings of their depart(>d friends. 

One of the 

most curious opinions or 




people is 

their belief in 

the mysterious and sacred clmracter 





was obtained from the flint. None 

other was used for national or 



nOigioiiH purposes, after that mode of innkiiij^ fin* bpcnnie known to 
tlio IndianH. Fire waH alwayH coiisitlored by tliem a HVinbol of purity. 

Drt'Hiiis are consiileriul by tlio Indians as a direct communication 
from tilt* spirit world. It is Sfiid tliat tlio boldest warrior ^^ilI v,i\\n^ 
witli shuddorings from a profound sleep, and notliinj^ will btuid liis 
will to a course which ho lias thus been instructed to avoid. A whole 
family have l)een known to desert their hnli^e at midnight, because one 
of their number had an ominous dream of blood and tomahawks. The 
dream of a brave, whose character or counsel curries weight with it, 
will often decide the issue of peace or war for his tribe. 

Among the ancient Jews, dreams were supposed to proceed from 
God, and, if bad, inspired fear and provoked prayer. 

It is said by an ofiicer of the United States navy, speaking on the 
subject of superstition among the tribes of California, Oregon and 
Washington Territory, that they are very superstitious, and liable to 
be deceived by jugglers or professed dreamers ; but, he remarks, he 
very much questions if they are more thoroughly "bamboozled and 
mystified than a large pro{)ortion of our owti pt^ople are l)y another 
set of jugglers who practice their art, and make their living, surrounded 
by all the intelligence and ci 'lizatitm of the age." 

According to the notions of the white man, it is this intense 
superstition of the American Indian which conduces largely in mark- 
ing him as a jmgan, and in pointing him o\it as a special object of our 
attention and missionary work; forgetting that the Indians are not 
alone in attaching importance to dreams, the Hight, motion and songs 
of birds; nor that superstition did not entirely vanish from ourselves 
with the mad frenzy of the days of the Salcin irilchcrafl. 

It is a well recognized su[)erstition, especially among tlie Puritan 
descemhuits, that piget)iis a[)pearing in large flocks, presage sickness 
or ])estilenco; whilst smaller ilocks generally foretell health and hap- 
piness. AVild geese Hying south in the early autumn foretell an early 
winter. If the hooting of an owl over the lodge of an Indian causes 
dread to fill the hearts of the inmates, the crowing of a domestic hen 
is no less a sign of terror to the more enlightened race, and it was 
believed that nothing short of the immediate killing of this feathered 
example of "feminine rights" would avert from the household some 
pending disaster, thus foretold. 

In the opinion of the white man. it is a good sign for swallows to 
build their nest at the window of his dwelling, and children are early 
taught to believe that to destroy a swallow's nest, thus built, will bring 
misfortune to the family. The four leaf clovei lightens the heart of 
the finder, as being sure to bring good luck; and a horseshoe is found 



ill cottngn and iiiauHion us im oinhlpin of like import. At we«liliiif^8. 
fuiK^nilH mid biiptisins, HuptfrHtitioii tij^urt'H largely in t\w display or 
iiiodo of coiuluctiii'^ the cereiuoiiicH. Tins tii-li of tlio dcatli-watcli in 
tho wall is {'aus« for tho dfiopost anxiety, as u warniii;^ of approai'liin>j 
doalli of soint'. (»ne of tho family. 

If a white or brown K[)id(U- s[)ins iiis web before you, good tidings 
await you, but if it is a blai-k .s[)ider. it forebodes sorrow or disasti-r. 
The howl of a dog or lowing of cattle in the night are hoard with 

A suspicious dread of evil will fill tho hearts of the aborigines 
and Anglo-Saxon alike, if a rabbit chance to cross his path. With the 
Iroquois, amulets were worn to ward otf witches; and so witii tlio 
"Mohawk Dutchman," a horseshoe was [uit over tho door of iiis dwell- 
ing for the like purpose. 

Many of the foregoing superstitions, in some instances, so deep 
rooted in our prejudices, have come with our ancestors across tins sea, 
and become u part of our own mystic houseliold philosophy, and yet 
we wonder at the superstition of tiie unUitored Indian. 

The English poet, in his masterly essay on man, has given us the 
following suggestion concerning Indian superstition, as viewed by the 
average mind, which may afford an apjiropriate field for a moment's 

" Lo, the poor ludiiin, whose untutored miud, 
Sees God in clouds and hears him in tho wind." 

And yet, by the writings of the Jews, like accounts are given nf 
the niar.ifestation of tho Divine voice and His holy presence among 
men, as here assigned to the imagination of the untutored Indian; and 
yet. for this, we have never styled that people the untutored Jews. 
This idea, thus expressed, is but the outcropping of that misconcep- 
tion existing in the prejudiced mind of the white man. If the tutor- 
ing of the savage mind is to be accomplished with those barren results 
which have attended our own efforts at reforming society and restrain- 
ing wickedness and sin among ourselves, then it may be well for the 
poor Indian that he has remained in ignorance of the calamities to 
overtake him, when his mind shall have become tutored up to the 
standard of our own civilization; that is, if we would believe what we 
say of ourselves and read in the newspai)er8. 


ra^'iin Cliiinictor iif tin- linliim Miiikcil by His Belief in W'itcliornft — T)ie Civilized 
Wliitt' Miiii Jiiiil I'li^'iiii liiiliiiii Cuiiipjin'd ill this KcKiiril— Till" IiidiairH Fearof 
HiiiMTiiiitiinil AKi'ii<'i<'w- IJelii'f in Witi'hcraft wns I'liivorHal-EtTcct niinii tlieir 
Prosiierity and Population Anionj; the Iroiinois League — Wizards, a Secret 
Association— Meetint; at Ni^li' — 'J'radition nnioii),' the Ononda^as Indian Pow- 
wows— Con jiiirrH and Alt lie. lie Men Witches Wizards -Their Powers and 
('liiirncteristics--Witclies in theShapeof AninialH— The Puritan Idea of Witches 
iKiiorauce CharKt'd upon the Indian for his Uelief in Witches- Reference to the 
Learned Sir Mathew Hale— Wh" Tried and Convicted Two CUd Women for t lie 
'"rime of beinjf Witches 

,.ir:,MC)NCiST otluT nttrihut««s 
\ / \ iiinrkiii<^ tho Ptigfiii cliaiin'- 
." I./Xc tt'i' "f the Aiiii'vicaii liuliiin, 
-" in thoopiiiiiiii of thn cliris- 
tiiuiizoJ wliito luaii, was that of 
liis beliof in witchcrai't; ami. 
whilo thoso (lovotcil niiKsionarit's 
of Europe wort) hartteiiin<^ to the 
Ainc'Mcan contiiuuit to diristian- 
i/c tilt' iintiitori'il Jiuiian ami re- 
claim liini from his heni^'hted 
comlitioii. thoiearneil SirMaUiew 
Hale was sitting' in jmlj^'ment 
ami t>omlt'nuiin<r iniioct'iit. harm- 
less olil wttmeii to lie Ituriifil at 
the stake for the criiiio of witeh- 

Howevfr ninch the Imliaii 

may |iriile iiimst'lf ii|it>ii liisirative 

iraviii"^ all st^asons, 

TIIK ifllKAT lll-.AI . , . 1 ■ 1 i i ,1 1 

, ,, . , ,. ,, , ,,.„,- narniif Ins hreast to tlie storm. 

It w.i« 11 iiininiKii liolifl iiiiiDiiK IniiuiiN lliiil tlicro r> 

wuxn iiiMn;iii-iik.iri'uii>ii'. i"i;-i»iiin,'»imi'iy "I'ii I":"! cafelesH of (hiii^^er, linn^jt-r. thirst 

liinilf Ifrrillr wIlli lurtf fvi«, :iinl mvcntl «iili Imiif i i /• i »• i • i • i • 

It.Mr. MMmnu. ««. .upi....f.n,. 1... M,i,K.«lK.ic,.| "H'l eohl, iomlot (llS|ila_Vin<,' hlJ- 
ii lnur ro. k. emiratrt' ami firmness of eharac- 




tiT in the midst o£ tortures, at tlie very tlionght of wliicli onr own 
naturos revolt niul sliutkler, tlio Indian, whose life is spent in constant 
warfare aijr.inst the wilvl beasts of the forest and sava''es of the wilder- 
ness, possf sscs a weakness in his character whicii makes him one of 
tlio most fearful and timid l)ein»;s. Tlie va<juo childish apprehension 
of an unknown power, whi'/h, unless he can summon suUicient fortitude 
to conquer, chan<;es hii;i from a liei'o into a coward; and such change 
«'omes over him Avhen he is called upon to pass from those thiiigi". 
material, or which he recoijnizes as real, to confront that wiiii h, in his 
superstitious l)eliof. lie looks tipon as supernatural, or that wliicli we 
call irilrlicfdfl. 

It 's incredible, says Mr. Hecke welder, to what a degree the 
Indians' .--uperstitious belief in witchcraft operates upon their minds. 
The moment tlieir imagination is struck witli the idea that they are 
bewitclied. tluiv are no longtsr themselves. Their fancy is constantly 
at work in c'eating in their minds the most horrid and distressing 
images. Tliey see themselves falling a sacrifice to the wicked arts t>f 
a vile, unknown liand. iiie who would not have dan^d to fnce them in 
fair combat. 

'J'lie belief in wilclicraft prevailed extensively among the Nortli 
American tribes, and it is known. I'vtMi in more modtMii times, that it 
WHS one of the principal means used by the Siiawnee prophet, brother 
of Tecumseii. to get lid of his )|ipon(Mits. and that several prominent 
men of jiis trilie were sacrific-d to tins diabolical spirit. Mr. School- 
craft, w ho investigated concerning this subject among the Iroquois, 
says that the belief in witchcraft among that people was universal, and 
its effects upon theii p 'osperity and population, if tradition is to l)e 
crediteil, were at times ajipalling. 

Th(< theory of the populai' bi-lief. as it existed in thi> several 
cantons of thi^ l}"o(jUois league, was tiiis; The witciies ami wi/anls 
constituted iv secret association, which met at night to consult on mis- 
chief, and each was bound by inviolable sc^crccy. Tliey s,iy that tliis 
fraternitv first arose among the Niinticokes. a trib(^ of the Algontpiin 
stock. Iatte>-lv iidiabiting "astei'u I'ennsylvania. A witch or wizard 
had power, they believed, to turn into a fox or wolf, and run very 
swiftlv. endtting llaslies of light. Tln-y could also frMiisfoiin th'-iii- 
Hc'ves int() turke\;; ,>r big, and tlv verv fast. If detected or hoth 
pu'suetl. they could change into stones or rotter logs. They sought 
C( refully to procure tlm poison of snakes or poisonous roots to effect 
tiioir purpose. They could blow hairs or worms into a person. 

Then^ was formerly n tradition among the Onondagas that an old 
man of thiMr ti'ibe, living on the Knaninht ci'e(>k. where llieri> wiis. in 


rin: amejucan indian. 

old timeis, >i |)upulous IiuUhii village, iiiul that one evening, whilst he 
livf'tl thi're. lie stepped out of his li)d<;e, ami on doing so immediately 
sank into the eartii and found himself in a lar<'e room, surrounded hv 
three hundred witehes and viKards. Next morning ho went to the 
council anil told the chiefs of this extraonlinary occurrence. They 
asked him if ho could ideniifv persons ho saw there; he said tirat ho 
could. They tiien accompanied him to all the lodges, where he pointed 
out tliis and that one. wliereupon they were marked for execution. 
I3efore this inquiry was ended, u very large numher of both sexes were 
killed for 1 ling witches. 

Another tradition says that aboui fifty persons, charged witli 
b'Mug witches, were biirned to death at the Onondaga casth\ The 
witchcral't dehision prevailed among al' tlie cantons. The last persons 
executed for witdicraft among the Oneidas, it is said, were two females, 
about the year isOO. the executioner being the notoriims Hon Yost of 
Ilevolut'v>nary Jiiemory. and the execution was done in accordance with 
tlie d(*oree of tlie council, the mod(> l)eing tliat of striking the victims 
with tiie tomahawk. 

The Indian jioir-iroirti, i-onjnrers or medicine men. (synonymous 
terms), in general, united witchcraft with the applicatio'i of tlieir 
medicines. Witclies and wizards wore persons supposed In tossess 
tiie agency of familiar spirits, from whom they received power tointlict 
diseases on their en"mies. and prevent the good luck of tiie huntei- and 
the success of the warri(U\ They were believed to Hy invisil)h> at 
pleasure from place to place, and to turn themselves into bears, wolves, 
foxes, and, in short, into animals of all descriptions. Sucii change 
they ])retended to accomplish l>y putting on the skins •>*' .Mich animals, 
at the same time civinir and howlin'T in imitation of the aninnd tliev 
wished to represent. Tiio Imliaiis said tln'v had seen and heard 
witches in the shape of these animals, I'speciaily tht* bear and the fox. 

Tiiey said wlien a witch, in the shape of u bear, was being chased, 
all at once it wo-.dd I'lm around a tree i r a hill, so as to be lost sight of 
for a time by its |<ursuers. and then, instead >>( seeing a liear. they would 
helu.ld an old woman walking (|uietly along, or picking up roots, and 
looking as innocent as a lamb. The fi.x witches, they said, were 
known by the fhiiiie ol' tire which proceeded out of tin-ir mouths every 
time they barked. 

It is tt> be noted that the inirnnmy of opinion l)i>t\i . en the Indian 
and the white man, in regunlto witches, in one respect, is (piite remark- 
able. The wiiite man. especially the I'uritan, in general, markiHl the 
person of a witch as an old woman. This was the gtnieral character- 
istic oT Indian belief. It is said tlial an Indian council, in cinidemning 



n person for being a witch, lid so with <;rent oantion. U^st tlio conjunn' 
shouKl iret the mlvantiii'e over them and thus bewitcii the whole asst-iii- 
bly. If. therefore, the witch was an innocent ohl woman, she would be 
less liable, for want of physical capacity, to turn around and bewitch her 

The ; elf-righteous. Christian white man, who has delighted in his 
criticisms upon the character of the red man for his ignorant, unfounded 
super.stitions. may draw consolatit)n, in his assumption, from tiie juilg- 
ment rendereil by the learned Sir Mathew Hale, befoi-e referred to, 
wherein Amy Duniiy and Jli>se Cullender, two harmless old wom»'n of 
the vicinity, were convicted and condemned to be burned at the stake, 
at St. Edmondslmry, on the charge of bewitciiing two neighboring 
chililren. In addresaing the jury, he charged them that tln'n* were 
two things they had to intpiire into. First, whether or not these 
children were bewitched; secondly, whether these women did bewitch 
them. He said he did not, in the least, doubt there were witches. 
First, because the scriptures idlirm it; seeoiidly. because the wisdom of 
all nations, |)articuliirly their own. had provided laws against witi'hcrafl, 
which iniplieil their belief of siu'h a crime. 


WHITE MAN'h witch— I'.HT HV ll.n.MlNd. 
If she lldtiis 1)11 the wiili'i nIii" it ii witeli. If »lii' i iiikH nnil dro'viis -.lie is pr'ni'ii not a wluli. 

The Christian white man. wlio his indulged so much in I'is intoj- 
erent criti"isms upon tln^ Indian charK<'t'>i- f,ir Ids bariianms practices 
junl ill-founded superstitions, assuming so much perfection ftir liisown 
race ill thi.« regard, should take the trouble to rend a itiief chapter on 
the in'h'li Wff«/fj, set out in INIackay's work, entitled •■ Hxtraonlinaiy 
Popular Delusions." He will find a history here of superstitious 
beli>'fs and barbarous conduct of the Christian whitt> man which far 
eclipses the most extremt> illustrations of Imiian barbarity ever recordeil 
ugaiihHt that people. 

The career (pf one Mathew Hopkins, whom the writer af tresaid 
styles an "ill weed." who tlourished amidst tlielong dissensions of the 



civil wni* ill England, in the time of Cromwell, and who was styled tlie 
'■ WitcJi Finder General, " as occurring in an age of enlighteninent and 
learning, seems almost incredible, even of a half civilized country 

But witches were not confined to the Old World. They followed 
the Puritan and Christian adventurer in tlieir emigration to >iew 
England and Virginia, and here the judicial horror of the Old World 
was continued in the condemnation and execution of 'niioceut old 
women and Jianuless individuals; and, in one case, a writer observes, 
"It can hfirdlv increase our feelings of disgust and horror that this 
insane community actually tried and executed a dog for the same 

Matthew Hopkmt^Witck Fm<lc>' GenertlL 

w iiriK MAN s w urn i imuiii. 

Tliin illunlruliKii, iipri'MiitiiiK Muttlii'W Hu|ikin!< t'MiiiiluiiiK two witclicK who arc I'onri'itiiii.ft to liini 
the iia?iu'!i of IlK'lr iiiipn iiiiil I'amlllnrn, N C(ipir<l from CaullifUl'ii Memoirs of I{piiiarknl>lf I'rr-iins, IT'.M, 
wlitri' il in tuki'M from an vxtremcly rare |iriiil. 


Tho Amerionn Tribes had ii Custom of I-'asts uinl Foasts— Ciistoiu of Fasts Not 
Froiineut— Custom of Feasts Quite Freciueiil— Feasts a Favorite Source of Fx- 
citemeut— UitVereul Kinds of Feasts anioiitr DitTerent Natinns — Feasts ol' llie 
White DoK Universal —lieueral llesemblani'i- <>f Feasts auioun All — The Man 
who (lave Many Foasts a Groat Favorite with bis Tribe — Feasts amou^' the 
Ojibways— Medicine Foiist— Feasts for Dreams— Feast of (Sivinj,' Names ^War 
Feast—The (treat Feast — Wabweno Feast — Feast for the Dead — Feast for His 
Medic.iue^Boys' Feast — llt>j,'uhir P'easts of tiie Tnxiuois— Maple Feast — I'lantiiii: 
Festival— ytrawberry Festival— Green ('oru Festival— Harvest Festival — Ni'W 
Year's Festival — Fasts Strictly a Reli(,'ious Custom. 


I'runi an nlil |iiclure. 

'HE flistolll of iastilijjf 

Wt.'' ;\ aii(ir<>nstiiij,^|Hfvailf(| 

' .1 C( Minoiig nil tho .\ineri- 

^^ can tiiix's. The df- 

casions on wjiicli fastiii",' was 

t'lijoiiu'd Wfl'c. however, not 

so very frp(iueiit. Rie^orons 

and loiijj-continued t'astin>r 

was enjoined u|)nn the youn<j, 

nnnniiried persons of hoth 

sex"s. l)eo;iiiiiiii;f lit a very 

earlv a^fe. To l»e aiile to 

continne Ion;; fastiii<' con- 

ferrnd an onviid)l<> distiiiotion: the Indians tlierefoie enjoined npon 

tlieir children tiie necessity of remaining; 1""^' withont food. This 

custom, it is said by .some, was for the purpose of inuring' their 

cliildron to Ptiduro Imnjjer in case of want from lack of a stipply of 

food, whicli so often occnrred in Indian life: and it may iiave been 

partly desij,'ned for this end. Itiit all tho circninstances wiiicii nccoin- 

paii\' these fasts leave no room to douht that relijxion \\as tln^ principal 

motive, and tin* bettor o|)inion seems to be tiiat this custom of fastiiiif 

wnB from relifjions Kn|)orstition. thron;,'h whicli they received some 

spiritual benefit. Sometitnes the cli ilrt>ii fasted throe, five, seven, and 

8omo, it is said, ovon ten days, in all of which time tiiey took only ii 




little water, and that at distant intervals, durini^ which they paid par- 
ticular attention to their dreams, from the eluuaeter of which their 
parents, to whom they related them, formed an opinion uf the future 
life of the child. 

Dreaniijij,' of thin<^8 above, as birds, clouds, and the sky, was con- 
sidered favorable. In these dreams, also, the children received 
im[>ressions which continued to influence their character through life. 
An instance is related of a distini,'uislu'd wairio.', who ilreamed in his 
(iuldho)il, when fasting, that a bat came to him, whereupon ho chose 
tiiis animal for his medicine or guardian spirit. Throughout his life 
lie wore the skin of a bat tied to the crown of his head, and in his war 
excursions he went into batth» exulting in confidence that his enemies, 
who could not hit a bat on the wing, would never i)i) able to hit him. 
He distinguished himself in many battles, and killed many of his ene- 
mies; bui, throughout his long life, no bullet ever touched him ; all of 
which he attributed to the protecting influence of his medicine or 
guardian s[)ir't 'I'vealed to him in answer to his fasting in boyiiood. 

Feasts among all the American tribes were frecpu'nt, of which tlie 
different kinds and occasions among some tribes were <juite numerous. 
When the chiefs were ct)nvened on any pid)lic business they generally 
concluded with a feast, at which time their festivities and mirth )<new 
no l)oun(ls. There were, iiniong all the tribes, certain stated feasts or 
festivals; but, as the Indian kept no special note of time, as that of the 
annual recurrence of certain ihiys in the year, the observances of these 
fensts were suggt^sted by the changing of tin^ seasons, the ripening of 
the fruits, or the gathering of the harvest; tiie time of these feasts and 
festivals, therefore, being regulated in this manner. 

According to John Tanner, among the Ojibways, the parent stock 
of tiie Algon(puns, there were nine established feasts: 

First. Mc-liii-irr-hi(ni-(l)--iriii, Medicints feast, or that feasting 
which forms a part of tiieir grt^at religiinis ceremony, the Mffai. This 
is under th(< direction of some old men. who are called chiefs for the 
Mcliii. and onlv the initiated are admitted. The irnests are invited l)v 
a Mi-'.liiii-iio-inifi. or »'hief"s man of l)nsiness. who delivi^rs to each of 
the guests a small stick: in tiie Soutii, they use snndl pieces of cane; 
in the North, <piills, which are dyed and kept for the pur|)ose, are 

ometinn-s substituted. 

«o verl>al messaj^e i> 

delivered with this 

token. iJogs ai'i' always I'hosen for the feast, iiom a belief thatasthev 
are nion* sagacious and useful to men, so they will be more acceptable 
to their divinities than any othei' aninnds. They believe that the food 
they eat at this and some other of their feasts asc>>nds. though in a 
form invisible to tin>in. to the (rr itSpiiit. JJesides the songs chanted 



on occasions of this feast, they have numerous oxliortations from tli«' 
old men. Amon^ mucli of unintelli<^il)lo allusion and ridiculous 
boasting, those addresses contain some moral precepts and exliortations. 
intermixed with their traditionary notions concerning X<i-ii(i-liiisli and 
other personages of their mythology. Whenever the name of tlie 
Great Spirit is uttered by the s[)eHker, all the audience seem wrapped 
in the deepest attention, and respond to it by the interjection Kini-ho- 
ho-lio-lio-lio.' the first syllable being uttered in a c^uick and loud tone, 
and each of the additional syllables fainter and tpiicker. until it ceases 
to be heard. They say the s[)eaker touches the Great S[)irit when he 
mentions the name, and the etfect on the audience may be compared to 
a blow on a tense string, which vibrates shorter and shorter, until it is 
restored to rest. This peculiar interjection is also used by tln^ Dtta- 
was, when tliey ')h)w or shoot with their medicint^ skins at the persons 
to be initiated. 

This is a sort of special feast, participated in only liy a certain 
class caHed the Mcddiriii, or society of tlie Main, more particularly 
described in another chapter of this work, entitled "Secret Societies." 

Second. \V<ii\i-jc-t<ili Wc-Loou-dc iriii. Feasts called for bv 
dreams. Feasts of this kind may be held at any tinn'. and no particu- 
lar (jualitications are necessary in the entertainer or his guests. The 
word l\'((iii-ji'-f(tlt nu'ans common, or true, as they often use it in con- 
nection with the names of |ilants or animals, as Wiiiii-Jc-hili O-iiink- 
kiik-ki\ nu'aning a right or [)roper toail, in distinction from a tree frog 
or lizard. 

Tliird. W'cfii-iliili-inis-so-in'ii. Feast of giving names. These 
are luul principally on occasion of giving names to children, and the 
guests are expected ti> eat all, be it more or less, that is put into their 
dishes by the entertainer. The reason they assign for retjuiring. at 
this aixl sevi'val other feasts, all tiuit has been cooked to be eaten, is, 
apparently, very insutlicient; namely, that tht>y do so in imitation of 
hawks, and some (tther birds of prey, who never return a seeund time 
to what they have killetl. 

Konrth. Mi--iiis-sc-ii(> Wc-koon-dc-iriii. Wnv feast. These feasts 
are made liefore starting, oi' on tht^ way towards the enemy's country. 
Two, lour, eight, or twelve men. may be called, but bv no nn'ans an 
odd iMunber. The whole animal, win^ther deer, l)ear, or moose, or 
whatever it may iai, is cooked, and they an^ expected to tmt it all; and. 
if it is in their power, tiu'y have a large bowl of bear's grease ^tand- 
ing l)y, which they drink in place of water. Notwithstanding tliat a 
man who fails to ent all his portion is liable to the ridicule of his more 
gormandi/ing companions, it freijuently happens that some of them 




are compelled to make a present of tobacoo to their entertainer, and 
beg him to permit that they may not eat all he has given them. In 
thJH and when there is no one of the company willing to eat it 
for him, some (»no is called from without. In every part of this feast, 
when it is made after tiie warriors leave iioine, they take care that no 
Itoiic of llic aiiiiiial rofcii xhiill he broken; but after stripping the flesh 
from them, they are carefully tied up ami hung upon a tree. The 
reason tliey assign for preserving, in this feast, the bones of the victim 
uid)r(iken, is, tiiat tlius they may signify to tlie Great Spirit their 
desire to r«'turn home to their own country with their bones uninjured. 

Filth, (iilvlic Wc-hooit-dc-iriii, Tiie great feast. This is a feast 
of high [iretensions, which few men in any band, and only those of 
principal autliority, can venture to make. The animal is cooked 
entire, so far as they are able to do it. This kind is sometimes called 

Sixth. \\'<iir-hiin-)in Wc-lionn-dc-wiu, Wawbeno feast. This, 
and the other mummeries of the AVawbeno, which is looked upon as a 
false and mischievous heresy, are now laid aside by most respectable 
Indians. These feasts were celebrated witii much noise and disturb- 
ance, and wore distinguished from all other feasts by being held 
commonly in the night time, and the showing off of nniny tricks with 

Seventh. Jt'-Ui Xair-kd-irin, Feast with the dead. This feast is 
eaten at tlm graves of their ileceased frienils. They kindle a tire, and 
each person, before ho begins to eat, cuts off a small piece of meat, 
which he casts into the tiro. The smoke and smell of this, they say, 
attracts the Jc-hi to come anil eat with them. It may here be men- 
tioned that the C'iiinese also have the custom of similar feasts. 

Eighth. ('lic-lKih-k(>o-cltc-(i(i-nuit. Feast tor his medicine. Dur- 
ing one whole day in spring, and another in autumn, every good 
hunter spreads out the contents of his medicine bag in the back part 
of liis lodge, and feasts his neighbors in honor of his medicine. This 
is considered a solemn and important feast, like that of Mcloi. 

Ninth. O-skin-nc-nc-tiili-iid-n'iii, Boys' feast. This might be 
called the feast of the first fruits, as it is made on occasion of a boy, or a 
young hunter, killing his first animal of any particular kind. From 
the sniallest bird or a lish, to a moose or buffalo, they are careful to 
observe it. 

According to Mr. Morgan, six regular festivals, or thanksgivings, 
were observed by the Iro([uois. Tlie first in order of time was the 
Maple festival. This was a return i>f thanks to the maple itself, for 
yielding its sweet waters. Next was the Planting festival, designed 



chiefly as an invocation of the Great Sjiiiit to bless the seed. Tliird 
came the Strawberry festival, instituted as a tlmnks^ivinj^ for the first 
fruits of the earth. The fourth was the Green Corn festival, designed 
as a thanks<,'iving acknowledgment for the ripening of the corn, beans 
and squashes. Next was celebrated the Harvest festival, instituted as 
a general thaidvsgiving to "our supporters" after the gathering of the 
harvest. Last in the enumeration is placed the New Year's festival, 
the great jubilee of the Iroquois, at which the white dog was sacri- 

O-ld-dr-nonc-nc-o X(i-ir<t-t<t, or Thanks to the Maple. This, as 
before mentioned, was the first stated feast or festival of the year, 
held in the spring, and usually called the Mnj)lc ddiicc. The primary 
idea in the ceremonial was to return thanks to the maple itself: at tiio 
same time they reiulered their thanks to the Great Spirit for tiie gift 
of the maple. This occasion lasted but iov one day. At the season 
when the sa[) commenced to run, the kee[)ers of the faith, who were 
persons specially apiKiinted in each tribe for religious cermonial i)ur- 
])()ses, annimnced the time and p-lace for commemorating tiie occurrence 
of this event, and summoned the people to assemble for tiiat purpose. 
Several days beforehand, the people assembled for the mutual confes- 
sion of their sins, both as an act of religious duty and as a pre[)ara- 
tii in for the council. This preliminary council was called a meeting 
for repentance, and was opened by one of the keepers of the faith, 
with an address upon tiie jtropriety and importance oc acknowledging 
their evil deeds to strengthen tiieir minds against future temptations. 
Old and young, men. women and children, all united in this public 
acknowledgment and joined in the common resolution of amendment. 
One of the keepcn-s of the faith first set the example of confession by 
taking a string of white wampum in his hand, after wiiich ho handed 
the string to the one nearest to him, who made his confession in like 
manner, and passed it to another, and soon around among all a-ssem- 
bled. It was the wampum which recorded tluMr words and gave their 
pledge of sincerity. 

On the morning of the day of this festival, the matrons to whom the 
duty was assigned commenced the [)reparation of the customary least, 
which was as sumptuous as the season and their limited nnuins would, 
afford. Towards mid-day the outdoor sports and games, wliich were 
common to such occasions, were suspended, and the people a8send)led 
in council. An opening sj)eech was then delivered bv one of the 
keepers of the faith, of which, according to Mr. Morgan, the follow- 
ing was the usual form: 

"Friends and Eklatives: The sun, the ruler of the dav, is 



Iii^'li in his ])atli, iiiul wo must liiiHtoii lo do <Hir duty. Wo lun nssoni- 
blod ti) obsorvo iiu uncieiit custom. Jt Ik an institution liiiiuloil down 
to UH by our forefiithors. It was ^ivon to them by tlio C}ri>nt S|)irit. 
lie lifi;. I'viT ro(|uirod of liis people to return thanks to liini Tor all 
ble.ssing8 rooeived. Wo luivo always endeavored to live faithl'ul to this 
wise command. 

" Trienils and relatives, continue to listen: It is to perform this 
duty that we are this day jjjathered. The season when the maple tree 
yields its sweet waters has a^ain returned. W(> nw all tliankfid that 
it is so. Wo therefore exptn-t all of you to join in our ^eiiiial tlianks- 
<,'ivinf? to the maple. We also expect you to join in a thanksirjvintr to 
th(> Great S[)irit. who has wisely madi! this tree for the jrood of man. 
Wc hope and expect that order and harmony will prevail. 

'• Friends and relatives: We are <jfratilied to see s<i many here, and 
wo thank you all that you have thou^dit well of this matter. We thank 
the (Ireat Spirit that he has been kind to so many of us. in sparin""' 
our lives to participate a^ain in the festivities ot this season. Xa-lm.'' 

The Irocjuois generally conchuhnl their customs with the word 
y<i-li(), si<j;nifyint^ "I have done." Other 8i)eeches, in the nature of 
exhortations to duty, followed from various persons and sages assend)led 
among the multitude. These weni followed by a dance, usually that 
whicii was called the (Ivcdl lu'dlhcr (lance ( O-xlo-ircli-ijo-ivd I. which was 
performed by a select band in full costume, n^sorved for religious 
councils and great occasions. Other dances folhnved, in which all 
participatetl. JJeforo the ceremonies were ended the thanksgiving 
address was mad(( to the Gnmt Spirit, with the burning of tobacco as 
an oll'ering, after which the pi'ople partook of tli(> feast, then se[)arated, 
aud repaired to their homes 

A-iicnI-ird-lii. or Planting festival. This word signifies the plant- 
ing season. When this season arrived, it was always observed by a 
feast or festival. The season of planting was usually determined by 
ccM'tain manifestations in nature or j)rogress of vegetation, as that of 
tlie voice of the whippoorwill, or that wht>n the leaves of the trees 
became as large as a mouse's ear. This, like that of the Maple festi- 
val, continued but one day, and in its observances and ceremonies was 
siiiiilar to that occasion. The following is the form of the opening 
adilress generally in use among tlie8en(!cas in this latter fi>stival: 

''Great Si)irit. who dwellest alone, listen n(>w to the words <jf thy 
peo])le here assendjled. The smoke of our olfering arises. (}ive 
kind attention to our Avords, as they arise to thee in the smoke. Wo 
thank thee for this return of the planting season. (live us a good 
season, that our crops may l)e plentiful. 

IWsrs AM) I T.ASTS. 


"riintiiiuo to listen, for tin* smoke yet arises. (Tlirowinj; on 
tol)iic'co). Preserve us from all pestilential (iiseases. (iive stren<,'tli 
to us all. that wo may not fall. Proservo our old nu'n amonj^ us, and 
protoct tho younj;. Help us to celeljrat^ with feelin;; the ceremonies 
of this season, (xuide tho minds of thy people, that they may remem- 
ber theo in all their actions. \(i-ln>.'' 

Tho conclndin;,' addrt!ss was as follows: 

"Great Spirit, listen to the words of thy sntTeriii>,' children. 
They como to theo with pure minds. If they have done wron^'. they 
have confessed, and turned their minds (at the same time hi>ldiii^' U|) 
tho string of white wampum with which the coid'ession was recorded i. 
]>(* kind to us. Hear our i,'rievances, and supply our wants. Direct 
that Ifc-iio nniy come, and <;ive us rain, that our Sujjporters may not 
fail us. and i)rin<^ famine to our homes. Xa-hi)." 

Jl<i-iniii-il(i'-ii(i. or Jierry festival. In the pro<jre8s of tho season, 
next cani(> the Strawlteri'v festival, the earth's first fruit of tiie season. 
The IrtKjuois seized upon this spontaneous <,Mt't of the (ireat Spirit, or 
ns they styled iiim Jl<i-ircii-iic-ijii. as another suitaiile occasion for a 
feast or festival of thanks<;iviii.y. The oiiscrvances at this festival were 
substantially tho same as those at the festival of the .Maple, with vaiia- 
tions of terms to desi<.,niate the particular occasion, which was concluded 
with a feast of strawbci ries mixed with nuiple su^nii'. prepared in tlir 
form of a jelly, upon wliicli the people feasted. The ri|ienin<; of tli<« 
whortleberry was often made the occasion of another festival in like 
manner and invni as tin* Strawberry ft>stival. 

Ali-<l((k(''-ini-<i. or (Ireen Corn festival. Tiiis word, or that from 
which it is derived, si<,niities a feast. It continued four days, the [irti- 
ceedin^s of each day beini; dilVerent in many essential particulars, but 
each terminating' with a feast. When the <^M('en corn became tit for 
uso the Indian mado it another occasion for feasting, rejoicin*^, and 
ifeneral thanks<^ivin<^ to the (Ireat Spirit. On the first day of this fes- 
tival, after introductory s|)e( .'hes were made, the Feather daiu'o. the 
thanksyivin^f address, with the burninj,' t)f tobacco, and throe or four 
other dances, made up the principal exorcises. Tho second day com- 
menced with till* usual address, after which they had a tluinks<fivin^' 
dance, which was the principal relij^ious exercise of the day, inter- 
s[)ersed with tliaid;s;,nvin^ speeches and son>f8. Tho followin<,' is a 
collection of these thanks',Mvinf,' s[M*eches. well illustrating' the Indian's 
grateful character and devotion to the (treat Spirit: 

"We return thanks to our mother, tho earth, which sustains us." 

"AVo return thanks to the rivers and streams, which supply us 
with water." 




''' IIIM lillM 
■•' IIIM ~" 







^ 6" — 







WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) U72-4b03 






" We return thanks to all herbs, which furnish medicine for the 
cure of our diseases." 

" We return thanks to the corn, and her sisters, the beans and 
squashes, which give us life." 

'• We return thanks to the bushes and trees, which provide us with 

"We return thanks to the wind, which, moving the air, has ban- 
ished diseases." 

"We return thanks to the moon and itars, which have giveu to us 
their light when the sun was gone." 

"We return thanks to our grandfather. He-no. that he has pro- 
tected his grandchildren fro)n witches and reptiles, and \\i\r given to us 
his rain." 

" We return thanks to the sun, that he has looked u[)on the earth 
with a beneficieut eye. Lastly, we return thanks to the Great Spirit, 
in whom is embodied all goodness, and mIio directs all things for the 
good of his children." 

The third morning was set apart for a thanksgiving concert, called 
the Alt-do-ircli, which constituted the chief ceremony of the day. The 
occasion was o[)ened by an appropriate introductory speech from one 
of the keepers of the faith. The ceremonies or worship consisted of a 
succession of short speeches from different persons, one after another, 
returning thanks to a great variety of ol)jects, each one folloAving his 
speech with an a[)proi)riate song, the words of which, and sometimes 
the music also, were of liis own composing. In a chorus to each song, 
all the people joined, after which two or three dances Avere introduced 
before the enjoyment of the feast, with which the proceedings of the 
day terminated. On the fourth day, the festival was concluded witii 
the peach stone game. Gus-(i(i-<(, a game of chance on Avhich they 
wagered profusely. 

Da-ijo-nun'-nvo-qim Xa Dc-o-hd'-ko. or Harvest festival. After 
the gathering of the harvest, the Iroquois held another great thanks- 
giving for four days. The name given io this festival signifies 
"Thanksgiving to our Supporters." It was instituted primarily, it is 
said, to return thanks to the corn, beans and stpiashes, which were also 
characterized by the Iroquois under this figurative name, our support- 
ers, (the same as we are in the habit of calling bread ilw shiff of life), 
also to the tribe of spirits who are so intimately connected, in their 
minds, with these plants themselves, that they are nearly inseparable. 
The resulting object, however, of all these Indian rites, was praise of 
Ha-tocn-ne-ipi. In occasions under this head, the ceremonies and fes- 
tivities of each day resembled that of the Green Corn festival. 




The poet Longfellow, in his " Song of Hiawatha," thus refers to 
the Harvest festival or Feast of Mondatnin: 

" Aud still later, when the Aiitninu 
Chaugeil tlie long, i^voen leaves to yellow, 
Aud the soft and juicy kernels 
Grew like wampum hard aud yellow, 
Tlieu the ripened ears ho gathered. 
Stripped the withered husks from off thtni, 
As ho once had stripped the wrestler, 
Gave the first feast of Mondainiu.'' 

Gi-ye-wa-no-ns-qua-ijo-wa, or New Year's jubilee. The name 
given this festival literally signifies "The most excellent faith/' or 
'"the supreme belief," the Avord being analyzed as follows: Gi-ijc'-ati, 
faith or belief ; iio-ns-qiia (superlative), excellent or best; and (jo'-iva, 
great or supreme. The ceremonies, on this occasion, were such as 
were deemed by the Iroquois appropriate in ushering in the New Year. 
This religious ceremony was held in midwinter, about tiie first of Fel)- 
ruary, and continued for seven successive days, revealing in its cere- 
monials nearly every feature in their religious system. Tlie most 
prominent peculiarity characterizing tliis jubilee, and indicating what 
they understood by the most excellent faith, was the burning of the 
white dog, on tlie fifth day of the festival, or feast of the white dog, 
a custom prevailing generally throughoitt all the tribes of the conti- 
nent — another evidence in their customs strcmgly marking tlie unity of 
the American tribes. Among other ceremonies during this festival 
was the following, as given by Mr. Morgan: 

" The observances of the new year were commenced on the day 
appointed, by two of the keepers of tlie faith, who visited every house 
in and about the Indian village, morning and evening. They were 
disguised in bear skins or buffalo robes, which were secured around 
their heads with wreaths of corn -husks, and then gathered in loose 
folds about tlie body. Wreaths of corn-husks were also adjusted 
around their arms and ankles. They were robed in tiiis manner, and 
painted by the matrons, wlio, like themselves, were keepers of the 
faith, and l>y them were they commissioned to go forth in this formi- 
dable attire, to announce the commencement of the jubilee. Taking 
corn-pounders in their hands, they went out in company, on the morn- 
ing of the day, to j)erform their duty. Ui)on entering a house, tliey 
saluted the inmates in a formal manner, after which one of them, strik- 
ing upon the fioor to restore silence and secure attention, thus addressed 

'"Listen, Listen, Listen; The ceremonies which the Great Spirit 
lias commanded us to perform are about to commence. Prepare your 





luKxses. Clear away the rubbish. Drive out all evil nnimals. We 
wish nothing to hinder or obstruct the coining observances. AVe 
enjoin upon every one to obey our requirements. Should any of your 
friends be taken sick and die, we command you not to mourn for them, 
nor allow any of your friends to mourn. But lay the body aside, and 
enjoy the coming ceremonies -with us. AVhen they are over, we will 
mourn Avith you.' After singing a short thanksgiving song they 
passed out." 

The foregoing injunction of these "keepers of the faith" singu- 
larly finds a corresponding incident in the gospel of St. Luke, wherein 
it is written: "And ho said unto another. Follow me. But he said, 
Lord, sulfer me first to go and bury my father. Jesus said untf) him, 
Let the dead bury their dead; but go thou and preach the kingdom 
of God. And another also said, Lord, I will follow thee; but let me 
first go bid them farewell, which are at home at ni}' house. And 
Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and 
looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God." St. Luke, ix, 59, (iO, 
61, 02. 

In this cf)nnecti(ni Mr. Morgan pays the following tribute to the 
devotional s[)irit and religious character of the Indian: 

"The fruits of their religious sentiments, among themselves, 
were peace, brotherly kindness, charity, hospitality, integrity, truth 
and friendshi]); and towards the Great Spirit, reverence, thankfulness 
and faith. More Avise than tiie Greeks and Romans in this great par- 
ticular, they concentrated all divinity into one Supreme Being; nnu'e 
confiding in the- people than the priestly class of Egypt, their religious 
teachers brought down the knowledge of tiie 'Unutterable One' to 
the minds of all. Eminently pure and spiritual, and internally con- 
sistent with each other, the beliefs and the religious ceremonies of the 
Innpiois are worthy of a respectful consideration." 


Coincidences with Nations of the Old World— No Fear of Death— Ceremonies Miioh 
Like the Jews— Relatives of the Deceased put ou Coarse (tanuents- Women as 
"Hired Mourners '■—Offering Made Duriii},' Time of Mourning"- ()jil)ways— 
Custom- Attended with Much Interest -Otferiiiw Pood to the D.-ad Cremation 
among Some Trihes— Instance ilL^lated -Mourning Cradle of Child— Custom 
Never to Mention Name of the Deceased— Bury Body East and West— Reasons 
Therefor— No Enduring Monuments. 


.'ANY of the iiicide^nts 


and customs rt'liited 
^^■-V under this head lead 
-Hyip-i^^ us to note the re- 
ninrkahle coincidence -witli 
those we find in tlie customs 
among nations of t)ie Old 
Wttrld, thereby affording fin- 
other instance afKrinini; the 
theory of the aftinity of the 
American Indians with tlie 
inhabitants of the other con- 

To " the man without fear — this stoic of the wood," death has no 
terror. Its coming is rather an event of joy. He meets his sitm- 
mons to the land of th'3 Eternal with the hope of fairer fields and 
hai)[)ier hunting-grounds. Calm and unmoved in spirit, the Indian 
faces death. His fortitude, as he makes his exit from this life, even 
from youth to old age, tinder all circumstances, has been the theme of 
much comment and unsettled opinion. Death to the red man is only 
a release horn all the ills of the present existence, and he goes 
onward to eternal life with a fearless faith in a future of never idilinir 

The ceremonies that attend upon the death and V)urial of any 
member of an Inilian tribe or family, are much like those recorded of 
like ceremonies among the Jews of the olden time. 



When a death occurs, the near relatives of the deceased put on 
coarse and tattered ffarments, l.iacken their faces, and, sitting u^wn the 
floor near the departed, bo\va\l tlieir dead in tones of the deepest grief 
and despair. In many of the tribes the custom of calling in women 
as " hired monrners," to aid in honoring the dead, prevails. These 
women take their places near the body of the deceased, and keep up a 
constant wail until exhausted, when another set take their places, and 
thus the mourning and great lamentation is kept up until after the 
burial. The coarse garments are worn a year, which is the usual time 
of mourning for a deceased parent, husband or ivife. 

The first few days after the death of the relative are spent in 
retirement and fasting. During the whole of their mourning, they 
make an offering of a poition of their daily food to the dead, and this 
they do by putting a part of it in the fire, which burns while they are 
eating. They deem this very acceptable on account of its igniting 
the moment it touches the fire. Occasionally they visit the grave of 
the dead, and there make a feast and an offering to the departed spirit. 
Tobacco is never forgotten at these times. All the friends of the dead 
will, for a long time, wear leather strings tied around their wrists and 
ankles for the purpose of reminding them of their deceased relatives. 

At the expiration of a year, the widow or widower is allowed to 
marry again. Should this take place before the year expires, it is con- 
sidered not only a want of affection for the memory of the dead, but 
a great insult to the relations, who have a claim on the person during 
the davs of mourning. 

Among the Ojibways, a custom observed by the widows was that 
of tying up a bundle of clothes, somewhat in the form of a small 
child, frequently tastefully ornamented, and which she would carry 
about or have constantly near her. as a memorial of her departed hus- 
band. When the days of mourning were ended, a feast was prepared 
by some of her relatives, at which she appeared in her best attire, 
Laving for the first time in twelve moons washed herself all over, when 
she again looked neat and clean. 

We are informed that both among the Ojibways and other Indian 
tribes, it was a custom to cutoff a lock of hair in remembrance of their 
deceased children, especially young infants, and to wrap it up in paper 
and gay ribbons. Around it they laid the playthings, clothes, and 
amulets of the departed child. These formed a tolerably long parcel, 
which was fastened up crosswise with strings, and could be carried like 
a doll. 

They gave the doll a name, signifying " misery " or " misfor- 
tune," and which may be best translated "the doll of sorrow." This 




lifeless object took the place of the deceased child. The 
mother carried it about for a whole year, and placed it near her at tlie 
fire, sigliiug often when gazing upon it. Slie also took i*^ on her 
travels, like a living child. The leading idea was that this helpless 
child, as it did not know how to walk, could not find its way into jiara- 
dise. The mother could therefore help its soul on the journey byc<m- 
tinually carrying about its representative. This they carried about till 
they fancied the spirit of the child had grown suflicieutly to be able to 
help itself along. 

When the year of grief was ended, a family feast was prepared, 
the bundle vinfastened, and the clothes and other articles given away, 
but the lock of hair was buried. 

The mode of burial of the dead, while strikingly similar through- 
out the tribes, varied in different localities. Mrs. Jemison, the captive 
Avhite woman of tlie Genesee, says that the general custom is to dress 
the deceased in his best garments, and place tlie body in a coffin made 
of skins or bark. With the body is placed a drinking cup and a cake, 
two or three tapers or torches, and the implements most used during 
the lifetime of the person. If he is a warrior, his weapons of war- 
fare are buried beside liini; if a hunter, his trap[)iiig8 for the chase; 
if a woman, some treasui'e of her wigwam garnishings ; if a child, its 
favorite plaything. As the coffin is lowered into the grave, the 
" burial service," Avhich consists of an address to the dead, is deliv- 
ered by the chief or person in charge of the burial. In this address, 
tiie dead is charged not to worry on his way to the " happy land," and 
not to trouble his wife, children or friends whom he has left. 

He is admonished to inform or tell all strangers whom he will 
meet, to what trilie he belongs, who his relatives are, and the condition 
in which he left them. He is assured that he will soon meet all the 
friends and relatives that have gone before him, together with all the 
famous chiefs who will receive him with joy and furnish him with the 
things needed in his home of perpetual hai)piness. After the address 
the grave is filled and left until evening, when near relatives of the 
dead build a fire near the head of it, around which they sit until inorn- 
ing. This is kept up for nine successive nights, at the end of Avliich 
time, it is believed, the departed one has reached the end of his journey. 

They carry a portion of their dail) food to the grave while the 
spirit lingers with the body. The time for its final exit varies witli the 
different tribes. 

In the case of burial of a female, she is provided with a paddle, a 
kettle and (ipckini, or carrying strap for the head, and other feminine 



Baron LaHoutnn snys of the Indians that "these good people 
believe that death is a passage to a better life. When tlio corpse is 
dressed they set it upf)n a mat in the same posture as if the person 
were alive; and his relations being around him, every one in his turn 
addresses him with u harangue, recounting his exploits with those of 
his ancestors. He that speaks last speaks to this purpose: 'You sit 
now along with us, and have the same Shapes that we have; you want 
neither Arms, nov Head, nor Legs. But at the same time you cease to 
be. and begin to evaporate like the smoke of a Pipe. Who is it that 
talked with us two Days ago? Sure, 'twas not you; for then youAvould 
speak to us still. It must therefore be your St)ul which is lodged in 
the great Country of Souls along with those of our Nation. This Body 
wliich we now behold will, in six Months' time, become what it was two 
Hundred Years ago. Thou feelest nothing, thou seest nothing, because 
thou art nothing. Nevertheless, out of the friendshii) we had for the 
Body, while animated by thy Spirit, Ave thus tender the Marks of that 
Veneration, which is due to our Brethren and our Friends.'" 

Charlevoix says that when an Indian is sick and thiid^s himself 
past recovery, he cahnly takes leave of his friends around him and 
gives orders for a feast, in which all the provisions which remain in 
the cabin must be used. His dogs are killed, that the souls of these 
animals may go into the other world, and give notice that the dying 
person will arrive there soon. All the bodies of the slaughtered dogs 
are put intt) the kettle to enlarge the feast. 

Schoolcraft says the burial ceremony among our Indian tribes is 
at all times attended with interest, from the insight they give to In- 
dian character. Some of these incontestably disclose their belief in 
the immortality of the soul, while the idea of its lingering Avith the 
body lov a time after death and I'equiring food, denotes a concurrence 
with oriental customs and beliefs. 

In modern times, with the Ojibways, Avheu a corpse is put into its 
coffin, the lid is tied, not nailed on. The reason they give for this 
is that the communication betAveen the living and the dead is better 
kt>i)t up; the freed soul, it is believed, can thus luiA'e free access to the 
newly buried body. 

Over the gra\'e a roof shaped coA'ering of cedar bark is built to 
shed the rain. A small aperture is cut through the bavk at the head 
of the graA'e. On asking an OjibAvay Avhy this Avas done, he replied: 
•"To alk)W the soul to pass out and in. You knoAV that, in dreams, Ave 
pass oA'er Avide countries, and see hills and lakes and mountains and 
many scenes, Avhich pass before our eyes and affect us. Yet, at the 
same time, our bodies do not stir, and there is a soul left Avith the body, 




else it would be dead. So, yoii must perceive, it must bo another soul 
that accompanies us." 

The offering of food and libations to the dead is one of the oldest 
rites of the human family and pervaded tlie whole Indian continent. 
This reveals a custom known to have prevailed among the peo[)le of 
India, and widely, at ancient periods, among the Mongols. 

Fires are kindled at the graves of the dead and continued for 
nights, the object being to light the spirit on its journey to the spirit 

In regard to death and burial among the Bonaks, or Root Dig- 
gers, in the region of California, the following is given, as the custom 
among this people, by an early resident of that country. Ho says; 

"After sunrise the body of the deceased was tied up in a blanket, 
which she possessed Aviien living, and borne to a 8[)i)t some hundred 
yards distant, where her funeral i)yre was being raised. The entire 
camp followed, most of whom were crying and -vvailing greatly. Tho 
body was laid on tlie ground while the pyre was being built. Tlii^ 
occupied considerable time, during winch the mourning was kept up 
in loud and wild wailings. The females were blackened around tlieir 
chins, temples, ears, and foreheads, and jumped and cried like Metho- 
dists under excitement. They often prostrated themselves upon the 
ground and. not i;nfrequently, on the body of the deceased. The pyre 
being finished, the body was placed upon it with all her beads. baskets» 
and earthly effects. This done, the pyre was fired all around, and as 
the blaze enveloped the body the mourners seemed to give way to un- 
bounded, grief. 

"I noticed one individual who gave utterance to his sorrow in loud 
and broken strains. He was naked, as were most of the men, except a 
small girdle round the u iddle. As he half cried, half sung his sorrow, 
ho would occasionally speak something distinctly, but witliout appear- 
ing to address himself to the people or any portion of them. I learned 
he was the speakei', or what njight, perhaps, on this occasion be termed 
the priest of the tribe. In the course of the ceremony, groups of 
Indians would occasionally gather around him. On one occasion, I 
observed him drawing marks in the sand as he spoke. He said: 'We 
are like these lines; to-day we are here and can be seen; but death 
takes one away, and then another, as the winds wipe out these lines in 
the sand, until all are gone.' And drawing his hand over the marks, 
he continued, 'they are all gone even now; like them, we must all be 
Aviped out, and will be seen no more.' I witnessed the burning, until 
the body was almost consumed, and during the whole time the mourn- 
ers kept up intense feelings of grief and anguish." 



The T'linkits, and other tribes of Alaska, nlsu burn their ileacl 
upon funeral pyres, with the exception of the bodies of Shdmans or 
sorcerers, which are deposited in boxes and elevated on posts. Slaves 
who die are not considered worthy of any ceremony whatever. The 
corpse of such are thrown into the sea like the carcass of a dog. 

According to an intelligent traveler who visited Alaska in 1877, 
Wiien a T'linl:it dies his relatives prepare a great feast, inviting a large 
number of guests, especially if the deceased was a chief or worthy 
member of a clan. The guests are chosen from some other clan; for 
instance, if the deceased belonged to the raven clan, the guests must 
be from the wolf clan, and vice versa. Poor persons, who are unable 
to pay the expense of such ceremony, take their dead to some distant 
cove or other place, and burn them without any display. 

When the invited guests have assembled, anil the pyre is erected, 
the corpse is carried out of the village and placed upon the fagots. 
The jiyre is then ignited in the presence of the relatives, who, however, 
take no active part in the ceremonies, confining themselves to weeping 
and howling. On such occasions many burn their hair, placing their 
heads in the flames; others cut their hair short. After the cremation 
is accomplished, the guests return to the dwelling of the deceased. If 
he was a husband, they seat themselves with the widow, who belongs to 
their clan, around the walls of the hut. The relatives of the deceased 
then appear with their hair burned or cropped, faces blackened and dis- 
figured, and place themselves within the circle of guests, sadly leaning, 
with bowed heads, upon sticks, and then begin their funeral dirges 
with weeping and howling. The guests take up the song when the 
relatives are exhausted, and thus the howling is kept up for four nights 
in succession, with brief interruptions for refreshment. 

If the deceased was a chief or wealthy person, the custom is for 
the relatives to kill one or two slaves, according to the rank of the 
dead, in order to give him servants in the other world. At the end of 
the period of mourning, or on the fourth day following the cremation, 
the relatives wash their blackened faces, and then paint them with gay 
colors; at the same time making presents to all the guests, chiefly to 
those who assisted in burning the corpse. Then the guests are feasted 
again, when the ceremony is ended. The heir of the deceased is his 
sister's son, or if he has no such relative, then tlie younger brother. 
The heir of a male is compelled to marry the widow. 

The custom of cremation, or disposition of the dead by burning 
the body, seems to have prevailed very generally among the tribes of 
the Pacific coast. 

The Indian usually seeks the highest poi it of land he can obtain 



for tho burial of his dead. The body is often buried in a sittinp; posture, 

sometimes with the limbs drawn up, and sometimes extended and in 

a reclining position. It is n custom among 

the tribes, very generally, to put up grave 

posts and paint characters u{)on them, 

denoting the number of enemies killeil, 

prisoners taken, and the like. Flags are 

often hung over the graves of chiefs and 

warriors. For other Indians a piece of 

white cotton or something of the kind is 

used instead. This custom is very ancient. 

With many tribes, when a person first dies 

ho is put upon a scaffold. The Indians 

sometimes light a fire somewhere near. 

The rubbish is all cleared away from under 

the scaifold, and everything is kept clean 

around the place. 

Witii the Sioux, if a warrior is killed 
in battle, they secure his body, dress it in painted okave post. 

the most showy manner, and bury it in a sitting posture. This is 
considered an honor due alone to warriors. It is said that the Dakotas 
make no mounds over the graves of the dead. 

When one of the Chickasaws dies, they put on him his finest 
clothing, also all his jewelry and beads. This is done that he may 
make a good appearance in the new and happy country to which he is 

The Pawnees bury their dead with the same general ceremonies 
as is recorded of other tribes. The chief persons of the band receive 
especial honors. The horse of a warrior is killed upon his grave, that 
it Kiay be at his service in the country of the dead, and bear him to the 
appointed place of rest. Tlie women are as much honored in their 
death as the men. 

There is less demonstration in the burial of children and youth 
when they ])ass on fi'om the scenes of this life, though the grief of the 
parents is often inconsolable. This grief, when the object is a son, is 
often deeply partaken of by the father, especially if the lad be grown 
and has developed forensic talents to succeed him in the chieftainship 
of the tribe or band. Black is the universal sign for mourning. It is, 
with the Indian, the symbol for death. 

When a little child dies, it is at once wrapped in a white skin, 
pinked, and painted with many colors. This is done in the presence 
of the parents. It is then placed upon a kind of sledge and carried 




to its l)urial. Prosents iiif Ix'stowtMl on lliose who assist in tht> buiifil 
of cliildnMi, tlie saiiio as for older [u^oplo. 

Among many tiiht's, the mournin<f cradle is an object of intorest. 
In lifts the Indian mother has lu-r babe Vmund to a board in an upright 
iKtsition. with its feet resting on a 'oroad ])and at the l)n8e. It is then 
placed in a light wicker cradle and slung over iit>r back. If the infant 
dies before it arrives at tiie age of seven months, the mother tills the 
empty cradle Avith black feathers and still I'arries it for the space of a 
year. During the time, nothing will induce her to be separated from 
it. She is often heard singing her wigwam lullabys and talking to 
her inanimate treasure, in the sweet k)W tones that onlv the mother's 

The delicate custom of never mentioning the name of a deceased 
friend, proves that the tenderest feelings of humanity rest in the heart 
of the Indian. If obliged to refer to the departed, it is usually done 
by speaking of some incident in which the deceased was connected; 
or tliey may say ^ referring to the (h'ad). he who was our friend, our 
couns(>lor, ..■ father, as the case may be. 

Hennepii' , ays of Indian burial, according to the customs of the 
tribes "'•' ii which he became acciuainted, that thev burv their dead in 
the manner of •. mausoleum, which they encom])ass around a^' .it 
wit) stakes or [)alisadoes, twelve or thirteen feet Jiigli. These mauso- 
leums, he says, are commonly erected in the most eminent place of 
their savage borough. They send every year solemn embassies to their 
niMghboring nations to solemnize the feast of tiie dead. All the people 
of Northern America spare nothing to honor their dead friends and rela- 
tions, whom they go to lament. They go to the mausoleum, muttering 
a sort of prayers, accompanied with tears and sighs, before the bones, 
whose memory they honor for their great exploits in peace and war. 

He says, "they have likewise a Custom of putting in the CotHn 
of the deceased of riper Years, whatever they esteem valuable. Thev 
jmt their Shoos of j)I -''ed Skins, garnished with red and black Porcu- 
pines, a pair of Tongs, a Hatchet, Necklaces of Pur[)le, a Pijje, a 
Caldron, and a pot full of Sanoniitc, or Pottage of Indian Corn, willi 
some fat Meat. If he be a Man, they l)ury him with a Gun, Powder 
and Ball; but those that have no Fire-Arms, content themselves with 
putting in their Cottin their Bows and Arrows, that when they are in 
the Coniifrij of Souls (as they phrase it) and of the Dead, they may 
make use of them in Hunting." 

The Indians chose elevated places for burial, com])letely out of 
the reach of floods or standing Avater. They were often sightly and 
picturesque points, which commanded extensive views. As they were 



without proper tools, tliny did not dig i\u<i graves deep; but lUfido them 
secure from the depreihitious of wiKl hejists hy phicin>j; over or around 
them the trunks of trees, in a suitable manner, to prevent sueh de|)re- 

Mr. Schoolcraft says, in buryin<^ they placed the body east and 
west, with the head to the east. The reason j^iven for this is, that 
they may look towards the happy land in the west. The same authoi-- 
ity remarks that no trait has commended the forest tribt^s of the olil 
area of the United States more to the respect and admiriition of the 
beholder, than the scrupulous regard with which they are found to 
remend)er the burial grounds of their ancestors, and the anguish of 
their mind at any marks of disrespect or disturbance of their bones. 
It was this element in Indian character which inspii'ed that people to 
resist, to the utmost < !" 'heir power, the ruthless invasion of the white 
man upon the Indian dcaiinin. If the white man has fought, bled and 
died for his country, so the Indian has perished alike to protect the 
graves and sacred r sting ];lace o' ms ancestors. 

Caroline <!. Jjeightot, i;> lier book entitled •' My Life at Puget 
Sound," speaking of the . ndian custom of burial and other supersti- 
tions in *he country over which she traveled, says: "At one o'' the 
portages (on Snake river") we saw some graves of chiefs, the bodies 
carefully laid in ejist and west lines and the opening of the loilge built 
over them towards the sun-rise. On a irunie near the lodge was 
stretched the hides of their horses, sacrificed to accompany them to 
another world. The missionaries congratulate themselves that these 
barbarous ceremonies are no longer obsei'ved; that the Indian is 
weaned from his idea of the liappy hunting-ground, and the sacrilegious 
thought of ever meeting his horse again is eradicated from his mind. 
I thought, with satisfaction, that the missionary really knows no more 
about the future than the Indian, who seems ill-adapted to the con- 
ventional idea of heaven. For my part, I prefer to think of him, in 
the unknown future, of retaining something of his earthly wildness 
and freedom, rather than as a white robed Saint, singing psalms and 
playing on a harp." 

The North American Indians never i-aised permanent monuments 
to perpetuate or do honor to the memory of their dead. The mounds 
and mausoleums, that have attracted so much attention, can hardly be 
regarded as built or raised for that purpose. No pillar or "storied 
urn" has been found among the relics of their past generations. 

That this is the result of their indifference to T e present life, 
and their intense fa'th in n grand and happy future, seems to be the 
most natural conclusion. 




Term Medicine— Three Distinct Professions— The Doctor of Medicine— The 
Majjician — The Prophet— Popular Idea— Dress— Medicine Bag — Its Contents- 
Its Construction— Claims of Supiematural Influence — Animal Magnetism — 
Trials of Power — A Remarkable Instance — Prophetic Gifts — Mental Telegraphy 
— Holy Garments— Robes of Mystery— Robes of State — Judicial Ermine Obser- 
vances in Regard to Medicine Men— In Regard to Smoking— Tetotalism and 
Chastity of Women. 

f!|^Y the term medicine, here used, m\ich 
more is implied than mere curative drugs, 
[^ or a system of curative practice, in the 
"•rji' ills of the human system. As an adjec- 
tive, it embraces the idea of supernatural, as 
well as remedial practice, in healing the sick. 
The Indian medicine man is an individual, 
in Indian life, whose office or calling, in the 
popular mind of the white man, has been ill- 
defined, and vaguely understood. This arises 
largely from the term medicine, applied to him, 
a term which we have become accustomed to 
using to designate this individual, an error 
which comes, doubtless, from a mistranslation or misunderstanding of 
the term usually employed to designate the person. A more accurate 
translation would give us, in our language, the word " mystery " in its 

From this constant use of the word medicine, in this connection, 
people generally understand that the individual to whom it is applied 
is purely a physician or doctor of medicine, which is a misconcej)tion 
of what is comprehended within this term among the Indians them- 
selves. Although, in practice, the Indian medicine man may, inci- 
dently, take in the calling of administering to the sick, as that of a 
physician, still this branch does not strictly come within the meaning 
of the word medicine man, as understood by the Indian. 

Among the Indians, according to Mr. Schoolcraft, there were 




three distinct professions, nil of which we have been taught to under- 
stand are comprised under the head of "medicine man," termed, in 
the Algonquin 'anguage, the Mas-kc-JxC-win-Jiin-cc, the Mc-dd-iriii- 
iii'n-ci', and the Jci'-sit-kd-iriii-iiiit-cc. The first is the physician or 
doctor of medicine, from Mds-h'c-kcc, a liquid dose, and iii-niii-iicc. man. 
The second includes also the profession of a physician or medical prac- 
titioner, but has a different mode of administering to his patients, or 
curing diseases, and is from the word J/r(/((, signifying medical magic, 
the art of administering to the sick by magic, and in-nin-iwc, man, con- 
cerning which it is said: "The Mcda, or Mcdniviiuiince, is in all 
respects a magician. He is distinct from the Maskckcwtniiiiicc. or 
medical practitioner, who administers both lic^uid and dry medicines, 
bleeds, cups with a horn, and operates on ulcers, swellings, and fresh 
wounds. The latter takes his denomination from iiids-kc-kc. a li(|uid 
dose. The former from Mala, a mysterious iirinci[)le. The one is a 
physician, the other a priest." 

The Jcc-sH-ka-win-nin-cc, or third character mentioned, whilst 
practicing the art of healing, however, as well, l)ut by ditferent modes, 
as before shown, is simply a prophet or one who foretells events, from 
Jrcsiikd, to prophecy. On this subject Mr. Schoolcraft says: "The 
art of prophecy, or the Jcsukaici)!, differs from the MctUtirin in its 
being practiced alone, by distinct and solitary individuals, who have 
no associates; who, at least, do not exist, and are never known as 
societies. Prophets start up at long intervals and far apart among the 
Indian tribes. They profess to be under supernatural power, and to 
be filled wi''i a divine afflatus. It is, however, an art resembling that 
of the Mcddiriii, and founded on a similar principle of reliance, differ- 
ing chiefly in the ohjcrt soiKjJit. The Mcdd seeks to propU'ddc events; 
the Jossdkccd aims to 'predict thom. Both appeal to spirits for their 
power. Both exhibit material substances, as stuffed lairds, bones, etc., 
as objects by or through which the secret energy is to l)e exercised. 
The general modes of o[)eration are similar, but vary. Tiie drum is 
used in both, but the songs and incantations differ. The rattle is con- 
fined to the ceremonies of the Mcdd and the \['(d)('no. The J()ss(d<:r<'d 
addressed himself exclusively to the Great Spirit. His office, and his 
mode of address, are regarded with great solemnity and awe. His 
choruses are peculiar, and deemed by the people to carry an air of 
higher reverence and devotion." 

Men who profi^ssed the art of the ^[(■ddlrill were formed into 
societies or associations, an account of which is given in a subsecpieiit 
chapter under the head of " Secret Societies."' Mr. Schoolcraft further 
says of the Mcdaicin: " Its original significance is obscured by its 



present application to medical influence, supposed to be exercised by 
certain mineral or animal matter, as small bits of metal, bones, 
feathers, and other objects kept in the arcanum of the sacred 
(jnsli-k('-i>('-i(t-(jini, or medicine s.ick. But it is quite obvious that 
no physical application of these articles is even pretended by the 
operators, but that they rely wholly on a subtle, invisible, necromantic 
influence, to be exerted in secret, and at distant as well as contiguous 

The [)opular idea of the ofliee of the Indian medicine man is thus 
expressed by the missionary, the Abbe Em. Domenech. He says these 
medicine men " are a kind of priests, doctors and charlatans, Avho pre- 
tend to cure illness, explain auguries, and foretell future events. They 
feign to be inspired by the s[)irits; they perform rigorous acts of pen- 
ance; submit to mutilation, fasting and self-mortification; they profess 
charms and secrets, which invest thena with great power; they preside 
over all religious cercMnonies, and take the lead in the dance and the 
song. Cunning, deceit, shrewdness, a little knowledge and a great ileal 
of juggling trickery, form the foundation of their renown. They 
obtain from the people a kind of respect different from that with which 

other dignitaries are treated, fear being 
its principal element; they are looked 
ui)on as oracles, but the same admira- 
tion is not bestowed upon them as upon 
sachems and warriors." 

A distinctive mark of the Indian 
medicine man was the wearing of a 
l)eculiar robe of oftice having the hair 
side out, accompanied by the ever-pres- 
ent medicine bag, curiously wrought and 
ornamented, in which were carried his 
nostrums, and which was claimed of 
itself to possess healing properties that 
might be imjjarted to the patient by 
touch. The general theory of sickness 
was that it was caused by evil spiritual 
influence, and after pretending to dis- 
cover the location of the disturbiiiir 
spirit in the body of the patient, the only remedial agency employed 
consisted in incantations for the purpose of driving away these evil 
or disturbing spirits. 

A traveler of experience on the subject of the Indian medicine 
bag, says its complete catalogue of contents would excite wonder and 




"provoke n smile." He thus describes the contents of a medicine bag 
which, on a particular occasion, lie examined : 

"There were dried lierbs in quuntity, leaves, barks, roots and 
stems. Here a claw, there a tooth, yonder an ear. One package con- 
tained a beak and a feather, another a human nail. Our search 
brought to light small images of wood carefully wrapped and labeled. 
These were the totems that preside over the use and effects of the med- 
icines, and Avithout their ju-esence in the [)ouches the skill of the In- 
dian doctor would avail nothing. The Indian from time immemorial 
has believed that every animal has a great original or father, and tlie 
medicine nien choose one of these originals as their particular Mani- 
t(m. The image of this animal or bird is the totem, and as tlie doctors 
heal with the hel[) of the spirits, they naturally place the totem where 
they think it will do the most good — in the medicine bag. The images 
are of rt)ugh workmanship, but they answer the purpose for which tliey 
were designed as well as if they came from the hands of the skilled 
carver. We found in the bag we examined representations of the sun 
and moon, and some odd pieces of wood carving sup[)()sed to represent 
the human figure." 

Mr. Catlin, the artist, says that in all tribes their doctors are 
conjurors, are magicians, are soothsayers, and perhaps would rank as 
high priests, inasmucii as they superintended all their religious cere- 
monies, Tliey are looked upon by all as oracles of the nation. In all 
counsels of war and peace they have a seat with the chiefs, are regu- 
larly consulted before any public step is taken ; and the greatest defer- 
ence and respect are paid to their opinion. 

He remarks in explanatiini of the word birdie hie, which is used in 
this connection, that the Indians do not use or understand this word in 
our language; but in eacli tribe tliey have a word of their own con- 
struction, synonymous with mystery or mystery man in our own lan- 
guage. Further explaining, he says: "For instance, 1 am a 'medi- 
cine man' of the highest order amongst these superstitious ])eople, on 
account of the art which I practice; which is a strange and unaccount- 
able thing to them and, of course, called the greatest of 'medicine.' 
My gun and pistols which have percussion locks, are great medicine; 
and no Indian can be prevailed upon to fire them otf, for they say they 
have nothing to do with the white man's medicine." 

In describing the niedicino bag of the medicine man Mr. Catlin 
says it is constructed of the skins of animals, birds or reptiles, and 1,1'. 
namented and presei'ved in a thousand different ways, as suits the 
taste or freaks of the person who consiructs it. These skins are gen- 
erally attached to some part of the clothing of the medicine man, or 




carripd in his liand. Tliese bngs are often decorated in such a manner 
as to be exceedingly ornamental, and are stuffed with grass, moss, or 
something of the kind. 

One of the arts claimed by the Indian medicine man was that he 
could, by the exertion of a supernatural influence which he possessed, 
control the minds of others, and an instance is mentioned Avhere it is 
claimed that a medicine man of the Assinaboin tribe accepted a chal- 
lenge from a rival medicine man for each to try the exertion of this 
supernatural power over the other on an occasion appointed. Each 
being furnished with his medicine bag, arrayed in full dress and cov- 
ered with war paint, they met in the presence of a great concourse, 
both having pre[)ared for the occasion by long fasting and conjura- 
tions. After smoking their pipes, a ceremony which precedes all im- 
portant councils, the medicine men sat down opposite each other a few 
feet apart. 

The trial of power seems to have been conducted on principles of 
animal magnetism, and lasted a long while without decided advantage 
on either side, until the medicine man of the Assinaboins, concentrat- 
ing all his power, or as expressed according to the Indian idea, gather- 
ing his medicine, in a loud voice commanded his antagonist to die, 
Avho. it is said, succumbed, and in a few minutes " his spirit," as the 
narrator expressed it, "went beyond the sand buttes." This of course 
gave increased confidence of the trilie in the power of this medicine 
man, who firmly believed that his spiritual power had alone secured 
liis triumph. 

It is stated by the same ;iuthority from which the foregoing inci- 
dent is derivetl. that a Jesuit priest of long experience among the 
Indians, in missionary labors, being informed of this story, instead of 
exj)ressing disbelief, went on rather to express quite a different senti- 
ment, saying that he had seen many exhibitions of power among these 
medicine men, which he could not explain. "I have known," said he, 
'• [u-etlictions by these medicine men of events, far in the future, to be 
literally fulfilled, and have seen medicine tests in the most conclusive 
Avay. I once saw a Koo-tc-iiai Indian (known generally as Skookiiiii- 
TdDKiJirrcicoati, from his extraordinary power) command a mountain 
sheep to fall dead, and the animal, then leajung among the rocks of 
the mountain side, fell instantly lifeless. This I saw with my own 
eyes, and I ate of the animal afterwards. It was unwounded, healthy 
and perfectly well." 

A remarkable instance, showing the accuracy with which these 
medicine men could at times foretell events, is related by a writer in 
the AtUuitic Munlltlij for July, 180(5, concerning a medicine man 



among the wild tribes of the Upper Missouri river, whose name is 
giveu as Maqiieajjos, and who, he says, was an ignorant and unintel- 
lectual person, but that his predictions were sometimes absolutely 
astounding. On one occasion, a party of ten voyagers set out from 
Fort Benton, then the most remote post of the American Fur Com- 
pany, for the purpose of finding a certain band of northern Blackfeet. 
The expedition was perilous from its commencement, and the danger 
increased with each day's journey. The war paths, war party fires, 
and similar indications of the vicinity of hostile bands, were each day 
found in greater abundance. 

Persons experienced in Indian life can, at a glance, tell what 
tribe has made a war path or a '•amp fire. Indications which would 
convey no meaning to the inexperienced, are often conclusive proofs 
to the keen eyed mountaineer. 

The party of adventurers, in this case, soon found, by accustomed 
indications, that they were in the thickest of the Cree war party opera- 
tions, and so full of danger that seven of the ten turned back. The 
remaining three, through their resolute character, continued their 
journey until this resolution failed them, and they, too, determined 
that after another day's travel northward they would hasten back to 
their comrades. On the afternoon of the last day, four young Indi- 
ans were seen, who, after a cautious approach, made the signs of peace, 
laid down their arms and came forward, announcing themselves to be 
Blackfeet of the Blood band. They were sent out, they said, by 
Maqueapos, the medicine man before mentioned, to find three white 
men, mounted on horses of a peculiar color, dressed in garments actu- 
ally described to them, and armed with weapons which they, without 
seeing them, minutely described. 

The whole history of this expedition had been detailed to them 
by Maqueapos; the purpose of the journey, the personnel of the par- 
ties, the exact location at which to find the three last mentioned who 
persevered, had been detailed by this medicine man with as much 
fidelity and accuracy as could have been done by one of the whites 
themselves; and so convinred were the Indians of the truth of the 
old man's medicine that the four young men, before mentioned, were 
sent, four days later, to appoint a rendezvous with the whites, at a place 
a hundred miles distant. The apiKiintment was fulfilled, the objects 
of the expedition speedily accomplished, and the whites, after a few 
days' rest, returned to the jx>int of their starting out. 

The writer of the article, before mentioned, says he was at the 
head of the party of whites, and himself met the Indian messengers. 
Upon questioning the chief men of the Indian camp, many of whom 



nfteiTvartls became his warm personal friends, and one of them his 
adopted brothei*, no suspicion of the facts as narrated could be sus- 
tained. The medicine man, Maqueapos, could give no explanation 
beyond the general one, that he "saw us coming and heard us talk on 
our journey." He had not, during the time, been absent from the 
Indian camp, and it seems had apparently no mode and no information 
whatever by which he could determine the facts Avhicli he foretold, 
except through his intuitive jxiwor, or maUcinc which he possessed. 

The writer of the aforesaid article says that a subsequent intimate 
acquaintance with Maqueapos disclosed a remarkable medicine faculty, 
as accurate as it was inexplicable. He was tested in every way, and 
almost always stood the ordeal successfully. This remarkable circum- 
stance is in the same line of foretelling events, referred to in another 
chapter of this work, entitled "Indian Prophecies." 

In closing his article, the writer before mentioned, whilst declar- 
ing that it is not his object to defend or combat the Indian notion of 
medicine men, says: "Wlioever will take the trouble to investigate, 
will find in the re(d Indian a faith, and occasionally a power, that 
quite equals the faculties claimed by our civilized clairvoyants, and 
will approach au untrodden i)ath of curious, if not altogether useful, 

This Indian idea of the gift of prophecy, understanding mysteries, 
and faith to accomplish results, by will of the medicine man, singularly 
coincides with the Jewish ideas as expressed in 1 Cor. xiii, 2, wherein 
these subjects are thus recited: "And though I have the gift of 
prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge ; and though 
I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains," etc. 

The following paragraph, found in the St. Louis Repuhlican of 
recent date, under the head of " Mental Telegrapliing," shows that this 
power of mystery claimed to exist among the Indians is one attracting 
the attention of the intelligent mind: 

"It is said that the Indians on the plains have always practiced a 
system of mental telegraphing among themselves, by means of Avhich 
they communicate with each other almost instantaneously, and without 
messengers or signals. This mental telegraphing is by no means 
peculiar to the Indians on the plains of the United States. The same 
thing has been done by many people on the plains and among the 
mountains, both in America and other countries, and is to-day and 
always has been one method of manifesting knowledge known to and 
practiced by many persons. The manner iu which such communica- 
tions are made seems to be and is a great mystery. Many theories 
about it have been suggested, all of which fall far short of satisfying 



the minds of the people as to how it is done. The fact that such com- 
munications are sent and received, and that they are often genuine and 
true, and that such is one mode of manifesting knowledge, is now 
almost universally conceded." 

Not only does the Indian medicine man wear his robes of mystery, 
but the custom of wearing robes or holy garments to distinguisii the 
sacred office of a person is not confined to the untutored Indian; it 
was an ancient custom of the Jews, according to the writings of whom 
it was commanded: "Thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments."' 
Ex. xl, 111 

And this custom of priestly robes was carried into the church in 
later times, and, indeed, is continued down to the present day. More- 
over, these robes of mystery, among civilized nations in succeeding 
generations, have been extended to kings, and of winch we sjieak as 
their robes of siair; and the custom of wearing the like robes of mys- 
tery has been extended to judicial functionaries, and styled jmlivinl 
ermine; so that whoevrr is inclined to criticise the Indian medicine 
man for his superstitious garments, marking or aiding his calling, 
must remember that our more enlightened races have borrowed or 
shared with him, down to the latest time, the same or the like super- 

The wilder tribes are accustomed to certain observances, which 
are generally termed the tribe-medicine. Their leading men inculcate 
them with great care — perhaps to perpetuate unity of tradition and 
purpose. In the arrangement of the tribe-medicine, trivial observances 
are frequently intermixed with very serious doctrines. Thus, the 
grand war council of the Dakota confederacy, comprising thirteen 
tribes of Sioux, and mere than seventeen thousand warriors, many 
years since, promulgated a national medicine, prescribing a red stone 
pipe with an ashen stem for all council purposes, and an eternal lu)s- 
tility to the whites. And the opinion has been expressed that the pre- 
diction may be safely ventured that every Sioux will preserve this 
medicine until the nation shall cease to exist. And to this, it is said, 
may be traced that terrible Indian war that devastated Minnesota, and 
from which it was predicted that there could not, in the nature of 
things, especially in view of native Indian character, be a peace kept 
in good faith until the confederacy of the Dakota nation was, in elfect, 

The Crows, or Upsaraiikas, Avill not smoke in council, uidess the 
pipe is lighted with a coal of the butfalo chi[), and the bowl is rested 
on a fragment of the same substance. Their chief men have, for a 
great while, endeavored to engraft teetotalism upon their national medi- 



cine, and have succeeded better than the Tnri;«« i, 

seemed to promise. ^ character would have 

Among tlie Flatheads, female chastifv ,•« n r , 
injunction amon.. tlieir theoriprV 7 ^ "''*'""^^ medicine or 

vailed very genl 11? ^ 1 "^^''*''^' " «'^^^-««teristic which pre- 
f,.- 1 , • •'^^^^"^'^^^J among the American tribes Wifl, fl,« \r i 
fnendslnp for the whites is sunnnsp,! f i . Mandans, 

individual advantage. ^^ ^' "'' '^'^^^^^ °^ "^t^^"-! and 


The Inilian Prophet — An Important Functionary — As with the Ancient Jews— Was the 
Oracle of " All Mystery" — False Prophets— Chiefs had Their Prophets- Fore- 
telling Events — Remarkable Instance Related — Capt. Carver Relates an Instance 
— Father Charlevoix's Experience — Peter Jones Gives Instance of Indian 
Account from an Indian Captive— Sinpnlar Instance of Foretelling the Future — 
Fulfilled in the Escape of Three Captives Father Charlevoix's Experience — 
Peter Jones Gives Instance of Indian Prophecy. 

^"^^HE Indian in his siiper- 
^ i stitious nnd beliefs, iu 
■■fij cF his notions of snper- 
^ natural manifestiitions 
and agencies, does not differ 
essentially from the white man. 
An important functionary with 
him, as with the ancient Jews, 
was that of the prophet, or one 
Avho could foretell events. 
Sometimes the prophet com- 
bined also the churaoter of 
priest and doctor of medicine, 
and to him was committed all 
such things as were considered 
mysteries. In short, he was 
the oracle of "all mystery." 

These persons, in general, 
took rank among the natives 
accordingly as they had sliown 
or proved their superiority in the line of their profession ; and the 
experience or the Indian, in regard to this class of functioimries, was 
not unlike that of the Jews, for they occasionally had among them 
false prophets, or those whose prophecies Avere not always genuine or 
precisely accurate. So that whenever a prophet had shown his skill 
or accuracy in foretelling events, he took rank accordingly among his 
tribe or people. 




31 u; 


But it is proposed liere to spenk of propliecies rather tiiaii of 
propliets. Attention is given to this Intter subjec^t under the liend of 
" Medicine Man." 

The ruling chief of a tribe or confederation of tribes generally 
had his prophet, selected with reference to his superior skill in his 
profession, the same as the white man, in the affaii's of his govern- 
ment, has his lieutenant, general adviser, or prime minister, selected 
with like reference to his peculiar capabilities. The commander of a 
military force has his chief of staff or adjutant general. The man- 
ager of a large corporation has his legal counsel, who occupies not 
only the [)lace of counselor in matters of law, but as a general adviser 
in business affairs as affected by the law. 

The untutored mind of the Indian stood constantly in fear of 
those things which to him were considered superiuitural, mysterious or 
beyond his comprehension. The principal chief to whom tlie admin- 
istration and guidance of affairs were committed, therefore, selected 
his prophet to give him guidance and information concerning future 
events, whereby he might be the better enabled to direct the affairs of 
his j)eople committed to liis charge. 

Instances are given by travelers, captives and historians, of the 
foretelling of events by Indian pi'ophets, which are quite remarkable. 
Among these is one related by Capt. Jonathan Carver, coming to his 
attention during his travels through the interior parts of North 
America, in the year 1707. The most westerly point reached by him 
was the St. Peter's, or Minnesota river, in the vicinity of whidi he 
spent the winter with the Dakotas. On his return East, the ensuing 
summer, he proceeded by way of what is known as the grand portage, 
Avhicli lies on the northwestern borders of Lake Superior. Here he 
met a large party of Knistinoes, or, as he calls them, " Killistinoes 
and Assinipoils Indians," who were come to this place in order to meet 
the traders from Mackinaw, who made this their road to the north- 
west. In relating the incident before mentioned, he says: 

"The traders Ave expected being later this season than usual, and 
our numbers very considerable, for there were more than three hun- 
dred of us, the stock of provisions we had brought with us was nearly 
exhausted, and we waited with impatience for their arrival. 

"One day, whilst we were all expressing our wishes for this 
desirable event, and looking from an eminence in hopes of seeing them 
come over the lake, the chief priest belonging to the band of the 
Killistinoes told us that he would endeavor to obtain a conference with 
the Great Spirit, and know from him when the traders would arrive. 
I paid little attention to this declaration, supposing that it would be 




produptive of some juggliiijj trick, just sufKoiently covererl to deceive 
the ignorant Indians. 13>it the king of that tribe telling me that this 
was chieti}' undertaken by the priest to alleviate my anxiety, and at 
the same time to convince me how much interest lie had with the 
Great Spirit, I thought it necessary to restrain my animadversions on 
his design. 

"The following evening was fixed upon for this spiritual confer- 
ence. When everything had been properly prepared, tiie king came 
to me and led me into a capacious tent, the covering of whicii was 
drawn up, so as to render what was transacting within visible to those 
who stood witliout. We found the tent surrounded by a great nund)er 
of the Indians, but we readily gained admission, and seated oui'selves 
on skins, laid on the ground for that pur])ose. 

" In the center I observed that there was a place of an oblong 
shape, which was composed of stakes stuck in the ground, with inter- 
vals between, so as to form a kind of chest or coiKn large enough to 
contain the body of a man. These were of a middle size, and placed 
at such a distance from each other that whatever lay within tiiem was 
readily to be discerned. The tent was perfectly illuminated by a great 
number of torches, nuide of splinters cut from the pine or birch tree, 
which the Indians held in their hands. 

" In a few minutes the priest entered, when an amazing large 
elk's skin being spread on the ground just at my feet, he laid himself 
down upon it, after having stripped himself of every garment except 
that which he wore close about his middle. Being now prostrate on 
his back, he first laid hold of one side of the skin, and folded it over 
him, and then the other, leaving only his head uncovered. This was 
no sooner done than two of the young men who stood by took al)out 
forty yards of strong cord, made also of an elk's hide, and rolled it 
tight around his body, so that he was completely swathed within the 
skin. Being thus bound up like an Egyptian mummy, one took him 
by the heels, and the other by the head, and lifted him over the pales 
into the inclosure. I could also now discern him as plain as I had 
hitlierto done, and I took care not to turn my eyes a moment from the 
object before me, that I might the more readily detect the artifice; for 
such I doubted not but that it would turn out to be. 

"The priest had not lain in this situation more than a few seconds 
when he began to mutter. This he continued to do for some time, and 
then by degrees grew louder and louder, till at length he spoke articu- 
lately ; however, what he muttered was in such a mixed jargon of the 
Chippeway, Ottawaw and Killistinoe languages, that I could under- 
Having continued in this tone for a con- 

staud but very little of it. 



pidorable while, he at Inst exerted his voice to its utmost pitch, BOine- 
tiiiios riiviii^', and Bomotiines praying, till lie had worlied himself into 
such an agitation that ho foainod at tiio mouth. 

"After having romaiiit'd near thrce-cjuarters of an liour in the 
place, anil continued his vociferations with xmabated vigor, he seemed 
to bo quite exhausted and remained speechless. But in an instant he 
sprrtiig to his feet, notwithstanding, at the time he was put in, it 
appeareil impossible for him to move either his legs or arms; and, 
sliaking olf his covering, as cpiick as if tlie bands witli wliich it hail 
been bound were burned asunder, he began to address those wiio stood 
around in a firm and audible voice. 'My brothers,' said he, 'the Great 
Spirit has deigned to hold a talk witii his servant at my earnest 
reipiest. Ho has not. indeed, told me when the persons we expect will 
be here, but to-mori'ow, soon after the sun has reached his highest 
point in the heavens, a canoe will arrive, and tiie peofjle in that will 
inform us when the traders will come.' 

" Having said this, ho stepped out of tho inclosure, and, after ho 
had put on his robes, dismissed the assembly. I owu I was greatly 
astonished at what I had seen, but as I observed that every eye in the 
company was fixed on me, with a view to discover my sentiment, I 
carefully concealed every emotion. 

" The next day the sun siionc bright, and long before noon all the 
Indians were gatliered together on the eminence that overlooked the 
lake. The old king came to me and asked mo whether I had so much 
confidence in what the [)riest had foretold as to join his people on the 
hill, and wait for the completion of it. I told him I was at a loss 
what opinion to iovm of the prediction, but that I would readily attend 
him. On this, we walked together to the place Avhere the others were 
assembled. Every eye was again fixed by turns on me, and on the 
lake; when, just as the sun had reached his zenith, agreeable to what 
the priest had foretold, a canoe came around a point of land about a 
league distant. The Indians no sooner beiield it than they set up 
an universal shout, and by their looks seemed to triumph in the 
interest their priest thus evidently had with the Great S[)irit. 

" In less than an hour the canoe reached the shore, when I attended 
the king and chiefs to i-ecoive those who were on board. As soon as 
the men were landed we walked all together to the king's tent, wlien, 
according to their invariable custom, we began to smoke; and tliis we 
did, notwithstanding our impatience to know the tidings they brought, 
without asking any questions; for the Indians are the most deliberate 
people in the world. However, after some trivial conversation, the 
king inquired of them whether they had seen anything of the traders? 



The men replied that they had parted from them a few days before, 
ami that they proposed being here the Becoud day from the present. 
Tliey accordingly arrived at the time, greatly to our satisfaction, but 
more particularly so to that of the Indians, who found by this event 
the importance, both of their priest and of their nation, greatly nug- 
raented in the sight of a stranger. 

"This story, I acknowledge, appears to carry with it marks of 
great credulity in the relator. But no one is less tinctured with that 
weaivaess than myself. The circumstances of it, I own, are of very 
extraordinary nature; however, as I can vouch for their being free 
fi'om either exaggeration or misrepresentation, being myself a cool and 
dispassionate observer of them all, I thought it necessary to give tliom 
to the public. And this I do Avithout wishing to mislead the judgment 
of my readers, or to make any superstitious impressions on their minds, 
but leaving them to draw from it what conclusions they please." 

It seems, from the cautious manner in which Capt. Carver treats 
the aforesaid occurrence, that ho Avas naturally skeptical as to mutters 
of this kind; and the accuracy with which this prophecy was fulfilhnl 
naturally impressed his mind with considerable force, and he felt 
called upon, as will be seen, to assure the reader in ..nguage as forc- 
ible as possible, of the truth of the circumstance he witnessed. And 
not content with this, in the preface to his book, or, as he calls it, 
"adtb'ess to the public," he again refers to this matter, and remarks 
that the credibility of the incident before mentioned, and the prognos- 
tication of the Indian priest liaving been questioned, he thinks it 
necessary to avail himself of a further opportunity to endeavor to 
eradicate any impression that might be made on the minds of his 
readers, by the apparent improbability of his story ; and he assures 
the reader again that he has related this occurrer^ce just as it hap- 
pened, being an eye witness to the Avhole transaction, and being at the 
time free from any trace of skeptical obstinacy or enthusiastic credu- 
lity, he was consequently able to describe every circumstance minutely 
and impartially, Avhich he has done, but Avithout endeavoring to 
account for the means by Avhich it was accomplished. 

The aforesaid occurrence is Avhat at this day would be called, 
among that class of people known as spirHualists, as a case of spirit- 
ual manifestation through a genuine iiicdiiini. In this day and gen- 
eration, occurrences of this kind are not uncommon, and in thorn there 
are many enthusiastic believers, especially among the class of people 
l)efore mentioned; but the occurrence Avhich Capt. Carver relates, 
transpired nearly a hundred years before the appearance among us of 
that phenomenon called Sjnritiialism or spiritualisiic seances. 




Another like case of foretelling events by an Indian prophet ia 
given in an account of the captivity of Richard Eue, George Holman 
and Irving Hinton, who were captured in February, 1781, in Kentucky, 
near the falls of the Ohio river, now called Louisville, by the renegade 
white man, Simon Girty, at the head of thirteen Indians. 

The history of tlio captivity of these men is given in' a book, 
entitled "Recollections of the Early Settlements of the Wabash Val- 
ley," by Sandford C. Cox, of Lafayette, Ind. ; published in ISGO. 
The writer was a descendant of the captive George Holman, the facts 
which he related having come down through family tradition, as an 
important incident in connection with the escape of Richard Rue, one 
of the captives named. 

The writer of this account, apparently feeling that he might be 
charged with too much credulity as to the account he gives, seemingly 
attempts to treat the subject lightly ; but, at the same time, the fact 
of the occurrence and that the events as foretold by the Indian prophet 
transpired precisely as he stated they would, remains in his narrative. 
Mr. Cox, in narrating the escape of Richard Rue, who had become 
separated, during his captivity, from Holman and Hinton, says: 

"The last few mouths of Rue's captivity were spent at Detroit. 
I shall not attempt to give a full descrijjtion of the various incidents 
of his long and painful captivity, Avliich lasted three years and a half, 
and was terminated in the following manner: Rue and two of his 
fellow captives, whose names are not recollected with sufficient cer- 
tainty to give them a place in these pages, came to the conclusion to 
make their escape, if posijible. In anticipation of such an event, they 
had for some time been secretly preparing for their departure. At the 
time, there were three or four different tribes of Indians assembled at 
the Trading House on the lake shore, near Detroit. A circumstance 
occurred, during the drunken revels of the Indians, which produced 
great excitement. One of the Indians lost a purse, containing some 
ninety dollars in silver. Search was instituted in vain for the lost 
treasure. Who was the thief? Various were the conjectures and 
insinuations of the exasperated tribes, who were about to make it 
assume a national character, when it was announced that there was 
a Soothsayer or Prophet present, who belonged to another tribe from 
either of those who were disputing about the lost treasure, and who, 
by conjuration, could detect the thief, and tell where the lost money 
was secreted, which st<)p})ed nil wrangling, until the learned seer had 
tried his arts of necromancy. The professor of the black art, looking 
as solemn as an owl, unrolled a deer-skin upon the ground, with the 
flesh side up. He then drew from his belt a little bag of fine sand, 



which he emptied upon the deer-skin. With a mngic svand, about the 
size and length of an ordinary ritie rnmrod, he spread tlie sand 
smoothly over the wliole surface of the skin. The eager and de-jply 
interested crowd, witli a solemn awe depicted in their countenances, 
encircled the magician, and awaited witli breathless silence the result 
of liis divination. Meanwhile the prophet, as he was termed, silently 
gazed at the glittering surface of the sand for many minutes, without 
any definite result. Then, after muttering over some half articulated 
spell words, and looking awfully wise, he took another long, steady gaze 
into the sand. Eureka, Eureka, were not the words uttered by the 
venerable seer, but he said, 'I see the thief and the stolen treasure.' 
'Who is he? Who?' shouted a dozen voices, 'tell his name, point 
him out, be it whomsoev(>r it may.' But the prophet, feeling bound 
by a proper spirit of philanthropy for his red brethren, and deeming 
that the disclosure might lead to tlie extermiimtion of a tribe, or per- 
haps two or tliree tribes, before tiie matter ended, gravely declared the 
impropriety of divulging a fact which might terminate so disastrously. 
He exonerated all those who had been charged with the theft, ami said 
that the lost money had been taken and carried away by a different 
tribe from any of those embroiled in the (juarrel. Tliis important 
announcement quieted the dissensions of those who Avere contending, 
a. id restored liarmony and friendship among tliose who, but a feiv 
hours before, Avere ready to use the knife and tomahawk upon each 

"Rue and his comrades being witnesses of this (lis[)hiy of the 
prophet's professional skill, concluded at the first convenient oppor- 
tunity to interrogate him in regard to the number, age, sex, and con- 
dition of their respective families at home; and whether they Avere all 
Btill alive, and resided where they did when they Avere captured. 

"A private chance occurred Avithiu a few days afterAvards, the fee 
was agreed upon and paid, and the tliree prisoners and the seer seated 
themselves around the outspread deer skin, covered Avith the enchanted 
saml. After a long silence, during Avhich the pro[)het looked steadily 
into the sand, ne remarked that he saAV Rue's folks passing about 
through the door yard, giving tlie number of males and females, and 
their age and appearance Avith such accuracy, that Rue at once consid 
ored him a genuine Avizard, The conjurer then lifted his eyes from 
the sand and remarked: 'You all intend to make your escape, and you 
will eifect it soon.' Then gazing into the sand he continued: 'You 
will meet with many trials and hardships in passijig over so Avild a 
district of coitotry, inhabited by so many hostile nations of Indians. 
You Avill almost b"^arve to death ; but about the time you have given up 




r11 hope of finding game to sustain you in your faniislied condition, 
succor will come when you least expect it. I see dimly the carcass of 
some wild animal taken as game. What it is I cannot clearly see. It 
will be a masculine of some kind. After that you will find plenty of 
game, and you will all arrive safely at your homes.' They stoutly 
denied any intention or desire of escaping ; but at the same time told 
the wizard, as they had paid him for his professional revelations, that 
they had explicit confidence that he would not divulge. e>icept to them- 
selves, any shadowings of the future that flitted over his sand covered 
deer skin. The okl prophet, acting upon the principle of letting every 
one attend to his oAvn business, said nothing about the 'coming events 
which cast their shadows before ' in regard to the escape of the prison- 
ers. Whether his silence proceeded from his not wishing to meddle 
with the determinations of the fates, or from the fear that any revela- 
tions he might make, affecting the interests of his patrons who had 
confided their all to his pro[)hetic skill ind honor, might injure his 
business, or simply from a sense of moral probity, it was difficult to 

"At length the set time for their departure arrived, and they com- 
menced their dubious journey through the wide wilderness, infested 
with wild beasts, and wild and bloody minded savages, whose tender 
mercies (with a few noble exceptions) they had long since learned 
were cruel. They kneAv that as soon as they were missed they would 
be pursued, and they pushed ahead as fast as possible the whole of the 
first night, and encamped about daybreak, without fire, in a thicket, 
almost surrounded with a swamp. Here they lay concealed the whole 
day. Having eaten the scanty amount of victuals they had been able 
to stealthily abstract from the cnnip the morning they left, they began 
to feel pressed with hunger, but dare not venture from their conceal- 
ment, iest they might be discovered and recaptured by the Indians, 
whom they well knew would hang u{)on their trail and feri'et them out 
if possible. They saw no game in their swampy retreat ; and, had they, 
the sound of a gun might disclose their hiding place. They crawled 
around and tried to catch some frogs which they saw plunging around 
in the stagnant waters that surrounded them; but were unable to catch 
even one frog. At dark they ventured out from their lurking-place, 
and pursued their perilous journey through the woods, guided by the 
stars when they shone, and, when they were obscured, by the moss that 
grew on the north side of the trees — a fact well known to all woodsmen. 

"The morning of the third day found them so weak and exhausted 
by travel and hunger, that it was determined that Rue, wlio was a good 
hunter, should venture out in quest of game. He spent the most of 



the day in linntiuf,', but found no ginio, not oven a bird nor a sqnirrel 
to appease their gnawinjjj hun>,rer. l>y this time they hail reachetl the 
streams that led into the Wabash river, which Hue knew abounded 
with iine fisli, but havi.ig no fish hooks witli them, nor wire to construct 
any out of, they deemed it too hazardous to attempt to spear any by 
torcli light. So they traveled on all that night without eating, or 
st()pi)ing to rest, but, witli the returning beams of the morning, they 
sought a secure hiding place, as usual. Their hunger now commenced 
to become insupportable, and, although the woods and streams showed 
strong and fresh signs of Indians, it was determined that Rue, their 
Nimrod, must go in quest of game at all hazards. He scoured the 
woods for miles around, up hill and down dale, but, strange to say. he 
i!ould find no game of any description. A jaybird or a woodpecker 
would have been a delicious morsel to these starving fugitives ; but 
birds and beasts appeared to be, like thenuelves, hid amongst their 
vt'oody fastnesses. About the middle of the afternoon Rue returned to 
onmp, weary, dejected and luckless. Starvation now stared them in 
the face. 

"At length another one of the fugitives arose from his priistrate 
position on the ground, and said: 'Suppose I try my luck, or lack of 
luck, once more.' Then, shouldering the best gun in the com})any, he 
walked slowly off and was soon hid in the darksome forest that sur- 
rounded them. But this persistent effort on the part of their comrade 
brought no hope to the minds of Rue and the other man, who well 
knew the want of skill on the part of the departed hunter. But the 
race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, which was 
fully verified by the fact that in less than three hours after he started 
from the camp the amateur hunter returned, tottering under a small 
three pronged buck, which he had killed and partly dressed. As he 
threw it upon the ground the words of the conjurer: 'It is a masculine; 
after killing it you will find plenty of game, and your hardshi[)s will 
mostly bo over,' flashed across the mind of Rue, wlu) now felt fully 
confirmed iu the oracular wisdom of the old Indian, whose prophetic 
ken had so far penetrated the future as to see the carcass of that deer 
which was so opportunely killed to save them from death by famine. 
If it were n mere coincidence or shrewd guess of the seer, tliey con- 
sidered it strange beyond parallel. A fire was soon kindled, and a 
small portion of the deer was broiled. The experience and sound 
judgment of the prisoners prevented their eating too much of the de- 
licious repast. They now had enough to last them several days, until 
they could kill more, and the last words of the conjurer threw the rain- 
bow hues of hope over the renniinder of their toilsome 'ouruey. When 



iiiglit nrrivetl they pursued their journey witli renewed strength and 
courage, carrying with them tlie fleshy portions cl the venison, feeling 
comparatively safe. Although they had traveled many miles from 
where they started and, in all probability, v jre far out of reach of 
their pursuers, yet they relaxed but little in the prudent course they 
adopted at the start, of night traveling and lying by in the day time; 
and thus they entirely avoided discovery by the red men of the forest, 
who thickly iidiabited the region through which they had passed. 
Had they been discovered by the Indians who inhabited the different 
portions of the country through which they passed, they would very 
likely not have been recognized as white men, for their dress, gait, 
manners and general appearance were completely Indian, from the 
painted feathers and porcupine cpiills that crowned the turban that en- 
circled their foreheads, to the beads and ribbons that adorned their 
moccasins, and variegated the fanciful belts that surroundetl their 
waists, bristling with scalding knife and tomahawk. Thev found game 

' O 1 C? 4,' O 

plenty, and Avould have hail a suflicient quantity of ammunition to enable 
tliera to supply themselves with provisions to the end of their journey, 
hail not an accident occurred which reduced them again to a state of 
great destitution. 

" On the twentieth day after they made their escape from near 
Detroit they struck the Ohio river, about fifty miles above the Falls. 
The sight of this beautiful river, which they had not seen for over 
three years, sent a thrill of joy through their bosoms, and they set to 
work to construct a rude raft out of logs to bear them down its spark- 
ling current to the village of Louisville, where their toilsome and 
ilangerous journey would be brought to a close. But before they had 
floated half the way to Louisville their frail raft was dashed to pieces 
by the white caps, raised by a stilf gale that swept up the river, and 
the three passengers with their guns, blankets and provisions, were 
spilt out into the river. With difticulty they reached the Kentucky 
shore and crawled up the bank, looking, as they afterward said, like 
drowned rats. They lost all their guns but one, the whole of their 
provisions, and the most of their ammunition and clothes. In this sad 
[)light till y struck out through the woods for Harrodsburg. where they 
arrived in safety, greatly fatigued and worn down by their long and 
wearisome journey through the wilderness, and to the surprise and joy 
of their friends, who had long mourned them as dead." 

Father Charlevoix, in his travels among the Indians in North 
America, it seems, also encountered these prophets whom he called 
jugglers, and was struck with astonishment at the accuracy with which 
he savs thev foretold future events. 

INDIAN ritoriiKciiis. 


He says it is also true that the jujjffrlers were too often riglit in 
their predictions to make it believed that they always guess ])y chance; 
and that there passes on these t)ccasions, things that it is scarce possible 
to attribute to any natural secret. But he attributes these remarkable 
prophecies to a power derived from an evil spirit, concerning which he 
says: "The letters of the ancient missionaries are full of facts whicli 
leave no room to doubt that these seducers have a real correspondence 
with the Father of deceit and lies." 

It appears in the experience of Father Charlevoix that these 
prophecies did not proceed alone from Indian men, but Indian women 
also possessed this power, and he gives the following instance of fore- 
telling an event by a "woman savage," which ho said he had " frt)m 
it> source." 

" Madame de Marson. wife of M. de Marson, avIio was command- 
ant of a post in Canada, was one day very uneasy about her husband, 
who was absent, and the time was past which lie iiad set for his return. 
A 'woman savage' who saw Madame de Marson was troubled, aski'd 
her the cause of it, and being told it. she said, after ])ausing a little dii 
the matter, 'Don't trouble yourself any longer; your husband will 
come back on siich a day, and at such an hour (which slie named), 
wearing a grey hat.' As she perceiveil that the lady gave no heed to 
her prediction, on the day and at the hour she had foretold, she came 
again to the lady, and asked her if she would come and see her 
husband arrive, and pressed her in such a manner to follow her, that 
she drew her to the side of the river. They had hardly got there when 
M. de Marson appeared in a canoe, wearing a grey hat; and being 
informed of what had passed, he declared that he could not conceive 
how the savage could have foreknown the hour and the day of his 

Eev. Peter Jones, the Ojibway minister of the gospel, in his book 
concerning that people, gives the following, among other instances of 
Indiiin prophecy, which he says he received from a respectable gentle- 
man, then government agent in Upper Canada, who hail spent most of 
his life in the Indian country, and who was, therefore, well acquainted 
with their characte)' and pretensions, and thus relates the incident: 

"In the year ISOi, wintering with the Winnebagoes on the Rock 
river, I had occasion to send three of my men to another wintering 
house, for some tlour which I had left there in the fall, on my way up 
the river. The distance being about one and a half days' journey from 
where I lived, they were expected to return in about three days. On 
the sixth day after their absence I was about sending in quest of them, 
when some Indians, arriving from the spot, said that they had seen 





uotliinjjc of them. I could now use no menus to nscertnin wliere tliey 
were; the plains were extensive, the paths numerous, nnd the tracks 
they had made wore tlie next moment covered by the drift snow. 
Patience was my only resource; and, nt leniftli, I gave them up for 

••On the fourteentii night after their departure, as several Indians 
were smoking their pipes and telling stories of their Avar parties, 
huntings, etc., an old fellow, named Wdlttrim, who was a daily visitor, 
came in. My interp?'eter, a Cnnailian named Felix, pressed me, as he 
had f ixMpiently done before, to employ this conjurer, as he could inform 
me about the men in (juestion. 

••The dread of l)eing laughed at had, hitherto, ])reveuted my 
acceding to his importunities; but now, excited by curiosity, I gave the 
old man a (juarter pound of tobacco and two yards of ribbon, telling 
him that if he gave me a true account of them 1 would, when I ascer- 
tained the fact, give him a bottle of rum. The night was exceedingly 
daik, and the house situated on a point of land in a thick wood. The 
old fellow withdrew, and the other Indians retired to their lodjjes. 

"A few mijiutes after, I hoard \\'^(tliinut (an ^gg) begin a lament- 
able song, his voice increasing to such a degree that I really thought 
he would have injured himself. The whole forest appeared to be in 
agitation, as if the trees were knocking against each other; then all 
would be silent for a few seconds; again the old fellow would scream 
and yell, as if he were in great distress. A chill seized me, and my 
hair stood on end; the interpreter and I stared at each other without 
power to express our feelings. After remaining in this situation a few 
minutes the noise ceased, and Ave distinctly heard the old chap singing 
a lively air. We expected him in, but he did not come. After Avaiting 
some time, and all appearing tranquil in the Avoods, Ave Avent to bed. 
The next morning I sent for my friend, Waltiniv, to inform me of his 
jaunt to see the men. 

"•I Avent,' said he, 'to smoke the pipe Avitli your men last night, 
and found them cooking some elk meat, Avhich they got from an OttaAva 
Indian. On leaving this pi,.i"^ they took the Avrong road on the top of 
the hill ; they traveled hard on, and did not knoAv for two days that 
they Avere lost. "When they discovered their situation they Avere much 
alarmed, and, having nothing more to eat, AA'ere afraid they AA^ould starve 
to death. They Avalked on not knoAving Avhich Avay they were going, 
until the seventh day, Avlien they Avere met near the Illinois river by 
the OttaAva before named, Avho Avas out hunting. He took them to his 
lodge, fed them Avell, and Avanted to detain them some days until they 
had recoA'ered their strength ; but they Avould not stay. He then gaA-e 




them some elk meat for their journey home, nnd sent his son to put 
them into the right road. They will go to Lagotheues for the tiour 
you sent them, and will be at home in three days.' I then asked him 
what kind of a place they were encamped in when he was there. He 
said, 'they had made a shelter by the side of a large oak tree that had 
been torn up by the roots, and which had fallen with the head towards 
the rising sun.' 

"All this I noted down, and from the circumstantial manner in 
which he related every particular — though he could not possibly have 
had any personal communication with or from them by any other 
Indians — I began to hope that my men were safe and that I should 
again see them. On the appointed day the interpreter and myself 
watched most anxiously, but without effect. We got our suppers, gave 
up all hopes, and heartily abused Wdhtcun for deceiving us. Just as 
we were preparing for bed, to my great joy, the men rapped at the 
door, and in they came with the tiour on their backs. My first busi-